- Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
A new study has found that the giant panda’s distinct black-and-white markings have two functions: camouflage and communication. The scientists who earlier uncovered why zebras have black-and-white strips, took the colouration question to giant pandas in the latest study. “Understanding why the giant panda has such striking colouration has been a long-standing problem in biology that has been difficult to tackle because virtually no other mammal has this appearance, making analogies difficult,” said Tim Caro, a professor at the University of California, Davis in the U.S. “The breakthrough in the study was treating each part of the body as an independent area,” said Mr. Caro. This enabled the team to compare different regions of fur across the giant panda’s body to the dark and light colouring of 195 other carnivore species and 39 bear sub-species, to which it is related.
Then they tried to match the darkness of these regions to various ecological and behavioural variables to determine their function. Through these comparisons, the study found that most of the panda – its face, neck, belly, rump – is white to help it hide in snowy habitats. The arms and legs are black, helping it to hide in shade.
The scientists suggest that this dual colouration stems from its poor diet of bamboo and inability to digest a broader variety of plants. This means it can never store enough fat to go dormant during the winter, as do some bears. So it has to be active year-round, travelling across long distances and habitat types that range from snowy mountains to tropical forests. The markings on its head, however, are not used to hide from predators, but rather to communicate. Dark ears may help convey a sense of ferocity, a warning to predators. Their dark eye patches may help them recognize each other or signal aggression towards panda competitors. “This really was a Herculean effort by our team, finding and scoring thousands of images and scoring more than 10 areas per picture from over 20 possible colours,” said Ted Stankowich, a professor at California State University, Long Beach, in the U.S. “Sometimes it takes hundreds of hour of hard work to answer what seems like the simplest of questions,” Mr. Standkowich said.
1a what is so unusual about the Panda?
1b Why was it difficult to understand the colouration of the Panda?
1c How did the breakthrough happen?
1d Describe in detail the impact of the differential colouration of the Panda’s body.
1e What is the diet of the Panda?
1f Give a suitable title to the passage.
1g Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:
- Choose the correct form of the verb from within the brackets so as to make it agree with the subject. 5
i Where …………..we children study? (do/does)
ii Ram ……….to school by bus but his friends ………as they live nearby.
iii English ………….a universal language. (is/are)
iv The public …………a short memory. (has/have)
3 Fill in the blanks with the appropriate article (a/an or the or no article): 5
4 Fill in the blanks with the correct tense of the verb given in brackets: 10
5 Replace the italicized words with another word of similar meaning beginning with un-, in- or im-
i Ram decided to speak to his boss because he felt that his salary was not adequate.
ii It is not natural for a man to show no concern for his fellowmen.
iii He was not able to come because he had high fever.
iv Rahul is not mature and therefore loses his temper rather easily.
v Kiran is not happy with her performance and feels she could have done much better.
6 Correct the following sentences:
i One cannot make an omelette without break eggs.
ii I am not knowing whether my uncle came last night.
iii One of our neighbour is a teacher.
iv She said that she has bought the flowers.
v Each man built is own house.
7 Asking Wh-Questions, example:You want to know where the nearest payphone is. Where’s the nearest payphone?
Now make questions in a similar ways.
i Find out when Mr. Ragavan will be back.
ii You’d like to know why the sales office hasn’t called.
iii Find out when he normally arrives at the office.
iv You want to know why the consignment has been delayed.
v Find out what you dial for directory inquiry.
vi You’re interested in knowing where he’s phoning from.
vii You need to know where you could reach him.
viii Find out what the number of the Managing Director is.
ix Find out how she spells her name.
x Find out the way of the office.
8 Write about 300 words on any one of the following: 20
ii An aunt or uncle you like very much.
9 In about 200 words, write a conversation between: 20
i Your younger brother who wants his pocket money increased and your father who thinks he’s getting enough.