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Title Name Amity Solved Assignment PGDM NGO Management for Research Methodology
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Semester Semester-I Course: PGDM-(NGO-Management)
Short Name or Subject Code Research Methodology
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                                                                      Amity PGDM In NGO Management For Research Methodology Sem 1

                                                                                                                   Research Methodology

Assignment A

1 .        What is meant by Social Research?  What is the difference between research methodology and methods in social research? How many types of research methods are there

2 .             What is the role of theory and fact in scientific research? How do they contribute to development of science? How are the concepts integral to the scientific method and how are they understood?    

3 .        What is the need for Hypothesis in a scientific research? Are there any problems in problems in formulating usable hypothesis? What are the types and characteristics of Usable Hypothesis?               

4 .          How is a hypothesis tested? What is role of Research Design in this process? Please illustrate the type’s research designs?  How are the variables used in this process and what are main types of Variables?        

5 .             How is a social phenomenon observed? What is meant by Quantitative and Qualitative methods of data collection? Elucidate the main techniques employed for data collection.

 6 .          What is meant by Reliability, Validity and Triangulation? How are Reliability and Validity ensured in social research?          

7 .        What is Sample Design? Define the following: Universe/Population & Sampling Unit, Sampling Frame, Sampling Methods, Sample Size, Determination of Sample Size, Types of Data, Implementing Sampling Plan, Sampling and Data Collection, Review of Sampling Process. Please write a research proposal on physical disability in your district elucidating the above points for collecting baseline data (both quantitative and Qualitative).        

8 .        What are the steps in analysis of data? What is meant by uni-variate, bi-variate and multivariate analysis? How can SPSS be used in this task?




Assignment B

Case Detail: 

1. From the given research reports find out what are the main sections in a Research Report?

Please refer to:

Socio-Economic Research Reports

A Research Study on "Report on District Planning: Status and Way Forward" MS Word | PDF. Min. of PRI and Planning Commission, Government of India .... Evaluation of SGSY in selected blocks of Madhya Pradesh ZIP (MS Word) | PDF, EKATRA, New Delhi, Niti Dewan, 2007, Self Employment Programme, Madhya Pradesh ...  





Assignment C

Question No.  1           Marks - 10

The purpose of systematic social research is not to   


  1. Generate objective, authentic and reliable knowledge.         
  2. Collect and analyze data        
  3. Follow definite and well accepted procedures          
  4. to innovate new methods at every stage of a given research


Question No.  2           Marks - 10

Science is based on:               


  1. Explicit standards of evidence          
  2. Intuitive feelings        
  3. Moral criteria  
  4. Aesthetic tastes


Question No.  3           Marks - 10

Research Methodology is built on three basic elements, which one of the following is not one of them     


  1. Concepts        
  2. Propositions or Hypothesis    
  3. Theories          
  4. Ethics


Question No.  4           Marks - 10

Social research aims at finding explanations for social phenomenon on the bases of empirically verifiable facts. Which of the following is true?


  1. Facts of science are not random but meaningful, i.e., theoretically relevant.
  2. Facts help to initiate theory   
  3. Theory refers to relationships between facts.
  4. All of the above.


Question No.  5           Marks - 10

Theory in facilitates social science research in many ways, which of the  following is  not one of them


  1. Theory is a summary of facts, and there is general uniformity beyond immediate observation, it also becomes a prediction of facts.  
  2. Theory also gives the framework within which relevant phenomena are systematised, classified and interrelated.    
  3. Theory is only speculation     
  4. It predicts Facts and points to gaps in our knowledge


Question No.  6           Marks - 10

With regard to social science research methodology, which of the following statements is not true?


  1. Methodology refers to all the tools techniques and methods of analyzing data.      
  2. Methodology takes into account theoretical perspectives, assumptions and the logic governing research.  
  3. Methodology and methods are interrelated but they are not the same.        
  4. Both of them, that is, methods and methodologies are the same.


Question No.  7           Marks - 10

Difficulties in formulating a good, precise and testable hypothesis arise from


  1. Absence of knowledge of clear theoretical framework.        
  2. Lack of ability to utilize the theoretical framework logically
  3. Failure to be acquainted with research techniques    
  4. All the above


Question No.  8           Marks - 10

Inference is mostly drawn in scientific research by:


  1. Interest, awareness, adoption and trial          
  2. Research, sampling, Hypothesizing, Trial      
  3. Hypothesizing, sampling, designing and Interpretation        
  4. Research, interest, adoption and awareness


Question No.  9           Marks - 10

Which of the following statements about the difference between empirical and value theory is not true


  1. The former essentially deals with ‘is’ whereas the latter deals with ‘ought’.
  2. They may focus on the same problem but their mode of reasoning, rhetoric and the types of evidence they gather would differ depending on one’s goals.         
  3. Social science cannot be value neutral.          
  4. It is not necessary to spell out one’s priorities in taking up a particular question or questions for research.


Question No.  10         Marks - 10

Objectivity in social sciences does not refer to--


  1. Presenting facts without distortions due to personal prejudices.      
  2. Incorporating those methods which would eliminate subjective reporting or interpretations in collection and analysis of data.         
  3. It means the researcher can apply any subjective or inexplicit criteria for reporting 
  4. It means the procedure for collection, interpretation of data should be according to explicit criteria.


Question No.  11         Marks - 10

Which of the following is false?        


  1. Concepts are used as symbols of the phenomenon    
  2. Concepts only represent certain aspects of reality.    
  3. Concept is an abstraction and not the phenomenon  
  4. Concept is the phenomenon


Question No.  12         Marks - 10

 The fallacy of reification occurs when--       


  1. The concepts are understood as the phenomenon     
  2. When concepts are understood as only symbols of the phenomenon           
  3. Both concepts and facts are understood as abstractions       
  4. A fact is stated as a relationship between different concepts


Question No.  13         Marks - 10

The function and purpose of a Research Design is to


  1. Provide a blue print for operationalising the research activity           
  2. Define the limit and scope of the research    
  3. Provide the opportunity to the researcher to foresee possible areas of problems in the process of carrying out the research    
  4. All of the above         


Question No.  14         Marks - 10

Which of following is not one of the methods of data collection?


  1. Observation    
  2. Interviews      
  3. Survey
  4. Persuasion


Question No.  15         Marks - 10

Most of the day-to-day knowledge which people have about social relations is derived from uncontrolled observation, whether participant or non-participant. Controls in this case refer to:  


  1. Standardization of observation techniques    
  2. Controls over the variables in an experimental situation       
  3. Both the above           
  4. None of the above


Question No.  16         Marks - 10

Which of the following is not one of the types of interview?           


  1. Structured Interview  
  2. Unstructured interview          
  3. Hypothesis Interview 
  4. Semi-structured interview


Question No.  17         Marks - 10

In mathematics, triangulation means measuring taking three different measurements. In social research, one of the types of triangulation is methodological triangulation which means use of different methods in research process. It also means that qualitative and quantitative techniques could be used and results obtained by two or more researchers can be compared. In other words,


  1. One researcher can use two or more research techniques,     
  2. Two or more researchers can use the same technique,           
  3. Two or more researchers use two or more techniques           
  4. All of the above


Question No.  18         Marks - 10

Theoretical triangulation proposes to use various theoretical perspectives in a research. Which of the following statements is more true


  1. Theoretically it is possible to use more than one perspective,
  2. Practically it is not a very common practice to gather research data from more than one theoretical perspective.    
  3. Both are true  
  4. Only a) is true.           


Question No.  19         Marks - 10

Reliability is measured by the following methods, which of the following is not one of them:       


  1. Logical Validation     
  2. Test-retest      
  3. Split –half      
  4. Multiple Form


Question No.  20         Marks - 10

A scale possesses validity when it actually measures what it claims to measure. Which one of the following is not one of the approaches to the validation of scales.


  1. Logical validation      
  2. Jury opinion   
  3. Independent Criteria  
  4. Research Design


Question No.  21         Marks - 10

Some of the commonly practiced measures to ensure validity are as follows:


  1. Emphasis should be on listening and not on talking when you are in the field.  
  2. Field notes must be taken ‘verbatim’, i.e., as exact as possible.  
  3. Researcher’s own comments and observations should be noted as soon as possible so that important and little details are not lost due to memory lapse.    
  4. all of the above


Question No.  22         Marks - 10

Field research is very often used as validity check because


  1. There is direct and day to day contact with people. It is possible to test one’s hypothesis/ understanding with them. Crosschecking with people helps in ensuring validity of one’s observations and findings.  
  2. There is also the possibility that they may disagree with your understanding for some other reasons.  
  3. The real challenge for the researcher is in finding out the ‘real’ response and not to take things on their face value.
  4. All the above.


Question No.  23         Marks - 10

Participatory Action Research has certain characteristics, which of the following is not one them:


  1. Practical   
  2. Change     
  3. Non-participatory 
  4. Cyclical process


24. Which of the following is not one of the bases/conditions for Participatory Research Methodology    


  1. The target community/group which is in felt-need of changing its situation to a more favourable one  
  2. The target group is involved in formulating research goals, participates in data collection and even in analysis and drawing of conclusions       
  1.      It is a top-down approach in which the researcher and his/her institutions decide upon the focus, methodology and outcome of the study.       
  2.     The ultimate aim of the external researcher is to ensure complete ownership of  knowledge by the target community.



25. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is sometimes known as Participatory Rapid Appraisal.  It does not mean one of the following:        


  1. Participatory approaches and methods that emphasise local knowledge and enable local people to make their own appraisal.
  2. It is only meant for rural areas.          
  3. It enables development practitioners, government officials and local people to work together to plan context appropriate programs.
  4. PRA facilitates information sharing, analysis and action among the stakeholders.


Question No.  26         Marks - 10

As a methodology for Rapid Rural Appraisal was developed for quick field-oriented results with certain objectives. Which of the following is not one of them:   


  1. Appraising agricultural and other needs of the rural community.     
  2. Prioritizing areas of research tailored to such needs and action plans.          
  3. To conduct top-down expert designed development projects.         
  4. Implementing action plans, monitoring and evaluating them.


Question No.  27         Marks - 10

Process of Action Research does not involve:           


  1. Planning which involves reconnaissance       
  2. Absence of dialogues between members of a community     
  3. Taking action 
  4. Fact-finding about the results of action


Question No.  28         Marks - 10

Process of Action Research does not involve:           


  1. Planning which involves reconnaissance
  2. Absence of dialogues between members of a community          
  3. Taking action      
  4. Fact-finding about the results of action


Question No.  29         Marks - 10

The main criticism made by Feminist social research is that women are absent from social analysis.  Its key features do not include one of the following: 


  1. Research Designs so far were based on men’s experiences.       
  2. ‘Head’ of the household was assumed to be the eldest male.    
  3. Feminist social research believes in division between ‘the public and private’ spheres 
  4. ‘Work’ means regular work outside the home for which wages were given.


Question No.  30         Marks - 10

Which of the following is not true:    


  1. Feminist approach works to make gender visible in social phenomena. 
  2. Gender inequality is also entwined with other systems of inequality.   
  3. Contribution of feminist approach is confined to providing narratives of women’s experiences.         
  4. Feminist approach has contributed to the inclusion of new themes and concepts.


Question No.  31         Marks - 10

Which of the following statements about Case study Method is true?         


  1. It is not a specific technique      
  2. It is an approach to look at a social unit as whole, be it a person, a family, or any other social group  
  3. Case study can be used in social research because of the development of qualitative techniques        
  4. All of the above


Question No.  32         Marks - 10

Content Analysis is a standard methodology in social sciences to study communication content.  Which of the following statements is false in this context


  1. There is a distinction between dictionary-based (quantitative) approaches and qualitative approaches.      
  2. This method does not does focus on the repetition and innovation of themes.        
  3. Different people should code the same text in the same way.          
  4. “Manifest” content describes what the author has written whereas the “latent” meaning describes what an author intended to write.


Question No.  33         Marks - 10

Sampling is inevitable in the situations


  1. Blood test of a person
  2. When the population is infinite          
  3. Testing of life of dry battery cells     
  4. All the above


Question No.  34         Marks - 10

The difference between sample estimate and population parameter is termed as


  1. Human error   
  2. Sampling error
  3. Non-sampling error    
  4. None of the above


Question No.  35         Marks - 10

If each and every unit of population has equal chance of being included in the sample, it is known as


  1. Restricted sampling   
  2. Purposive sampling    
  3. Simple random sampling        
  4. None of the above


Question No.  36         Marks - 10

Simple random sample can be drawn with the help of


  1. Slip method    
  2. Random number table
  3. Calculator       
  4. All of the above


Question No.  37         Marks - 10

A selection procedure of a sample having no involvement of probability is known as


  1. Purposive sampling    
  2. Judgment sampling    
  3. Subjective sampling   
  4. All of the above


Question No.  38         Marks - 10

Five establishments are to be selected from a list of 50 establishments by systematic random sampling. If the first number is 7, the next one is


  1. 8         
  2. 16       
  3. 17       
  4. 2


Question No.  39         Marks - 10

SPSS is a computer software programme for Data Analysis. SPSS stands for


  1. Special package for Social Sciences  
  2. Statistical Package for Social Sciences          
  3. None of the above     
  4. both the above


Question No.  40         Marks - 10

In social research, a proposition or a hypothesis tries to establish a relationship between to or more variables, very often in terms of :


  1. Cause and effect        
  2. “If…then…”  
  3. Both the above.          
  4. None of the above


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