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Title Name Amity Solved Assignment PGDM SCM for Behavioural and Allied Sciences
University AMITY
Service Type Assignment
Course PGDM-(Logistics-and-Supply-Chain-Management)
Semister Semester-II Cource: PGDM-(Logistics-and-Supply-Chain-Management)
Short Name or Subject Code Behavioural and Allied Sciences
Commerce line item Type Semester-II Cource: PGDM-(Logistics-and-Supply-Chain-Management)
Product Assignment of PGDM-(Logistics-and-Supply-Chain-Management) Semester-II (AMITY)

Solved Assignment


  Questions :-

                                          Behavioural and Allied Sciences

Assignment A

  1. How can one build a positive self-esteem and Self concept? Explain?
  2. A person’s attitude fuels his thoughts, feelings and actions. Comment.
  3. “Emotionally mature people realize that others do not exist to meet their needs”. What are the distinctive styles for dealing with one’s emotions?
  4. What are the positive connotations of being a good listener?
  5. Write short notes on any three of the following:-

      A). Coping Strategies.

     B). Conflict Management.

     C). Rust Out.

 

 

Assignment B

  1. What initiatives should be taken by the top management to increase satisfaction levels among employees?
  2. Suggest ways to recognize and present the work of subordinates to the management, so that the organization is able to maintain and sustain the motivation level of employees?
  3. “The “cost” of distress (negative stress) for the individual is usually in terms of health whereas the origin is usually in terms of performance”. Suggest various strategies to cope with Distress.

 

 

 Case study

Practicing Assertion at Workplace

Mona is a basic grade therapist working within a busy multidisciplinary team. During weekly team meetings, her supervisor, Raj, has offered Mona’ name for tasks without consulting her – most recently, to represent the profession at a careers day in her absence.

Mona feels angry and frustrated by the situation, which seems beyond her control, leading to feelings of inadequacy. It is important she recognizes these feelings and how they may affect her behavior. They may, for example, result in her remaining inwardly frustrated or venting her feelings, which could lead to deterioration in the relationship with her supervisor.

Questions

  1. What are the advantages/ disadvantages of practicing Assertion at the Work Place?
  2. How would you deal with such a situation had you been in Mona’s place?
  3. While delegating work, how important do you think it is to consult subordinates?

 

 

 Assignment C

  1. Which of these is not a physiological symptom of stress?
  1.  Change in weight
  2. Boredom
  3. Frequent Infections
  4. Chronic fatigue and tiredness

 

  1. Which one out of the following is most crucial for success?
  1. Aptitude
  2. Attitude
  3. Skill
  4. Behaviour

 

  1. Which of the following is not an aspect of Self Esteem?

a) Self efficacy

b) Self respect

c) Self knowledge

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is a mandate for building self esteem?

a) Set goals for yourself

b) Make choices for your life

c) Visualize your successful behaviour

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a component of emotional intelligence?

a) Handling Relationships

b) Interpersonal Intelligence

c) Intra-personal Intelligence

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. __________ helps in recognizing emotions in others.

a) Valance

b) Self control

c) Empathy

d) Sympathy

 

 

  1. Which of these is not a part of the ‘Johari window´?

a) Hidden self

b) Blind self

c) Open self

d) Ideal self

 

 

  1. Which of these is a component of human personality?

a) Thoughts

b) Emotion

c) Action

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Self-concept is the power house which facilitates development of –

a) Attitude

b) Personality

c) Self Esteem

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Building self awareness would include questions like—

a) Who am I?

b) What are my strengths and weaknesses?

c) What are my goals?

d) All of the above.

 

 

  1. Self Acceptance means—

a) Becoming aware of what others want to be.

b) Becoming aware of what you want to be.

c) Becoming aware of who others are.

d) Becoming aware of who you are.

 

 

  1. Self Esteem is a way of thinking, feeling and acting that implies you—

a) Accept others.

b) Believe in yourself.

c) Believe others.

d) All of the above.

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a component of interpersonal intelligence?

a) Empathy

b) Handling Relationships

c) Both of the above

d) None of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a style for dealing with emotions?

a) Self aware

b) Engulfed

c) Accepting

d) Avoiding

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is an initiative effort?

a) Pursue goals beyond what´s required or expected of them

b) Ready to seize opportunities

c) Managing emotions

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following emotions is not synonymous with each other?

a) Guilt

b) Regret

c) Shame

d) Wonder

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a building block of positive self esteem?

a) Value others

b) Value yourself

c) Goal setting

d) Offering forgiveness

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a component of attitudes?

a) Valance

b) Multiplexity

c) Centrality

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a component of an attitude?

a) Affection

b) Actions

c) Centrality

d) Cognition

 

 

  1. Which of these is not a part of non verbal communication?

a) Eye contact

b) Facial expression

c) Content of message

d) Body movement

 

 

  1. What do you mean by Emotional Awareness?

a) Recognize your own emotions and feelings

b) Knowing others emotions and feelings

c) None of the above

d) Both of the above

 

 

  1. Which out of the following is not a primary emotion?

a) Anger

b) Fear

c) Jealousy

d) Love

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is synonymous to the term “Conscientiousness”?

a) Dependability and responsibility in fulfilling obligations

b) Being honest to self and hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives

c) None of the above

d) Both of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these in not a type of strategy to cope with stress?

a) Functional coping strategy

b) Neutral coping strategy

c) Dysfunctional coping strategy

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is a barrier to effective communication?

a) Ineffective listening

b) Feedback

c) Sender

d) Message

 

 

  1. Which of these Is a coping strategy for stress at organizational level?

a) Job Redesign / Job Rotation

b) Employee Counselling

c) Mentoring

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. What are different types of stresses?

a) Eustress

b) Distress

c) Both of the above

d) None of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a feature of attitude?

a) Attitude affects Behaviour

b) Attitude affects Beliefs

c) Attitude affects Values

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is a consequence of a negative attitude?

a) Get a better job or promotion

b) Loose a customer/ job

c) Successfully complete a project

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is a type of attitude?

a) Positive

b) Negative

c) Neutral

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which one of these is not a phase of listening process?

a) Acknowledging

b) Leveling

c) Sharpening

d) Assimilation

 

 

  1. Which one of these is not a type of listening?

a) Passive

b) Aggressive

c) Marginal

d) Empathetic

 

 

  1. Which of these are essentials for good listening?

a) Positive attitude

b) Concentration

c) Interaction

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which one of these does not hamper the listening process?

a) Lack of Interest

b) Question Answer sequences

c) Fear

d) None of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is an aspect of Assertive behaviour?

a) Steady & firm

b) Sarcastic and cold

c) Hesitant with pauses

d) None of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these features need to be overcome, to communicate assertively?

a) Over confidence

b) Low self esteem

c) Both of the above

d) None of the above

 

 

  1. Occupational stress occurs as a result of—

a) Work overload/ Under load

b) Changes at work place/ environment

c) Excessive travel

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. What could be the indicators of stressful relationships at work?

a) Isolation

b) Rivalry

c) Political pressure

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Personal approaches to cope with stress include—

a) Life style change

b) Meditation

c) None of the above

d) Both of the above

 

 

  1. Stress has its effect on—

a) Human Physiology

b) Human Psychology

c) Human Social behaviour
d) All of the above

  Answers :-

                                                                                                                                 Behavioral and Allied Sciences

Assignment A

  1. How can one build a positive self-esteem and Self concept? Explain?

Ans.

Simply put, self-esteem is how you feel about yourself. Unless you perceive yourself as worthwhile, you cannot have a high self-esteem. And a high self-esteem is something everybody should have. It plays a major role in determining your successes and failures. If you have a high self-esteem you will grow in conviction, competence and willingness to accept responsibility. You will face life with optimism, have better relationships and ultimately live a fulfilling life. 

Tips to Build Positive Self Esteem

Substitute the negative into positive: All you have to do is change the way you think. Tell yourself that I am good instead of saying that I am no good. Turn those stumbling blocks into stepping stones.

 
Be a strong person: Refuse to let disappointments and failures pull you down. Learn to be strong both emotionally and physically. Work on yourself to look and feel good. 
Compliment: Learn the art of complimenting people genuinely and receiving compliments sincerely. When somebody pays you a compliment remember to say thank you.

 
Accept responsibility: For what you do. Don´t blame any and everything around you. Like that school student who blames his teachers and the education system for his failure. 
Try to inculcate these tips in your life and you will have a high self-esteem and consequently a happy and rewarding life.

Your self-concept, or how you view yourself, determines how you will experience life. If it is positive and healthy, you will experience life in a positive and healthy way. If it is shaky and fragile, you will find life´s challenges overwhelming and at times, insurmountable.

What is your self-concept?

It is the understanding and knowledge you have of your own existence. It is how you see yourself in relation to others and to your surroundings.

A person with a positive self concept does not necessarily have more skills than a person with a poor self concept. But having a positive self concept helps when youth are faced with today´s critical health issues. Therefore, one of the most important things you can do as you work with youth is help them develop a positive self concept.

Here are a few tips to build the self concept.

  1. Focus on the INDIVIDUAL
  • Treat each youth´s ideas with respect and help them treat others with respect.
  • Identify and recognize each youth´s strengths. Every level of the Foods Curriculum has activities that help youth recognize their self worth uniqueness. As youth do these activities, make a conscious effort to reinforce those unique qualities.
  • Listen to your ears and your heart. Use facial expressions, eye contact, and body language that says, "I´m listening, because I know it is important to you."
  • Take the time to recognize each youth. "I´d like to give a special award to Tyson, who was always willing to stick around and help clean up after meetings."
  1. Facilitate SELF-PRAISE
  • Help youth learn how to use self-praise. Self-praise is not bragging. It´s comparing your own accomplishments to your past performance. Look at these two examples:
    Bragging: "I can run faster than anybody else in our group!"
    Self-praise: "I feel very good about my running skills. I´m improving each day."
  • Set an example by saying nice things about yourself.
  1. Promote individual RESPONSIBILITY FOR CHOICES.
  • Help youth realize that they have control over what gets done. Work with them to develop a time management plan.
  1. Help youth set REALISTIC GOALS.
  • Encourage youth to only take on what they can reasonably accomplish. Don´t let them set themselves up for failure by taking on more than they can complete.
  • Encourage youth to break down large project goals into smaller steps.
  1. Emphasize the POSITIVE.
  • Be sure to include behavior when you praise a youth. "The group really liked the activity you led." "You have some good leadership qualities," NOT JUST "You did a good job."
  • Give me-You messages. An I-message contains:
    • a specific behavior or event
    • the effect that behavior has on the individual, and
    • The feeling that resulted. “I’m so proud of you. You went the extra mile by helping Jennifer and Sara with that activity."
  • Begin constructive criticism with a positive message of encouragement.
  1. Establish a warm, comfortable ENVIRONMENT.
  • Make your project meeting place an inviting place with music playing and activities for youth as they arrive.
  • Make every member feel welcome and show that you are glad he or she came.

 

 

  1. A person’s attitude fuels his thoughts, feelings and actions. Comment.

Ans.

When you notice that you’re habitual self-talk is judgmental about what you say and do; or critical regarding what you should have said or what you didn’t do then you are on your way to upgrading the software of your mind – your thoughts and ultimately your experience.

Choice is the act of making a decision. To consciously choose the thoughts that support a positive attitude, healthy self-esteem, confidence and well-being you must be aware of both your thoughts and feelings that detract from your feeling good.

With this awareness you will notice when you are thinking thoughts that undermine yourself-esteem and happiness as well as be aware of the thoughts that boost your self-esteem and well-being. A powerful question to consider in order to choose the thoughts that promote feelings of happiness is:


What do I want in this situation?

Whenever you notice you are being critical and judgmental of yourself you can make the choice to strengthen your brain pathways that affirms your positive self.

Change is where the rubber meets the road, where you put into practice the choices you have made, transforming your thoughts, attitude and feelings about yourself so you embody positive self-esteem, confidence and happiness.

This does not mean there won´t be times when you are confronted with your fears of failure or success, or that you won´t, on occasion, question your ability. What it does mean is that as soon as you notice you are feeling less than or not enough you will:

  1. Be awake to your feelings.
  2. Identify the thoughts that result in your feelings of low self-esteem and negative attitude.
    3. Shift your attention to thoughts supporting your ever deepening experience of positive self-esteem and happiness.

When you notice that your habitual self-talk is judgmental about what you say and do; or critical regarding what you should have said or what you didn’t do, then you are on your way to upgrading the software of your mind – your thoughts, your attitude and ultimately your experience.

By changing what you are thinking and doing you are automatically giving your brain a message that says, I am person who is in control of my life. I choose to change my attitude and change my life!

You can look at the present moment and view it with distaste, resistance.

 

 

 

  1. “Emotionally mature people realize that others do not exist to meet their needs”. What are the distinctive styles for dealing with one’s emotions?

Ans.

Emotion is the complex psycho physiological experience of an individual´s state of mind as interacting with biochemical and environmental influences. In humans, emotion fundamentally involves "physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience"

A related distinction is between the emotion and the results of the emotion, principally behaviors and emotional expressions. People often behave in certain ways as a direct result of their emotional state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing. If one can have the emotion without the corresponding behavior, then we may consider the behavior not to be essential to the emotion. Neuroscientific research suggests there is a "magic quarter second" during which it´s possible to catch a thought before it becomes an emotional reaction. In that instant, one can catch a feeling before allowing it to take hold.

Three Styles of Emotional Behavior

Imagine for a moment that you´re trapped with several other people in the elevator of a 50-story skyscraper. The alarm is bellowing as the elevator occasionally jerks and bounces, unsettling its passengers.

  • What would be your most likely response to the situation just described? Would you:
  • Frantically begin to search the elevator for possible escape routes?
  • Read a book or engage in a conversation with another passenger while waiting for help?
  • Thoroughly read the safety instructions posted in the elevator or provided by the emergency phone?

Your response to intense emotional experiences identifies your preferred emotional stance to stress and duress. Generally, there are three distinctive styles people use for dealing with their emotions.


These three styles are described below.

  1. Feeling engulfed

People who are engulfed by their emotions often feel as if they have no control over their moods. They let their emotions "run wild," and are prone to overreacting and thinking the worst. People engulfed by their emotions are the ones "freaking out," frantically searching for an escape from a stuck elevator before evaluating options.

  1. Being accepting

Individuals who are accepting of their emotions do little to change how they feel. These people are aware of their feelings, but don´t believe they can or aren´t willing to do anything about them. One type of "acceptor" is the person who is always in a good mood, and therefore has no need or motivation to change. The other type is the person who is always in a bad mood, accepts it, and does nothing about it. This is the type of person who might read a book during a crisis, knowing there is nothing else he or she can do.

  1. Being self-aware

The third style of dealing with emotions is to be self-aware. Individuals who are self-aware have conscious thoughts about their moods as they experience them. There´s a difference, for example, between acting frustrated with someone and just thinking, "I´m really feeling frustrated." When trapped in an elevator, the self-aware person recognizes his fear and begins to explore the options available. That might include reading safety instructions.

Being self-aware is a basic emotional competency that enables individuals to step back from an experience and observe what´s happening, as opposed to being totally immersed in it. Self-awareness is the first step in gaining some control over a situation. You´re not only aware of your mood, but also aware of your thoughts about that mood. This leads to good psychological health and an overall positive outlook on life. Overall, some degree of emotional self-awareness is crucial to emotional intelligence. Therefore, strive to be aware of your emotions during difficult situations, as well as during your daily activities. Being
aware of your emotions is the first step to improving your overall emotional health.

 

 

  1. What are the positive connotations of being a good listener?

A.4 A good listener is someone who engages is what is called active listening. The process of active listening involves participating in a conversation in such a way that results in mutual understanding. Rather than focusing on other things - tv, computer, other people - what you want to say next, this form of interactive participation, this true listening, involves focused attention on what the other is saying. Even in an argument. It’s important to be able to reflect back to your conversation dance partner what has been conveyed. "It sounds like what you´re feeling is..." "What I´m hearing you say is..." 

A good listener is not only popular everywhere, but after a while he knows something.
- Wilson Mizner

Do you dominate the conversation or do you let other people talk too? There are a lot of people who like to talk about themselves, about what they have done and about what they have not done, about their health, ideas, etc. They hardly let other people open their mouths.

People get pleasure from speaking about themselves, but if they always speak about their achievements or their problems, people will get fed up with their egoism and will avoid them.

Conversation is a two-way activity. A person, who dominates the conversation, might feel good about it, because he or she attracts all the attention, but he or she might be avoided the next time.

If we are willing and able to listen to others, we will gain a lot:

- We will be more appreciated by the people whom we talk to.

- We will get new points of view and perspectives.

- We might get some good advice.

- We will have more harmonious relationships.

- Listening develops patience and tolerance.

- Listening to others can solve problems.

- People will like us more, because people like good listeners.

- Listening to people will help us understand them and their needs, and this will enhance our popularity.

 

 

  1. Write short notes on any three of the following:-

Ans:

  1. Coping Strategies.

The German Freudian psychoanalyst Karen Horney defined four so-called coping strategies to define interpersonal relations, one describing psychologically healthy individuals, the others describing neurotic states

Moving With

These are the strategies in which psychologically healthy people develop relationships. It involves compromise. In order to move with, there must be communication, agreement, disagreement, compromise, and decisions.

Karen Horney describes the other strategies as a neurotic. This means that they are unhealthy strategies people utilize in order to protect themselves.

Moving Toward

The individual moves towards those perceived as a threat to avoid retribution and getting hurt. The argument is, “If I give in, I won’t get hurt.” This means that: if I give everyone I see as a potential threat whatever they want, I won’t be injured (physically or emotionally).

Moving Against

The individual threatens those perceived as a threat to avoid getting hurt.

Moving Away

The individual distances themselves from anyone perceived as a threat to avoid getting hurt. The argument is, “If I do not let anyone close to me, I won’t get hurt.” A neurotic, according to Horney desires to be distant because of being abused. If they can be the extreme introvert, no one will ever develop a relationship with them. If there is no one around, nobody can hurt them. These Moving Away people fight personality, so they often come across as cold or shallow. This is their strategy. They emotionally remove themselves from society.

  1. Conflict Management.

Conflict management refers to the long-term management of intractable conflicts. It is the label for the variety of ways by which people handle grievances—standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. Those ways include such diverse phenomena as gossip, ridicule, lynching, terrorism, warfare, feuding, genocide, law, mediation, and avoidance. Which forms of conflict management will be used in any given situation can be somewhat predicted and explained by the social structure—or social geometry—of the case.

Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflict resolution. In order for actual conflict to occur, there should be an expression of exclusive patterns, and tell why the conflict was expressed the way it was. Conflict is not just about simple inaptness, but is often connected to a previous issue. The latter refers to resolving the dispute to the approval of one or both parties, whereas the former concerns an ongoing process that may never have a resolution. Neither is it considered the same as conflict transformation, which seeks to reframe the positions of the conflict parties.

  1. Rust Out. When someone rusts out, it means that he or she becomes bored in the workplace, ultimately becoming depressed and apathetic. As a general rule, once someone starts to rustout, the quality of work goes downhill, as the employee loses interest, finding the job unfulfilling. While rust out is the opposite of burn out, the end result is typically the same, and it can cost a business a talented, once passionate employee. For this reason, employers tend to keep their eyes out for rust out. When someone starts to rust out, he or she loses interest in the workplace and coworkers. The sharp downturn in work quality tends to bring the attention of management to the issue, but by the time the employee´s work starts to suffer, it may be too late. He or she may also be restless, depressed, or unhappy, expressing discontent to coworkers and friends. Often, someone rusts out when he or she feels like no progress is being made.

 

 

 

Assignment B

  1. What initiatives should be taken by the top management to increase satisfaction levels among employees?

Ans

Flexible work hours aren´t the only way to increase employee satisfaction. Here are some other steps you can take to boost your workers´ loyalty and dedication while reducing turnover:

  • Provide workers with responsibility-and then let them use it.Most surveys show that the greatest source of employee pride and satisfaction is the feeling of accomplishment that comes from having-and exercising-responsibility. Yet many business owners, consumed by fears of a shrinking bottom line, have turned micromanagement into an art form. Unfortunately, few things employers do cause more employee dissatisfaction. Here´s the real bottom line: If you can´t trust your employees to be able to think and act on their own, you probably shouldn´t have hired them in the first place.
  • Show respect.Frustrated by a faltering economy, diminishing markets and meddling investors, many business owners look close to home for someone to blame-all too often, that´s their own employees. The result? A growing number of employees feel like they´re being viewed as the enemy, not as loyal partners. It´s little wonder so many workers seem ready to jump ship at the first sign of opportunity. On the other hand, companies that truly value their employees earn more than gratitude-they win enhanced dedication and productivity as well. So be sure to show your employees how much you respect and value them-tell them how much you appreciate them, throw them a pizza party, recognize an employee of the month, do anything you can to show them how much you care.
  • Recognize the whole person.Employees are more than 9-to-5 robots who turn off at night and can´t wait until the starting bell rings the next morning. All workers have lives, interests, and friends and family outside the office-and most are constantly struggling to balance increasingly hectic schedules. While companies can´t sacrifice unduly to the whims of a single individual, making concessions where possible-allowing a long lunch break to attend a child´s school event, for instance, or permitting a sales executive to fly out on Monday morning instead of Sunday night-can pay huge dividends in the long run.
  • Mark out a clear path to growth.Some employees are content to remain where they are in an organization, but most want to grow in their careers over time. While annual performance reviews were originally designed to promote this goal, too often they have become empty, "Dilbertized" rituals, more embarrassing than ennobling. By contrast, business owners who wish to increase worker satisfaction tend to look past formalities and establish genuine growth paths for all their employees, not just their senior executives.

 

 

  1. Suggest ways to recognize and present the work of subordinates to the management, so that the organization is able to maintain and sustain the motivation level of employees?

Ans

There can be certain way to present the work of subordinates to the management so that they can recognize the work and motivate the employees.

Goal setting:

Set the specific goal for the worker so that they can complete the work on time and get reward for that. It will not only give a chance to the employee but also a chance for management to recognize the worker.

Interesting Work

Although some of the tasks that you personally perform day in and day out may have long ago become routine for you, these very same tasks may be very exciting and very challenging for your employees. When your employees excel at their assignments, reward them by delegating some of your duties to them or by designing interesting projects for them to work on. It doesn´t cost you a dime, and your employees are stimulated at the same time that they develop their work skills. Your employees win, and your organization wins, too. 

Visibility

Everyone wants to be recognized and appreciated for doing a good job. One of the easiest and most effective ways to reward your employees for no cost is to recognize them publicly for their efforts. You can gain visibility for your employees´ efforts by announcing their accomplishments in staff meetings, sending out e-mail messages that congratulate your employees for their fine work ¾with copies to all the other employees in the department or organization ¾submitting articles about your employees´ efforts to the company newsletter, and many other similar approaches. Give it a try. What have you got to lose? This technique is free, easy, and very effective.

Time Off

 Another great, no-cost way to reward your employees is to give them some time off. In today´s busy business world, time off from work has become an increasingly valuable commodity. People want to spend more time with their friends and families and less time in the office. Of course, the effect of downsizing and reengineering has been to give everyone more work to do, not less. Whether you give an hour off or a day off, your employees will be pleased to be able to get away from the office for a short while to take care of personal business, go fishing, or just relax. They will return refreshed from the time off and grateful for the recognition that you gave for their efforts. 

Information

Your employees crave information. However, some managers hoard information and guard it as though they were in charge of all the gold in Fort Knox. Instead of withholding information from your employees, share it with them. Fill them in on how the organization is doing and what kinds of things are in store for the future both for the organization as a whole and for your employees. By giving your employees information, you not only empower them with the tools that they need to make more informed and better decisions, but you also demonstrate that you value them as people. Isn´t that what everyone wants? 

Feedback on Performance

Employees want more than ever to know how they are doing in their jobs. The only one who can really tell them how they are doing is you, their manager. Ask them to join you for lunch or to get a soda. Ask them how things are going and whether they have any questions or need help with their work. Provide them with feedback on their performance. Thank them for doing a good job. You don´t have to wait until your employees´ annual performance review to give them feedback. Indeed, the more feedback you give your employees, and the more often you give it, the better able they are to respond to your needs and to the needs of the organization. 

Involvement

Involve employees especially in decisions that affect them. Doing so shows your employees that you respect their opinions and it also ensures that you get the best input possible in the decision-making process. Employees who are closest to a work process or a customer are often in the best position to see the best solution when a problem arises. Your employees know what works and what doesn’t perhaps even better than you do. Unfortunately, many workers are never asked for their opinion, or if they are, their opinions are quickly discarded. As you involve other employees, you increase their commitment to the organization and at the same time help to ease the implementation of a new idea or organizational change. The cost? Zero. The payoff? Huge.

Independence

Employees highly value being given the latitude to perform their work the way they see fit. No one likes a supervisor or manager who always hovers over employees´ shoulders, reminding them of the exact way something should be done and correcting them every time they make a slight deviation. When you tell employees what you want done, provide them with the necessary training, and then give them the room to decide how they get their work done, you increase the likelihood that they will perform to your expectations. Not only that, but independent employees bring additional ideas, energy, and initiative to their jobs, too. 

Celebrations

Birthdays, company anniversaries, the highest average number of units produced, the longest unbroken safety record, and many, many other milestone are terrific reasons to celebrate. Buy a few Twinkies and throw a party! (Okay, so this idea isn’t exactly no cost.) Your employees will appreciate the recognition, and you’ll appreciate the improved performance and loyalty that you get from your employees in return. 

Flexibility

All employees appreciate having flexibility in their jobs. Although some jobs, such as receptionists, retail clerks, and security guards, clearly require strict schedules and work locations, many other jobs such as computer programmers, technical writers, financial analysts, for example, aren´t so tied to the clock or your established workplace. Giving your employees flexibility in determining their own work hours and their own workplace can be very motivating to them. In organizations where giving employees this much flexibility is not possible, you can still empower your employees with the authority to make day-to-day decisions about exactly how they perform their work or how they respond to customer service issues. 

Increased Responsibility

Most employee development happens on the job. This development comes from the new learning opportunities that you provide to your employees, as well as the chance to gain new skills and experience in an organization. Few employees are satisfied with going nowhere. Most hope to learn more, to be involved in higher-level decisions, and to progress in both responsibility and compensation. Giving your employees new opportunities to perform, learn, and grow is therefore very motivating. It shows your employees that you trust and respect them and that you have their best interests at heart. You aren´t going to motivate your employees by building a fire under them. Instead, find ways to build a fire within them to make work a place where your employees want and are able to do their best. 

 

 

  1. “The “cost” of distress (negative stress) for the individual is usually in terms of health whereas the origin is usually in terms of performance”. Suggest various strategies to cope with Distress.

Ans

Stress is our natural way of responding to the demands of our ever-changing world.1 Although we all experience change and demands regularly, the way that we interpret these internal and external changes directly affects the degree to which we feel stress. As a result, not all individuals interpret the same events as stressful; what may seem stressful to you may not be the same for your best friend, and vice versa.

 

Stress can be a result of both positive and negative experiences, and it is a necessary part of our daily lives. From an evolutionary standpoint stress was necessary for survival (i.e., imagine hunting large prey on which one’s entire tribe is dependent) and some stress continues to be a helpful part of our modern lives since it motivates us to accomplish tasks or make needed changes. We all feel the pressure of our environment during times of transition (i.e., at the time of high school graduation) and in preparation for significant life events (i.e., in anticipation of a job interview). Although response to stress is often adaptive (i.e., feeling stress before an exam may be a critical motivator in studying for it), too much stress or an inability to cope with it can cause negative emotional and physical symptoms, including, but not limited to, anxiety, irritability, and increased heart rate.

 

Stress versus Distress

Although some stress is a natural and inevitable part of our lives, feeling burdened or unable to cope can be problematic and can seriously affect your mental and physical well-being. Constantly being exposed to stressful situations can be over-stimulating and if we are constantly feeling stressed, we may begin to feel unable to manage the problems at hand. In order to avoid situations in which we feel “overloaded,” we must first identify what stresses us, what our threshold for stress is, and how we can most effectively manage stressful situations.

 

Some of us suffer under long-term negative stress, sometimes referred to as chronic stress. This kind of stress is characterized day in and day out by circumstances we perceive as unpleasant. For example, many consider the constant pressure they´re under in their jobs a form of chronic negative stress.

Recognize Stress

Spend some time trying to isolate and identify the major sources of negative stress in your life. Ask and answer the simple question, "What´s bothering me?" Make a list. Give yourself plenty of time to get in touch with the various areas in your life where negative stressors may be "eating" on you. It´s hard to fight an enemy you can´t quite identify. The following categories may help you to unlock specific areas of stress:

marital problems

child-raising problems

financial difficulties

pressures at work

too many commitments

lack of career direction

lack of purpose in life

feelings of social isolation

lack of acceptance from others

 

Talk About Stress

Find a trusted friend or a group of such friends with whom you can be open and honest concerning these areas of negative stress. Dr. Mike Samuels observes that "support is the functional opposite of stress."5 He lists the following reasons why social support increases health:

  • It gratifies emotional needs for security, affection, trust, intimacy, nurturing, and a sense of belonging.
  • It helps in appraising and defining reality.
  • It makes people aware of shared norms of feeling and behavior.
  • It increases group solidarity.
  • It increases self-esteem through social approval.

Turn to God for His Help and Peace

As part of helping people cope with stress better, Dr. Tessler says, "I am a firm believer in the need for human beings to spend time in religious and spiritual pursuits. . . . Take time to make a connection with the source of your life and be thankful for all your Creator has given you."6

Abraham Lincoln, no stranger to stress, was one who shared Dr. Tessler´s view on the importance of connecting with God. It was during his administration as President of the United States that the whole country erupted into a self-destructive civil war. Of that tumultuous time in his life, Lincoln has said: "Amid the greatest difficulties of my Administration, when I could not see any other resort, I would place my whole reliance in God." Later, when a delegation presented him with a Bible, he replied: "This great book is the best gift God has given to man. But for it we could not know right from wrong."7

Envision Yourself in Control

Researchers have found that people who have learned to see themselves as helplessly trapped in their circumstances are more likely than others to develop disease. "People, and even animals," writes Dr. Samuels, "who believe that their actions have no effect on the outcome of a situation – that they have no control over their world – are more prone to illness."8 On the other hand, those who practice seeing themselves in control over their situation reduce the negative effects of stress. By envisioning the power to make changes, you´re sending health-promoting messages to your body.

My wife and I experienced the importance of this mental attitude in our own battle with cancer (see Introduction to this book), a very stressful situation, indeed. Had we agreed with the doctors that Anne was little more than a helpless victim to the disease, we would´ve been overwhelmed with distress. As it was, we took control of the strategy, much like a commander in the midst of a battlefield, and won back her health.

Set Goals for Managing Stress

Make and begin to work toward short- and long-term goals in each of the areas of most significant negative stress to you. Because the joy of success breeds more success, start your changes with the areas of stress that you find the easiest to deal with.

Find Sources of Help

If you need it, get outside help that will enable you to move forward toward your goals. For instance, if you have money problems, you may want to consult with a professional financial advisor. If you´re experiencing parenting problems, maybe a family counselor could help you with better strategies for raising your children. There are professionals available to help you in every area of your life.

Exercise Daily

Exercise is a wonderful stress reducer. Some find that morning exercise helps to prepare them to handle the hassles of the day. Others prefer evening exercise as a form of winding down. Either way, exercise is vitally important to your body´s ability to withstand negative stress. Exercise lowers blood pressure, strengthens the heart, oxygenates your cells, and improves your spirit. Studies have shown that those who exercise regularly feel more capable and confident of overcoming the negatives setbacks in life.

 

 

 

 

Case study

Practicing Assertion at Workplace

Mona is a basic grade therapist working within a busy multidisciplinary team. During weekly team meetings, her supervisor, Raj, has offered Mona’ name for tasks without consulting her – most recently, to represent the profession at a careers day in her absence.

Mona feels angry and frustrated by the situation, which seems beyond her control, leading to feelings of inadequacy. It is important she recognizes these feelings and how they may affect her behavior. They may, for example, result in her remaining inwardly frustrated or venting her feelings, which could lead to deterioration in the relationship with her supervisor.

Questions

  1. What are the advantages/ disadvantages of practicing Assertion at the Work Place?

Ans

 

An assertion is a conditional statement that is assumed to be always true. Failure of an assertion indicates the failure of person who assumes it. The advantage of assertion is that it gives a positive indication about your personality and your thoughts. Disadvantage of assertion is that it can lead you to failure sometime. Therefore one must be vary choosy while practicing assertion.

 

 

  1. How would you deal with such a situation had you been in Mona’s place?

Ans

If I would have been at Mona’s place then I have to assess the situation first, whether it is going to be the beneficial or not. I would have accept the present situation but would like to meet the supervisor and tell him that I have not appreciate what he had done, so that in future he can not repeat the same thing.

 

 

  1. While delegating work, how important do you think it is to consult subordinates?

Ans

While delegating work it very important to consult with subordinates, because if we will consult or discuss with them it will give them self belief and they will give their best to the work. Consulting with them will give them a chance to be prepared for the task and their output will be much better.

 

 

 

Assignment C

  1. Which of these is not a physiological symptom of stress?

a) Change in weight

b) Boredom

c) Frequent Infections

d) Chronic fatigue and tiredness

 

 

  1. Which one out of the following is most crucial for success?

a) Aptitude

b) Attitude

c) Skill

d) Behaviour

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not an aspect of Self Esteem?

a) Self efficacy

b) Self respect

c) Self knowledge

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is a mandate for building self esteem?

a) Set goals for yourself

b) Make choices for your life

c) Visualize your successful behaviour

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a component of emotional intelligence?

a) Handling Relationships

b) Interpersonal Intelligence

c) Intra-personal Intelligence

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. __________ helps in recognizing emotions in others.

a) Valance

b) Self control

c) Empathy

d) Sympathy

 

 

  1. Which of these is not a part of the ‘Johari window´?

a) Hidden self

b) Blind self

c) Open self

d) Ideal self

 

 

  1. Which of these is a component of human personality?

a) Thoughts

b) Emotion

c) Action

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Self-concept is the power house which facilitates development of –

a) Attitude

b) Personality

c) Self Esteem

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Building self awareness would include questions like—

a) Who am I?

b) What are my strengths and weaknesses?

c) What are my goals?

d) All of the above.

 

 

  1. Self Acceptance means—

a) Becoming aware of what others want to be.

b) Becoming aware of what you want to be.

c) Becoming aware of who others are.

d) Becoming aware of who you are.

 

 

 

  1. Self Esteem is a way of thinking, feeling and acting that implies you—

a) Accept others.

b) Believe in yourself.

c) Believe others.d) All of the above.

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a component of interpersonal intelligence?

a) Empathy

b) Handling Relationships

c) Both of the above

d) None of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a style for dealing with emotions?

a) Self aware

b) Engulfed

c) Accepting

d) Avoiding

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is an initiative effort?

a) Pursue goals beyond what´s required or expected of them

b) Ready to seize opportunities

c) Managing emotions

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following emotions is not synonymous with each other?

a) Guilt

b) Regret

c) Shame

d) Wonder

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a building block of positive self esteem?

a) Value others

b) Value yourself

c) Goal setting

d) Offering forgiveness

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a component of attitudes?

a) Valance

b) Multiplexity

c) Centrality

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a component of an attitude?

a) Affection

b) Actions

c) Centrality

d) Cognition

 

 

  1. Which of these is not a part of non verbal communication?

a) Eye contact

b) Facial expression

c) Content of message

d) Body movement

 

 

  1. What do you mean by Emotional Awareness?

a) Recognize your own emotions and feelings

b) Knowing others emotions and feelings

c) None of the above

d) Both of the above

 

 

  1. Which out of the following is not a primary emotion?

a) Anger

b) Fear

c) Jealousy

d) Love

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is synonymous to the term “Conscientiousness”?

a) Dependability and responsibility in fulfilling obligations

b) Being honest to self and hold themselves accountable for meeting their objectives

c) None of the above

d) Both of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these in not a type of strategy to cope with stress?

a) Functional coping strategy

b) Neutral coping strategy

c) Dysfunctional coping strategy

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is a barrier to effective communication?

a) Ineffective listening

b) Feedback

c) Sender

d) Message

 

 

  1. Which of these Is a coping strategy for stress at organizational level?

a) Job Redesign / Job Rotation

b) Employee Counselling

c) Mentoring

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. What are different types of stresses?

a) Eustress

b) Distress

c) Both of the above

d) None of the above

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a feature of attitude?

a) Attitude affects Behaviour

b) Attitude affects Beliefs

c) Attitude affects Values

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is a consequence of a negative attitude?

a) Get a better job or promotion

b) Loose a customer/ job

c) Successfully complete a project

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is a type of attitude?

a) Positive

b) Negative

c) Neutral

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which one of these is not a phase of listening process?

a) Acknowledging

b) Leveling

c) Sharpening

d) Assimilation

 

 

  1. Which one of these is not a type of listening?

a) Passive

b) Aggressive

c) Marginal

d) Empathetic

 

 

  1. Which of these are essentials for good listening?

a) Positive attitude

b) Concentration

c) Interaction

d) All of the above

 

 

  1. Which one of these does not hamper the listening process?

a) Lack of Interest

b) Question Answer sequences

c) Fear

d) None of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these is an aspect of Assertive behaviour?

a) Steady & firm

b) Sarcastic and cold

c) Hesitant with pauses

d) None of the above

 

 

  1. Which of these features need to be overcome,

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