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Amity Solved Assignment MSC IT 3rd Sem for Data and File Structure |

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AMITY |

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Msc-IT |

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Semester-III Cource: Msc-IT |

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Data and File Structure |

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Semester-III Cource: Msc-IT |

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Assignment of Msc-IT Semester-III (AMITY) |

Questions :-

** Data and File Structure**

**Assignment A**

1.A two-dimensional array defined as a [4…7, -1 …….3] requires 2 bytes of storage space for each element. If the array is stored in row-major form, then calculate the address of element at location a[6,2]. Give the base address is 100.

2.Write a C program to implement bubble sort.

3.Write a program in C to show PUSH and POP operations in a stack.

4.Write the algorithms for the insertion and deletion operations performed on the circular queue.

5.What is double linked list? What are the advantage and disadvantage of double linked list ?

6.What is a binary search tree? Construct a binary search tree from these numbers – 50, 30, 60, 22, 38, 55, 34.

7.Explain the Dijkastra’s Algorithm.

8.What do you mean by the Hashing? Explain different method of hashing.

**Assignment B**

1.If you are using C language to implement the heterogeneous linked list, what pointer type will you use?

2. What is the binary tree? What are threaded and properties of binary trees?

3. What is directed graph? Explain the various types of graph and traversal of directed graph.

**ASSIGNMENT C-****1. The memory address of the first element of an array is called**

Options

A.Floor Address

B.Foundation Address

C.First Address

D.Base Address

**2. Memory address of fifth element of an array can be calculated by the formula**

Options

A. LOC(Array[5]=Base(Array)+w(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array

B. LOC(Array[5])=Base(Array[5])+(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array

C. LOC(Array[5])=Base(Array[4])+(5-Upper bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array

D. None of above

E. a. LOC (Array[5]=Base(Array)+w(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array

**3. Which of the following data structures are indexed structures?**

Options

A. linear arrays

B. linked lists

C. both of above

D. none of above

**4. Which of the following is not the required condition for binary search algorithm?**

Options

A. The list must be sorted

B. There should be the direct access to the middle element in any sublist

C. There must be mechanism to delete and/or insert elements in list

D. none of above

**5. Which of the following is not a limitation of binary search algorithm?**

Options

A. Must use a sorted array

B. requirement of sorted array is expensive when a lot of insertion and deletions are

C. There must be a mechanism to access middle element directly

D. Binary search algorithm is not efficient when the data elements are more than

**6. Two dimensional arrays are also called**

Options

A. Tables arrays

B. Matrix Arrays

C. both of above

D. none of above

**7. A variable P is called pointer if**

Options

A. P contains the address of an element in DATA.

B. P points to the address of first element in DATA

C. P can store only memory addresses

D. P contain the DATA and the address of DATA

**8. Which of the following data structure can´t store the non-homogeneous data elements?**

Options

A. Arrays

B. Records

C. Pointers

D. None

**9. Which of the following data structure store the homogeneous data elements?**

Options

A. Arrays

B. Records

C. Pointers **D**. None

**10. Each data item in a record may be a group item composed of sub-items; those items which are indecomposable are called**

Options

A. Elementary items

B. Atoms

C. Scalars

D. All of above

**11. The difference between linear array and a record is**

Options

A. An array is suitable for homogeneous data but the data items in a record may have

B. In a record, there may not be a natural ordering in opposed to linear array.

C. A record form a hierarchical structure but a lienear array does not

D. All of above

**12. Which of the following statement is false?**

Options

A. Arrays are dense lists and static data structure

B. data elements in linked list need not be stored in adjecent space in memory

C. pointers store the next data element of a list

D. linked lists are collection of the nodes that contain information part and next pointer

**13. Binary search algorithm can not be applied to**

Options

A. Sorted linked list

B. Sorted binary trees

C. Sorted linear array

D. Pointer array

**14. When new data are to be inserted into a data structure, but there is no available space; this situation is usually called**

Options

A. Underflow

B. Overflow

C. Houseful

D. Saturated

**15. The situation when in a linked list START=NULL is**

Options

A. Underflow

B. Overflow

C. Housefull

D. Saturated

**16. Which of the following is two way lists?**

Options

A. grounded header list

B. circular header list

C. linked list with header and trailer nodes

D. none of above

**17. Which of the following name does not relate to stacks?**

Options

A. FIFO lists

B. LIFO list

C. Piles

D. Push-down lists

**18. The term "push" and "pop" is related to the**

Options

A. Array

B. Lists

C. Stacks

D. All Of Above

**19. A data structure where elements can be added or removed at either end but not in the middle**

Options

A. Linked lists

B. Stacks

C. Queues

D. Deque

**20. When in order traversing a tree resulted E A C K F H D B G; the preorder traversal would return**

Options

A. FAEKCDBHG

B. FAEKCDHGB

C. EAFKHDCBG

D. FEAKDCHBG

**21. Value of the first linked list index is________**

Options

A. One

B. Zero

C. –1

D. None of these

**22. A linked list index is ____ that represents the position of a node in a linked list**

Options

A. An Integer

B. A variable

C. A character

D. A Boolean

**23. Why is the constructor of the Queue Linked List class empty?**

Options

A. Because initialization of data members of the Linked List class is performed by the constructor of the Linked List class.

B. Because initialization of data members of the Linked List class is performed by the destructor of the Linked List class.

C. Because initialization of data members of the Queue Linked List class is performed by the constructor of the Linked List class.

D. Because initialization of data members of the Queue Linked List class is performed by the destructor of the Linked List class

**24. _______ form of access is used to add and remove nodes from a queue**

Options

A. LIFO Last In First Out

B. FIFO, First In First Out

C. Both 1 and 2

D. None of these

**25. ______ form of access is used to add and remove nodes from a stack**

Options

A. LIFO

B. FIFO

C. Both 1 and 2

D. None of these

**26. New nodes are added to the _____ of the queue.**

Options

A. Front

B. Back

C. Middle

D. Both 1 and 2

**27. A _______ is a data structure that organizes data similar to a line in the supermarket, where the first one in line is the first one out.**

Options

A. Queue linked list

B. Stacks linked list

C. Both of them

D. Neither of them

**28. In an array queue, data is stored in an _____ element**

Options

A. Node

B. Linked list

C. Array

D. Constructor

**29. The pop () member function determines if the stack is empty by calling the _____ member function**

Options

A. removeback()

B. isEmpty()

C. removedfront()

D. hasNext()

**30. What happens when you push a new node onto a stack?**

Options

A. The new node is placed at the front of the linked list

B. The new node is placed at the back of the linked list.

C. The new node is placed at the middle of the linked list.

D. No Changes happens

**31. Which of the following algorithm solves the all – pair shortest path problem?**

Options

A. Dijkstra,s algorithm

B. Floyd’s algorithm

C. Prim’s algorithm

D. Warshall’s algorithm

**32. The operation of processing each element in the list is known as**

Options

A. Sorting

B. Merging

C. Inserting

D. Traversal

**33. To delete a dynamically allocated array named `a`, the correct statement is**

Options

A. delete a;

B. delete a[0];

C. delete []a;

D. delete [0]a;

**34. The memory address of the first element of an array is called**

Options

A. Floor address

B. Foundation address

C. First address

D. Base address

**35. Which of the following data structure store the homogeneous data elements?**

Options

A. Arrays

B. Records

C. Pointers

D. None

**36. The number of possible binary trees with 4 nodes is**

Options

A. 12

B. 13

C. 14

D. 15

**37. Which of the following data structure is not linear data structure?**

Options

A. Arrays

B. Linked lists

C. Both of above

D. None of above

**38. Finding the location of the element with a given value is:**

Options

A. Traversal

B. Search

C. Sort

D. None of above

**39. Preorder is same as**

Options

A. depth-first order

B. breadth- first order

C. topological order

D. linear order

**40. Which of the following is the feature of stack?**

Options

A. All operations are at one end

B. It cannot reuse its memory

C. All elements are of different data types

D. Any element can be accessed from it directly

Answers :-

** Data and File Structure**

**ASSIGNMENT A-****1. A two-dimensional array defined as a [4…7, -1 …….3] requires 2 bytes of storage space for each element. If the array is stored in row-major form, then calculate the address of element at location a[6,2]. Give the base address is 100.**

Ans-1 B=100, l1=-20, l2=10, u1=20, u2=35

W=2 byte

i=0,j=30 and m (no. of col)= u1- l1+1 =20-(-20)+1=41

Address of a[i][j]= B+W(m(j-l2)+(i-l1))

Address of a[0][30]=100+2(41(30-10)+(0-(-20))

=100+2(41*20+20)

=100+2(820+20)

=100+1640

=1740

**2. Write a C program to implement bubble sort.****Ans-2**

#include

#include

void bubble_sort(int[], int);

void main() {

int arr[30], num, i;

printf(" Enter no of elements :");

scanf("%d", &num);

printf(" Enter array elements :");

for (i = 0; i < num; i++)

scanf("%d", &arr[i]);

bubble_sort(arr, num);

getch();

}

void bubble_sort(int iarr[], int num) {

int i, j, k, temp;

printf(" Unsorted Data:");

for (k = 0; k < num; k++) {

printf("%5d", iarr[k]);

}

for (i = 1; i < num; i++) {

for (j = 0; j < num - 1; j++) {

if (iarr[j] > iarr[j + 1]) {

temp = iarr[j];

iarr[j] = iarr[j + 1];

iarr[j + 1] = temp;

}

}

printf(" After pass %d : ", i);

for (k = 0; k < num; k++) {

printf("%5d", iarr[k]);

}

}

}

**3. Write a program in C to show PUSH and POP operations in a stack.****Ans3-**

#include

#include

#define MAXSIZE 5

struct stack /* Structure definition for stack */

{

int stk[MAXSIZE];

int top;

};

typedef struct stack STACK;

STACK s;

/* Function declaration/Prototype*/

void push (void);

int pop(void);

void display (void);

void main ()

{

int choice;

int option = 1;

clrscr ();

s.top = -1;

printf ("STACK OPERATION ");

while (option)

{

printf ("------------------------------------------ ");

printf (" 1 --> PUSH ");

printf (" 2 --> POP ");

printf (" 3 --> DISPLAY ");

printf (" 4 --> EXIT ");

printf ("------------------------------------------ ");

printf ("Enter your choice ");

scanf ("%d", &choice);

switch (choice)

{

case 1: push();

break;

case 2: pop();

break;

case 3: display();

break;

case 4: return;

}

fflush (stdin);

printf ("Do you want to continue(Type 0 or 1)? ");

scanf ("%d", &option);

}

}

/*Function to add an element to the stack*/

void push ()

{

int num;

if (s.top == (MAXSIZE - 1))

{

printf ("Stack is Full ");

return;

}

else

{

printf ("Enter the element to be pushed ");

scanf ("%d", &num);

s.top = s.top + 1;

s.stk[s.top] = num;

}

return;

}

/*Function to delete an element from the stack*/

int pop ()

{

int num;

if (s.top == - 1)

{

printf ("Stack is Empty ");

return (s.top);

}

else

{

num = s.stk[s.top];

printf ("poped element is = %d ", s.stk[s.top]);

s.top = s.top - 1;

}

return(num);

}

/*Function to display the status of the stack*/

void display ()

{

int i;

if (s.top == -1)

{

printf ("Stack is empty ");

return;

}

else

{

printf (" The status of the stack is ");

for (i = s.top; i >= 0; i--)

{

printf ("%d ", s.stk[i]);

}

}

printf (" ");

}

/*---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Output

STACK OPERATION

------------------------------------------

1 --> PUSH

2 --> POP

3 --> DISPLAY

4 --> EXIT

------------------------------------------

Enter your choice

1

Enter the element to be pushed

23

Do you want to continue(Type 0 or 1)?

1

------------------------------------------

1 --> PUSH

2 --> POP

3 --> DISPLAY

4 --> EXIT

------------------------------------------

Enter your choice

1

Enter the element to be pushed

45

Do you want to continue(Type 0 or 1)?

1

------------------------------------------

1 --> PUSH

2 --> POP

3 --> DISPLAY

4 --> EXIT

------------------------------------------

Enter your choice

1

Enter the element to be pushed

78

Do you want to continue(Type 0 or 1)?

1

------------------------------------------

1 --> PUSH

2 --> POP

3 --> DISPLAY

4 --> EXIT

------------------------------------------

Enter your choice

3

The status of the stack is

78

45

23

Do you want to continue(Type 0 or 1)?

1

------------------------------------------

1 --> PUSH

2 --> POP

3 --> DISPLAY

4 --> EXIT

------------------------------------------

Enter your choice

2

poped element is = 78

Do you want to continue(Type 0 or 1)?

1

------------------------------------------

1 --> PUSH

2 --> POP

3 --> DISPLAY

4 --> EXIT

------------------------------------------

Enter your choice

3

The status of the stack is

45

23

Do you want to continue(Type 0 or 1)?

0

**4.Write the algorithms for the insertion and deletion operations performed on the circular queue.****Ans4-**

case 1 : // insert

printf(" Enter number: ");

scanf("%d", &data);

reply = insq(cqueue, &front, &rear, &data);

if(reply == -1)

printf(" Circular Queue is Full ");

else

printf(" Number %d is inserted in a Circular Queue ", data);

break;

case 2 : // delete

reply = delq(cqueue, &front, &rear,&data);

if(reply == -1)

printf(" Circular Queue is Empty ");

else

printf(" %d is deleted from Circular Queue ", data);

printf(" ");

break;

**5. What is double linked list? What are the advantage and disadvantage of double linked list?****Ans5-**

It is linear collection of data elements which are called ‘Nodes’. The elements may or may not be stored in consecutive memory locations. So pointers are used maintain linear order. Each node is divided into two or more parts.

The linked list can be of following types:

1. Linear Linked List or One Way List or Singly Linked List.

2. Doubly Linked List or Two Way List.

3. Circular Linked List.

4. Header Linked List.

5. Two Way Header Linked List.

6. Circular Header Linked List.

7. Two Way Circular Header Linked List

Advantages:

1. We can traverse in both directions i.e. from starting to end and as well as from end to starting.

2. It is easy to reverse the linked list.

3. If we are at a node, then we can go to any node. But in linear linked list, it is not possible to reach the previous node.

Disadvantages:

1. It requires more space per space per node because one extra field is required for pointer to previous node.

2. Insertion and deletion take more time than linear linked list because more pointer operations are required than linear linked list.

**6. What is a binary search tree? Construct a binary search tree from these numbers – 50, 30, 60, 22, 38, 55, 34. ****Ans6-**

#include

#include

int searchitem(int [],int,int);//function prototype

using namespace std;

int main()

{

const int num=10;

int arr[num]={1,3,5,6,7,8,12,15,16,18},locat...

cout<<"Enter number that you want to find: ";

cin>>item;

location=searchitem(arr,num,item);

if(location>-1)

{

cout<<"item was found at index number "<<location<<endl;

}

else

cout<<"item is not found "<<endl;

return 0;

getch();

}

//this function returns the location of key in the list

//a-1is retruned if the value is not found

int searchitem(int list[],int size,int key)

{

int left=0,right=size-1,med;

while(left<=right)

{

med=(int)(left+right)/2;

if(key==list[med])

{

return med;

}

else if(key>list[med])

{

left=med+1;

}

else

{

right=med-1;

}

}

return -1;

}

**7.Explain the Dijkastra’s Algorithm.****Ans7-**

Dijkstra´s algorithm finds the length of an optimal path between two vertices in a graph. (Optimal can mean shortest or cheapest or fastest or optimal in some other sense: it depends on how you choose to label the edges of the graph.) The algorithm works as follows:

Choose the source vertex

Define a set S of vertices, and initialise it to emptyset. As the algorithm progresses, the set S will store those vertices to which a shortest path has been found.

Label the source vertex with 0, and insert it into S.

Consider each vertex not in S connected by an edge from the newly inserted vertex. Label the vertex not in S with the label of the newly inserted vertex + the length of the edge.

But if the vertex not in S was already labelled, its new label will be min(label of newly inserted vertex + length of edge, old label)

Pick a vertex not in S with the smallest label, and add it to S.

Repeat from step 4, until the destination vertex is in S or there are no labelled vertices not in S.

If the destination is labelled, its label is the distance from source to destination. If it is not labelled, there is no path from the source to the destination

**8. What do you mean by the Hashing? Explain different method of hashing.****Ans8-**

Hashing provides the direct access of record from the file no matter where the record is in the file. This is possible with the help of a hashing function H which map the key with the corresponding key address or location. It provides the key-to-address transformation.

Division Method: An integer key x is divided by the table size m and the remainder is taken as the hash value. It can be defined as

H(x)=x%m+1

For example, x=42 and m=13, H(42)=45%13+1=3+1=4

Midsquare Method: A key is multiplied by itself and the hash value is obtained by selecting an appropriate number of digits from the middle of the square. The same positions in the square must be used for all keys. For example if the key is 12345,

square of this key is value 152399025. If 2 digit addresses is required then position 4th and 5th can be chosen, giving address 39.

Folding Method: A key is broken into several parts. Each part has the same length as that of the required address except the last part. The parts are added together, ignoring the last carry, we obtain the hash address for key K.

Multiplicative method: In this method a real number c such that 0H(x)=[m(cx%1)]+1

Here,cx%1 is the fractional part of cx and [] denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to its contents

.

Digit Analysis: This method forms addresses by selecting and shifting digits of the original key. For a given key set, the same positions in the key and same rearrangement pattern must be used. For example, a key 7654321 is transformed to the address 1247 by selecting digits in position 1,2,4 and 7 then by reversing their order.

**ASSIGNMENT B-****1.If you are using C language to implement the heterogeneous linked list, what pointer type will you use?****Ans1-**

The heterogeneous linked list contains different data types in its nodes and we need a link, pointer to connect them. It is not possible to use ordinary pointers for this. So we go for void pointer. Void pointer is capable of storing pointer to any type as it is a generic pointer type

**2. What is the binary tree? What are threaded and properties of binary trees?****Answer 2.** In computer science, a binary tree is a tree data structure in which each node has at most two children, which are referred to as the left child and the right child. A recursive definition using just set theory notions is that a (non-empty) binary tree is a triple (L, S, R), where L and R are binary trees or the empty set and S is a singleton set.[1] Some authors allow the binary tree to be the empty set as well. A binary tree is a special case of an ordered K-ary tree, where k is 2.

A threaded binary tree is a binary tree variant that allows fast traversal: given a pointer to a node in a threaded tree, it is possible to cheaply find its in-order successor (and/or predecessor) is called as a threaded.

The properties of a binary tree are as follows:

A binary tree of n elements has n-1 edges

A binary tree of height h has at least h and at most 2h - 1 elements

The height of a binary tree with n elements is at most n and at least ?log2 (n+1)?

**3. What is directed graph? Explain the various types of graph and traversal of directed graph.**

Answer 3. A directed graph (or digraph) is a graph, or set of vertices connected by edges, where the edges have a direction associated with them. In formal terms, a directed graph is an ordered pair G = (V, A) (sometimes G = (V, E) where

V is a set whose elements are called vertices, nodes, or points;

A is a set of ordered pairs of vertices, called arrows, directed edges (sometimes simply edges with the corresponding set named E instead of A), directed arcs, or directed lines.

A directed graph is called a simple digraph if it has no multiple arrows (two or more edges that connect the same two vertices in the same direction) and no loops (edges that connect vertices to themselves). A directed graph is called a directed multigraph or multidigraph if it may have multiple arrows (and sometimes loops). In the latter case the arrow set forms a multiset, rather than a set, of ordered pairs of vertices.

DIRECTED GRAPH

DIRECTED GRAPH WITH CORRESPONDING INCIDENCE MATRIX

**ASSIGNMENT C-****1. The memory address of the first element of an array is called**

Options

Floor Address

Foundation Address

First Address

Base Address**Ans- Base Address**

**2. Memory address of fifth element of an array can be calculated by the formula**

Options

LOC(Array[5]=Base(Array)+w(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array

LOC(Array[5])=Base(Array[5])+(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array

LOC(Array[5])=Base(Array[4])+(5-Upper bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array

None of above**Ans: LOC (Array[5]=Base(Array)+w(5-lower bound), where w is the number of words per memory cell for the array**

**3. Which of the following data structures are indexed structures?**

Options

linear arrays

linked lists

both of above

none of above**Ans- Linear arrays**

**4. Which of the following is not the required condition for binary search algorithm?**

Options

The list must be sorted

There should be the direct access to the middle element in any sublist

There must be mechanism to delete and/or insert elements in list

none of above**Ans- c. There must be mechanism to delete and/or insert elements in list**

**5. Which of the following is not a limitation of binary search algorithm?**

Options

Must use a sorted array

requirement of sorted array is expensive when a lot of insertion and deletions are

There must be a mechanism to access middle element directly

Binary search algorithm is not efficient when the data elements are more than**Ans- d. binary search algorithm is not efficient when the data elements are more than**

**6. Two dimensional arrays are also called**

Options

Tables arrays

Matrix Arrays

both of above

none of above**Ans- c. both of above**

**7. A variable P is called pointer if**

Options

P contains the address of an element in DATA.

P points to the address of first element in DATA

P can store only memory addresses **P contain the DATA and the address of DATA****Ans- a. P contains the address of an element in DATA**

**8. Which of the following data structure can´t store the non-homogeneous data elements?**

Options

Arrays

Records

Pointers

None**Ans- a. Arrays**

**9. Which of the following data structure store the homogeneous data elements?**

Options

Arrays

Records

Pointers

None**Ans- c. Records**

**10. Each data item in a record may be a group item composed of sub-items; those items which are indecomposable are called**

Options

Elementary items

Atoms

Scalars **All of above****Ans- d. all of above**

**11. The difference between linear array and a record is**

Options

An array is suitable for homogeneous data but the data items in a record may have

In a record, there may not be a natural ordering in opposed to linear array.

A record form a hierarchical structure but a lienear array does not

All of above**Ans- d. All of above**

**12. Which of the following statement is false?**

Options

Arrays are dense lists and static data structure

data elements in linked list need not be stored in adjecent space in memory

pointers store the next data element of a list

linked lists are collection of the nodes that contain information part and next pointer**Ans- c. pointers store the next data element of a list**

**13. Binary search algorithm can not be applied to**

Options

Sorted linked list

Sorted binary trees

Sorted linear array

Pointer array**Ans- a. sorted linked list**

**14. When new data are to be inserted into a data structure, but there is no available space; this situation is usually called**

Options

Underflow

Overflow

Houseful

Saturated**Ans- b. overflow**

**15. The situation when in a linked list START=NULL is**

Options

Underflow

Overflow

Housefull

Saturated**Ans- a. underflow**

**16. Which of the following is two way lists?**

Options

grounded header list

circular header list

linked list with header and trailer nodes

none of above**Ans- d. none of above**

**17. Which of the following name does not relate to stacks?**

Options

FIFO lists

LIFO list

Piles

Push-down lists**Ans- a. FIFO lists**

**18. The term "push" and "pop" is related to the**

Options

Array

Lists

Stacks

All Of Above**Ans- c. stacks**

**19. A data structure where elements can be added or removed at either end but not in the middle**

Options

Linked lists

Stacks

Queues **Deque****Ans- d. Deque**

**20. When in order traversing a tree resulted E A C K F H D B G; the preorder traversal would return**

Options

FAEKCDBHG

FAEKCDHGB

EAFKHDCBG

FEAKDCHBG**Ans- b. FAEKCDHGB**

**21. Value of the first linked list index is________**

Options

One

Zero

–1

None of these**Ans- Zero**

**22. A linked list index is ____ that represents the position of a node in a linked list**

Options

An Integer

A variable

A character

A Boolean**Ans- Integer**

**23. Why is the constructor of the Queue Linked List class empty?**

Options

Because initialization of data members of the Linked List class is performed by the constructor of the Linked List class.

Because initialization of data members of the Linked List class is performed by the destructor of the Linked List class.

Because initialization of data members of the Queue Linked List class is performed by the constructor of the Linked List class.

Because initialization of data members of the Queue Linked List class is performed by the destructor of the Linked List class**Ans- a) Because initialization of data members of the Linked List class is performed by the constructor of the Linked List class.**

**24. _______ form of access is used to add and remove nodes from a queue**

Options

LIFO Last In First Out

FIFO, First In First Out

Both 1 and 2 **None of these****Ans- FIFO, First In First Out**

**25. ______ form of access is used to add and remove nodes from a stack**

Options

LIFO

FIFO

Both 1 and 2

None of these**Ans- LIFO**

**26. New nodes are added to the _____ of the queue.**

Options

Front

Back

Middle **Both 1 and 2****Ans- Back**

**27. A _______ is a data structure that organizes data similar to a line in the supermarket, where the first one in line is the first one out.**

Options

Queue linked list

Stacks linked list

Both of them

Neither of them**Ans- Queue linked list**

**28. In an array queue, data is stored in an _____ element**

Options

Node

Linked list

Array **Constructor****Ans- Array**

**29. The pop () member function determines if the stack is empty by calling the _____ member function**

Options

removeback()

isEmpty()

removedfront()

hasNext()**Ans-is Empty**

**30. What happens when you push a new node onto a stack?**

Options

The new node is placed at the front of the linked list

The new node is placed at the back of the linked list.

The new node is placed at the middle of the linked list.

No Changes happens **Ans- The new node is placed at the front of the linked list**

**31. Which of the following algorithm solves the all – pair shortest path problem?**

Options

Dijkstra,s algorithm

Floyd’s algorithm

Prim’s algorithm

Warshall’s algorithm**Ans- Dijkstra,s algorithm**

**32. The operation of processing each element in the list is known as**

Options

Sorting

Merging

Inserting

Traversal**Ans- Traversal**

**33. To delete a dynamically allocated array named `a`, the correct statement is**

Options

delete a;

delete a[0];

delete []a;

delete [0]a;**Ans- delete a;**

**34. The memory address of the first element of an array is called**

Options

Floor address

Foundation address

First address

Base address **Ans- Base address**

**35. Which of the following data structure store the homogeneous data elements?**

Options

Arrays

Records

Pointers

None**Ans- Records**

**36. The number of possible binary trees with 4 nodes is**

Options

12

13

14

15**Ans- 14**

**37. Which of the following data structure is not linear data structure?**

Options

Arrays

Linked lists

Both of above

None of above**Ans- Linked Lists**

**38. Finding the location of the element with a given value is:**

Options

Traversal

Search

Sort

None of above**Ans-Traversal**

**39. Preorder is same as**

Options

depth-first order

breadth- first order

topological order

linear order**Ans- depth-first order**

**40. Which of the following is the feature of stack?**

Options

All operations are at one end

It cannot reuse its memory

All elements are of different data types

Any element can be accessed from it directly**Ans- All elements are of different data types**

5

1

4

1

3

0

2

0

1

0

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