Fundamentals of Refining
- What are special features of refinery industry in India?
The refining industry in India can be divided into two: the private and public sector. Here’s an overview of the comparison between the sectors in terms of product-mix, refining margin, capacity, pricing and market, and what this entails for the industry as a whole.
The Indian petroleum refining industry has a significant presence of both private and public sectors. Of the total installed capacity of 215.1 million metric tonnes per annum (MMTPA) as on April 1, 2013, 80 MMTPA (37.2 per cent of total) belongs to the private sector and 135.1 MMTPA (62.8 per cent of total) belongs to the public sector. Out of 22 refineries, 19 belong to public sector (including two joint venture refineries) and three belong to private sector.
All the public sector refineries are owned by state-run oil majors Indian Oil Corporation Limited (IOCL), Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd (HPCL) and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd (ONGC). Reliance Industries Ltd (RIL) and Essar Oil Ltd (EOL) are the private sector refiners (refer Table 1). However, there is a wide gap between private and public sector refiners in respect of product-mix, refining margin, capacity, pricing and market.
Product–Mix: The Diversity of Refinery Products
Refined petroleum products can broadly be divided into three categories—light distillates, middle distillates and heavy ends. Light distillates include Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), naphtha and motor spirit (Gasoline or Petrol). Middle distillates include kerosene, Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF) and diesel (Gas Oil).
Heavy ends include lube oil, fuel oil, low sulfur heavy stock (LSHS), bitumen, pet coke, etc. Proportion of light distillates, middle distillates and heavy ends in the product-mix of a refinery depends upon the complexity of the refinery. Higher the refinery complexity, higher is the proportion of light and middle distillates in the product-mix.
Light and middle distillates are highmargin products while heavy ends are lowmargin products. In fact, crack spread (refining margin) of premium gasoline, gas oil (50 ppm Sulfur) and fuel oil in Singapore (Asian market) against Dubai crude averaged 5.0 US Dollar per barrel (USD/bbl), around 18.5 USD/bbl and minus USD12/bbl respectively in October, 2013.
- How can Indian refineries meet the increasing demand for petroleum products?
The total installed refining capacity of the refineries in the country at the end of march 2008 was 69.140 million tonnes per annum and the total is expected to go up to 131 mtpa by the year 20011-12. The expected increase in refining capacity should be sufficient to meet the growth in petroleum product demand (112 mtpa by the end of the ninth plan) with minimum level of imports.
REFINERIES IN INDIA
- Guwahati Refinery - IOCL - (ASSAM)
Guwahati Refinery, the first in public sector, was set up in collaboration with Rumania. and commissioned on 1st January, 1962 with a design capacity of 0.75 MMTPA. The present capacity of this Refinery is 1.00 MMTPA. Hydrotreater Unit for improving the Quality of diesel has been installed and was commissioned in 2002. The refinery has also installed in 2003 Indmax Unit, a novel technology developed by its R&D Centre for upgrading heavy ends LPG, motor spirit and diesel oil.
- Barauni Refinery - IOCL - (BIHAR)
Barauni Refinery in Eastern India was built in collaboration with the Soviet Union and went on stream in July, 1964. By November, 1967, the initial capacity of 2 MMTPA was expanded to 3 MMTPA by 1969. The present capacity of this refineries is 6.00 MMTPA. A Catalytic Reformer Unit (CRU) was also added to the refinery in 1997 for production of unleaded motor spirit. Projects are also planned for meeting future fuel quality requirements.
- Koyali Refinery - IOCL - (GUJARAT)
The Gujarat Refinery was built with Soviet assistance and went on stream in October, 1965. The Refinery had an initial installed capacity of 2 MMTPA and was designed to process crude from Ankleshwar, Kalol and Nawagam oilfields of Oil & Natural Gas Commission in Gujarat. In September, 1967, the capacity of the Refinery was expanded to 3 MMTPA. The capacity of the Refinery was further increased to 4.3 MMTPA through debottlenecking measures and to 7.3 MMTPA in October, 1978 by implementing an expansion project of Rs.56.07 crores. With the implementation of additional processing facilities the Refinery could achieve capacity of 9.5 MMTPA in 1989. The refining capacity was further expanded to 12.5 MMTPA with commissioning of 3.0 MMTPA CDU in September, 1999. The present refining capacity of this refinery is 13.70 MMTPA.
- Haldia Refinery - IOCL - (WEST BENGAL)
The Haldia Refinery for processing 2.5 MMTPA of Middle East crude was commissioned in January, 1975 with two sectors - one for producing fuel products and the other for Lube base stocks. The fuel sector was built with French collaboration and the Lube sector with Romanian collaboration. The refining capacity of the Refinery was increased to 2.75 MMTPA in 1989 through debottlenecking measures. The refining capacity was further expanded to 3.75 MMTPA with the commissioning of new crude distillation unit of 1.0 MMTPA in March, 1997. The present refining capacity of this Refinery is 6.00 MMTPA.
- Mathura Refinery - IOCL - (UTTAR PRADESH)
The Mathura Refinery with a capacity of 6.00 MMTPA was commissioned in January, 1982 excluding FCCU and Sulphur Recovery Units which were commissioned in Jan, 1983. The refining capacity of this refinery was expanded to 7.5 MMTPA in 1989 by debottlenecking and revamping. A DHDS Unit was commissioned in 1989 for production of HSD with low sulphur content of 0.25% wt. ( max.). The present refining capacity of this Refinery is 8.00 MMTPA.
- Digboi Refinery - IOCL - (ASSAM)
The Refinery was set up at Digboi in 1901 by Assam Oil Company Limited. The Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. took over the Refinery and marketing management of Assam Oil Company Ltd. with effect from 14.10.1981 and created a separate division. This division has both Refinery and marketing operations. The Refinery at Digboi had an installed capacity 0.50 MMTPA. The refining capacity of the Refinery was increased to 0.65 MMTPA by modernization of Refinery in July, 1996. A new delayed Coking Unit of 1,70,000 TPA capacity was commissioned in 1999. A new Solvent Dewaxing Unit for maximizing production of micro-crystalline wax was installed and commissioned in 2003. The refinery has also installed Hydrotreater to to improve the quality of diesel.
- Panipat Refinery - IOCL - (HARYANA)
The refinery was set up in 1998 at Baholi Village in Distt. Panipat, Haryana with a capacity of 6.00 MMTPA. The expansion of refining capacity from 6 MMTPA to 12 MMTPA has been recently completed.
- Mumbai Refinery - HPCL - (MAHARASHTRA)
The Refinery at Mumbai came into stream in 1954 under the ownership of ESSO. In March, 1974, Govt. of India acquired it. Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. was formed on 15.7.1974 after the merger of these companies. The capacity of the Mumbai Refinery of HPCL was 3.5 MMTPA which was increased to 5.5 MMTPA during 1986 after implementation of expansion programme.
- Visakh Refinery - HPCL - (ANDHRA PRADESH)
In 1957, Visakh Refinery went on stream under the ownership of M/s Caltex India Ltd. In May, 1978, M/s Caltex Oil Refinery (India) was amalgamated with Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. The installed capacity of 1.5 MMTPA was increased to 4.5 MMTPA in 1985 and 7.5 MMTPA in 1999, through an expansion programme.
- Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. - BPCL - (MAHARASHTRA)
The Refinery at Mumbai came into stream in January, 1955 under the ownership of Burmah-Shell Refineries Ltd. Following the Government´s acquisition of the Burmah-Shell, name of the Refinery was changed to Bharat Refineries Limited on 11.2.1976. In August, 1977, it became Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd along with Burmah-Shell’s marketing operation. The installed capacity of 5.25 MMTPA was increased to 6 MMTPA in 1985. The present refining capacity of the refinery is 12 MMTPA.
- Manali Refinery - Chennai Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (CPCL) - (TAMILNADU)
Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL), formerly known as Madras Refineries Limited (MRL) was formed as a joint venture in 1965 between the Government of India (GOI), AMOCO and National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) having a share holding in the ratio 74%: 13%: 13% respectively. From the grassroots stage CPCL Refinery was set up with an installed capacity of 2.5 Million Tonnes Per Annum (MMTPA) in a record time of 27 months at a cost of Rs. 43 crore without any time or cost over run.
In 1985, AMOCO disinvested in favour of GOI and the shareholding percentage of GOI and NIOC stood revised at 84.62% and 15.38% respectively. Later GOI disinvested 16.92% of the paid up capital in favor of Unit Trust of India, Mutual Funds, Insurance Companies and Banks on 19th May 1992, thereby reducing its holding to 67.7 %. The public issue of CPCL shares at a premium of Rs. 70 (Rs. 90 to FIIs) in 1994 was over subscribed to an extent of 27 times and added a large shareholder base of over 90000.As a part of the restructuring steps taken up by the Government of India, Indian Oil Corporation Limited ( IOCL) acquired equity from GOI in 2000-01 Currently IOC holds 51.88% while NIOC continued its holding at 15.40%. In view of the CPCL become subsidiary of IOCL in 2001. The Manali Refinery has a capacity of 9.5 MMTPA and is one of the most complex refineries in India with Fuel, Lube, Wax and Petrochemical feedstocks production facilities.
- Cauvery Basin Refinery - CPCL - (NAGAPATTINAM - TAMIL NADU)
CPCL´s second refinery is located at Cauvery Basin at Nagapattinam. The initial unit was set up in Nagapattinam with a capacity of 0.5 MMTPA in 1993 and later on its capacity was enhanced to 1.0 MMTPA.
- Kochi Refinery - (KERALA)
The Kochi Refinery was set up in pursuance of a formation agreement dated 27th April, 1963 between Govt. of India, Phillips Petroleum Co. of USA and Duncan Brothers of Calcutta with an authorised capital of Rs.15 crores. Subsequently, the authorised capital was increased to Rs.75 crores and the paid up capital in March, 1989 stood at Rs.68.47 crores after issue of shares on rights basis. During the year, the Phillips Petroleum Company also completed withdrawal of their equity by disinvesting of shares. With this, in March 1989, Government was holding 61.58 percentage of equity shares of the Company. At present Kochi Refinery stands merged with M/s Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL). The installed capacity of 2.5 MMTPA was increased to 3.3 in September, 1973 and to 4.5 MMTPA in November, 1994. The capacity of the Refinery was further increased to 7.5 MMTPA in December, 95.
- Bongaigaon Refinery & Petrochemicals Ltd. - (BRPL) - (ASSAM)
On 20th January, 1974, M/s BRPL was incorporated in Assam under the Companies Act, 1956 with an authorised capital of Rs.50 crores. With the objective of installation of the Refinery having a crude processing capacity of 1 MMTPA and a Petrochemicals Complex consisting of Xylene, Di-Methyl Terephthalate (DMT) and Polyester Staple Fibre (PSF) Units. The complex was built and commissioned in phases. The capacity of Crude Distillation Unit was increased to 1.35 MMTPA from April, 1987 by debottlenecking. Now the authorised capital (equity) of the company is Rs.200 crores. The paid-up capital as on date is Rs.199.82 crores. As a part of the restructuring steps taken up by Govt. of India, Indian Oil Corporation Limited acquired Govt´s equity in 2000-01. In view of this BRPL became subsididary of IOCL in 2001.The capacity of the Refinery has been increased to 2.35 MMTPA in June, 1995 by installing additional unit.
- Numaligarh Refinery Limited - (ASSAM)
Numaligarh Refinery, Popularly known as " Assam Accord Refinery" has been set up a grass -root refinery at Numaligarh in the district of Golaghat ( assam) in fulfilment of the commitment made by Government of India in the historic " Assam Accord" , signed on 15-8-1985 at an approved cost of Rs, 2,724 crore.
Numaligarh Refinery Limited ( NRL) was incorporated on 22-4-1993. Presently Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited holds 51% of the company´s equity. The other equity holder are Government of Assam, Oil Industry Development Board and Oil India Limited with equity participation of 10% each. The balance 19% equity is earmarked for a Public Issue. The refining capacity of this refinery is 3.0 MMTPA.
- Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals Ltd. - MRPL - (KARNATAKA)
Government approved on 11.4.1991 the setting up a 3.0 MMTPA Oil Refinery at Mangalore at an estimated cost of Rs.1160 crores, including foreign exchange component of Rs.300 crores. The project has been implemented by a Joint Venture Company with Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited, Mumbai and Indian Rayon and Industrial Limited, Gujarat as Co-promoters. The Refinery was commissioned in March, 1996. MRPL which was a Joint Sector Company become a PSU subsequent on acquisition of its majority shares by ONGC. The capacity of the refinery was assessed at 3.69 MMTPA and has been further expanded to 9.69 MMTPA in September, 1999.
- Tatipaka Refinery- ONGC - ( Andhra Pradesh)
A mini refinery of ONGC with capacity of about 0.1 MMTPA with an approved cost of Rs.29.9 crore was commissioned in September, 2001 at Tatipaka in East Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh.
- Reliance Refinery - Private Sector - JAMNAGAR (GUJARAT)
The Private Sector Refinery (RPL) was commissioned on 14th July, 1999 with an installed capacity of 27 MMTPA at Jamnagar. The present capacity of this refinery is 33.00 MMTPA.
- Essar Refinery - Private Sector - JAMNAGAR (GUJARAT)
Essar Oil’s 10.5 MTPA refineryat Vadinar in Gujarat started commercial production on May 1, 2008. Currently, Essar is running its Jamnagar refinery at 7.5 million tonnes capacity, which will be upgraded to 12.5 million tonnes once two secondary units a fluid catalytic cracker with 3.3 million tonnes capacity and a diesel hydrosulfuriser with 3.7 million tonnes capacity are commissioned by early September.
- Draw a schematic flow diagram of a typical crude oil distillation unit as used in petroleum crude oil refineries.
- What is Crude Assay?
A crude oil assay is essentially the chemical evaluation of crude oil feed stocks by petroleum testing laboratories. Each crude oil type has unique molecular, chemical characteristics. No two crude oil types are identical and there are crucial differences in crude oil quality. The results of crude oil assay testing provide extensive detailed hydrocarbon analysis data for refiners, oil traders and producers. Assay data help refineries determine if a crude oil feedstock is compatible for a particular petroleum refinery or if the crude oil could cause yield, quality, production, environmental and other problems.
The assay can be an inspection assay or comprehensive assay. Testing can include crude oil characterization of whole crude oils and the various boiling range fractions produced from physical or simulated distillation by various procedures. Information obtained from the petroleum assay is used for detailed refinery engineering and client marketing purposes. Feedstock assay data are an important tool in the refining process.
Crude oil generally has no inherent value typically without being processed into usable products. But why? The purpose of the petroleum refining industry is to convert feedstocks including raw crude oil into usable specification products. More specifically, the value of particular crude to a refiner depends on its quality and whether this refiner can economically obtain a satisfactory product pattern that matches market demand.
Petroleum refiners determine the products they will make with the goal of maximizing profits based on the supply and cost of various types of available crude oils. Refinery configuration is essential in determining the suitability of crude oils for a given refinery. Additionally, the examination or characterization of crude oil is also a vital element in refinery planning, operations, and capital project decisions.
Crude oil assays provide a combination of physical and chemical data that uniquely describe or characterize a crude oil and allow for the evaluation of quality parameters. Likewise, the assay provides valuable information that is utilized to assess refining characteristics and is used in various Linear Program (LP) modelling and optimization tools.
Overall, crude oil assay provides the refiner with the data needed to make informed decisions in the areas of crude selection, scheduling and planning. It is also a valuable tool that aids in the optimization of various refining processes.
- Describe the different characteristics of crudes dealt with in this unit, their significance and typical values/units of measurement.
Different characteristics crudes dealt provide basic information about the commonly used crude oil terms like WTI, Brent, NYMEX Futures and OPEC.
There are about 160 crude oils that are traded internationally. They vary in terms of their characteristics & quality.
Two crude oils which are either traded themselves or whose prices are reflected in other types of crude oil include West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent. Usually, differences in the prices of these various crude oils are related to quality differences, but some other factors can also influence the price relationships
West Texas Intermediate
West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil is a high quality crude and is excellent for refining for maximizing of Petrol (Motor Spirit). WTI is a light crude with API gravity of 39.6 degrees. Also it contains about 0.24 percent of sulphur, marking it as “sweet” crude. This set of characteristics, combined with its production location (US), makes it an ideal crude oil to be refined in the United States.
The production of WTI crude oil is on the decline; nevertheless it still is the major benchmark of crude oil. WTI commands a premium of about a $5 - $6 per-barrel over the OPEC Basket price and about $1 - $2 per - barrel over Brent.
Brent is actually a combination of crude oil from 15 different oil fields in the Brent and North Sea areas. It is a reasonably “light” and sweet crude oil with API gravity of 38.3 degrees and about 0.37 percent of sulphur.
Brent blend is ideal for making Motor Spirit (Petrol) and middle distillates. Brent crude production is also on the decline, but it remains the major benchmark for other crude oils. Prices for other crude oils are generally priced as a differential to Brent, i.e., Brent +/ -.
Brent crude is generally priced at about $3 - $4 per-barrel premium to the OPEC Basket price and about a $1- $2 / barrel discount to WTI.
The NYMEX futures price for crude oil, represents the market-determined value of a futures contract to either buy or sell 1,000 barrels(@ per barrel rate) of WTI at a specified time.. This futures, provides important price information to traders of crude oil, making WTI the benchmark for many different crude oils.
OPEC Basket Price
OPEC collects pricing data on a "basket" of seven crude oils:
- Algeria´s Saharan Blend
- Indonesia´s Minas
- Nigeria´s Bonny Light
- Saudi Arabia´s Arab Light
- Dubai´s Fateh
- Venezuela´s Tia Juana Light and
- Mexico´s Isthmus
OPEC uses the price of this basket to monitor world oil market conditions and its own prices.
Typical values/units of measurement:
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts; there are dry barrels, fluid barrels (such as the UK beer barrel and US beer barrel), oil barrels and so on. For historical reasons the volumes of some barrel units are roughly double the volumes of others; volumes in common usage range from about 100 to 200 litres (22 to 44 imp gal; 26 to 53 US gal). In many connections the term "drum" is used almost interchangeably with "barrel".
Since medieval times the term barrel as a unit of measure has had various meanings throughout Europe, ranging from about 100 litres to 1000 litres. The name was derived in medieval times from the French baril, of unknown origin, but still in use, both in French and as derivations in many other languages such as Italian, Polish and Spanish. In most countries such usage is obsolescent, increasingly superseded by SI units. As a result, the meaning of corresponding words and related concepts (vat, cask, keg etc.) in other languages often refers to a physical container rather than a known measure.
In the international oil market context, however, prices in United States dollars per barrel are commonly used, and the term is variously translated, often to derivations of the Latin/Teutonic root fat (for example vat or Fass).
- How do you classify crudes based on proportion of type of hydrocarbon present in them?
During the last 60 years, several correlations have been proposed for determining pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) properties. The most widely used correlations treat the oil and gas phases as a two-component system. Only the pressure, temperature, specific gravity, and relative amount of each component are used to characterize the oil’s PVT properties. Crude oil systems from various oil-producing regions of the world were used in the development of the correlations. These crude oils can exhibit regional trends in chemical composition, placing them into one of the following groups:
Because of the differences in composition, correlations developed from regional samples, predominantly of one chemical base, may not provide satisfactory results when applied to crude oils from other regions.
Classification of hydrocarbons based on structure
Hydrocarbons are classified according to the structure of the molecule. Paraffin hydrocarbons are characterized by open or straight chains joined by single bonds. Examples are:
Isomers of these compounds, which contain branched chains, are also included as paraffins. The first four members of the series are gaseous at room temperature and pressure. Compounds ranging from pentane (C5H12) through heptadecane (C17H36) are liquids, while the heavier members are colorless, wax-like solids. Unsaturated hydrocarbons, which consist of olefins, diolefins, and acetylenes, have double and triple bonds in the molecule. These compounds are highly reactive and are not normally present to any great extent in crude oil. Naphthene hydrocarbons are ringed molecules and are also called cycloparaffins. These compounds, like the paraffins, are saturated and very stable. They make up a second primary constituent of crude oil. Aromatic hydrocarbons are also cyclic but are derivatives of benzene. The rings are characterized by alternating double bonds and, in contrast to olefins, are quite stable, though not as stable as paraffins. Crude oils are complex mixtures of these hydrocarbons. Oils containing primarily paraffin hydrocarbons are called paraffin-based or paraffinic. Traditional examples are Pennsylvania grade crude oils. Naphthenic-based crudes contain a large percentage of cycloparaffins in the heavy components. Examples of this type of crude come from the US midcontinent region. Highly aromatic crudes are less common but are still found around the world. Crude oils tend to be a mixture of paraffins-naphthenes-aromatics, with paraffins and naphthenes the predominant species.
- What streams of Process Plants in a Refinery are utilised to produce HSD, MS, LPG and PC Naphtha?
The entire refining complex was built in a record time at globally competitive capital costs – in fact, at costs much lower than comparable refineries around the world. Its scale, design, flexibility, level of automation and degree of integration heralded the way refineries of the future would be built. The speedy growth of the complex lies at the heart of India´s transformation. It has transformed India from being a net importer of petroleum products to a net exporter, thereby ensuring the nation´s energy security.
With crude processing capacity of 1.24 million Barrels Per Stream Day (BPSD), the Jamnagar refinery is a trendsetter and has won several awards, including the prestigious ´International Refiner Of The Year´ award. It also enjoys the distinction of housing some of the world´s largest units, such as the Fluidised Catalytic Cracker (FCC), Coker, Alkylation, Paraxylene and Polypropylene plants.
Fuels from Jamnagar refinery are exported to several countries across the world. This complex refinery is future ready and can produce gasoline and diesel of any grade. Reliance also has another refinery – the sixth largest in the world – in the Special Economic Zone at Jamnagar. This refinery has a capacity for processing 580,000 BPD of crude. The company also markets petroleum fuels in several African countries through its subsidiary Gulf Africa Petroleum Corporation (GAPCO).
Refining of petroleum for producing fuel and related products for automobiles, domestic consumption and meeting the needs of the power sector, petrochemicals, fertilizers etc. and other industries, is very vital for the economic progress of the country. The refining industry in India has made tremendous progress since independence with its march in time with the country´s economic growth and overall progress. Starting with the establishment of the first public sector refinery at Guwahati (Assam) in 1962, it has come a long way with the setting up of most modern, state of the art and highly energy efficient refineries of the present day. India has 17 operating refineries processing both indigenous and imported crudes. The crude processing capacity of the country has increased from 6MMTPA in 1962 to 113 MMTPA as of today. Oil companies in India have met the challenges of the petroleum market product demands with the desired stringent specifications from time to time, by making changes/ improvements in their processes while at the same time sustaining their profitability. The refineries are highly capital-intensive industries with a medium gestation period and produce crucial products for meeting the country´s needs including that of defence. For setting up a 6 MMTPA capacity refinery complex with marketing facilities, investments to the tune of Rs 5000 crores are required. These refineries need to be run efficiently so as to make profits, and hence need to be modernised and updated from time to time. The module on refining covers various facets of petroleum refining. Various refining processes used in the refineries have been dealt with in this module. Characteristics of crude oil and specifications of various petroleum products have been explained in detail. Dealing with growth and development of petroleum refining industry in India, latest advancements in various technologies for improving profitability of the refineries in the face of increasingly stringent product specifications for meeting environmental stipulations have also been described
- Explain briefly in your own words:
?? The function of each process plant
?? Feed composition
?? Yield pattern.
?? Critical parameters for optimal operation.
The function of each process plant:
Plant physiology is a sub discipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants. Closely related fields include plant morphology (structure of plants), plant ecology (interactions with the environment), phytochemistry (biochemistry of plants), cell biology, genetics, biophysics and molecular biology.
Fundamental processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrition, plant hormone functions, tropisms, nastic movements, photoperiodism, photomorphogenesis, circadian rhythms, environmental stress physiology, seed germination, dormancy and stomata function and transpiration, both parts of plant water relations, are studied by plant physiologists.
Cellulose & Lignin
The plant cell wall surrounds the cell membrane. It is made up of multiple layers of cellulose which are arranged into primary and secondary walls. Cellulose is the most common organic compound on Earth. About 33% of all plant matter is cellulose - the cellulose content of cotton is 90% and wood is 50% cellulose.
The cell walls of all vascular plants also contain a polymer called lignin. Lignin is water-resistant. It reinforces cell walls, keeping them from collapsing. This is particularly important in the xylem, because the column of water in the hollow xylem cells is under tension (negative pressure) and without the lignin reinforcement the cells would collapse.
Plant Cells and Tissues
Cells are the smallest functional units of life. A living organism may comprise a single cell e.g. an alga; or it may be a multicellular organism made up of of billions of cells e.g a kauri tree. An individual plant contains many different cell types, each adapted to perform a particular function. However, each living plant cell is made up of the same basic components: a cell wall, plasma membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria and other organelles.
Nutrition research spanning more than 125 years has defined the nutrients required by animals. Using this information, diets can be formulated from feeds and ingredients to meet these requirements with the expectation that animals will not only remain healthy but also will be productive and efficient. The ultimate goal of feed analysis is to predict the productive response of animals when they are fed diets of a given nutrient composition.
Table values for feed composition
Feeds are not of constant composition. Unlike chemicals that are "chemically pure" and thus have a constant composition, feeds vary in their composition for many reasons. An actual analysis of a feed to be used in a diet is much more accurate than the use of tabulated composition data. Actual analysis should be obtained and used whenever possible.
What is the value, then, of showing composition data for feeds? It is often difficult to determine actual composition in a timely way and therefore tabulated data are the next best source of information.
In using tabulated values, one can expect organic constituents (e.g. crude protein, ether extract and fiber) to vary as much as ±15%, mineral constituents to vary as much as ±30% and energy values to vary up to ±10%. Thus, the values shown can only serve as guides. That’s why they are called "typical values.” They are not averages of published information, however, since judgment was used in arriving at some of the values in the hope that these values will be more realistic for use in formulating cattle and sheep diets.
New crop varieties may result in nutrient composition changes. Genetically modified crops may result in feeds with improved nutrient content and availability and/or decreased anti-nutrient factors. Changes in processing procedures can change the nutrient composition of by-product feeds.
Chemical constituents vs. biological attributes of feeds
Feeds can be chemically analyzed for many things that may or may not be related to the response of animals when fed the feed. Thus, in the accompanying table, certain chemical constituents are shown. The response of cattle and sheep when fed a feed, however, can be termed the biological response to the feed that is a function of its chemical composition and the ability of the animal to derive useful nutrient value from the feed.
The latter relates to the digestibility or availability of a nutrient in the feed for absorption into the body and its ultimate efficiency of use depending upon the nutrient status of the animal and the productive or physiological function being performed by the animal. Thus, ground fence posts and shelled corn may have the same gross energy value but have markedly different useful energy value (TDN or net energy) when consumed by the animal.
Therefore, biological attributes of a feed have much greater meaning in predicting the productive response of animals but are more difficult to precisely determine because there is an interaction between the feed’s chemical composition and the animal’s digestive and metabolic capabilities. Biological attributes of feeds are more laborious and costly to determine and are more variable than chemical constituents. They are generally more predictive, however, since they relate to the animal’s response to the feed or diet.
Yield pattern of infill panel is the pattern along which failure of the panel is expected to occur. It will be as in the case of RC slab, if it is an RC panel. But for masonry infill panel, it will be slightly different depending on relative strengths of masonry units and mortar used.
The term ´yield pattern´ is a misnomer because most infills (except steel clads) do not ´yield´. However, in the literature, when the infill is subject to out-of-plane (ressure) loading, it is described as exhibiting failure path similar to the yield line theory in plates. Under in plane loading, these infills fail due to diagonal compression strut mechanism and is affected by the retaive stiffness of the surrounding frame and that of the infill.
Critical parameters for optimal operation:
Derivation of optimal operating policies and runaway boundaries for a semi-batch reactor (SBR), when highly exothermic reactions are conducted and hazardous side reactions may occur, is a difficult task due to multiple sources of process uncertainty to be considered (variability in raw-materials, catalyst, impurities, model inaccuracies, measurement errors, technological, economic and safety constraints). The present work introduces a new criterion based on failure probability indices related to uncertainty in the runaway boundaries and disturbances of the operating parameters. Such a criterion is used to derive more prudent SBR optimal operating policies, but also to appreciate rapprochement to critical conditions. An example is provided for a SBR used for conducting the hazardous acetoacetylation of pyrrole with diketene in homogeneous liquid phase catalysis. Both uncertainty in evaluating the runaway boundaries, with a generalized sensitivity criterion, and of the running conditions are used to generate optimal operating strategies making a satisfactory compromise between the productivity goal and safety requirements.
- Critically analyse the case.
Based on the results obtained in the investigation, the following conclusions and recommendations could be submitted.
- Failure of the pipeline segment is directly related to a poor quality ERW process, since incomplete penetration, un-melted zones, and lack of fusion close to the pipe inner surface were present on extended regions along the seam weld line.
- Grooving corrosion is largely accelerated by the above-mentioned welding defects, leading to rapid thinning in these defective regions of the seam weld. At a critical wall thickness, the radial stress of the flowing fluid exceeds the pipe hoop strength leading to crack initiation and propagation until stress relief is attained.
- It is recommended to use high quality ERW pipe with its seam weld line positioned around the 12 O’clock during installation, to minimize and decelerate grooving corrosion. Also, alloying additions such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ca, if added to steel can decrease its corrosion rate.
- A suitable monitoring method for detecting bulging of any segment in the line is recommended to avoid sudden failure.
- Regular or routine inspection, on suitable intervals, determined by past experience, with each pipeline and pipes quality is a must.
Question No: 1
Hydrogen gas produced is purified by ……………method.
Question No: 2
If sulphur is …………..ppm, then single stage pre-treatment is adopted.
Question No: 3
Which of the following is not the feature of sulphur plant?
- Maximum carbon recovery level of 98.7%
- Turndown capability 25%
- Ammonia destruction capability
- Minimum sulphur recovery level of 98.7%
Question No: 4
Toluene column bottoms and ………….isomerates from Isomar section are fed to the xylene fractionation column.
Question No: 5
Crude oil is received in land locked refineries through crude pipelines from the …………….source.
Question No: 6
The circulating amine is ……………. MDEA solution.
Question No: 7
India imports almost …………..of its crude oil requirement.
Question No: 8
The products movement of the refinery gets adversely affected due to failure/breakdown of ……………system.
Question No: 9
What is the full form of RFCC?
- Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking
- Research Flow Cytometry Core
- Redstone Flux Control Center
- Regional Flood and Coastal Committee
Question No: 10
Super Oil Cracking (SOC) of heavy distillates to get ……………. conversion to distillates.
Question No: 11
……………..resin is transferred from reactor to product receiver using dense phase conveying system.
- Vent Recovery
Question No: 12
In dispatch modes of petroleum products, maximum dispatch takes place through pipelines is …………
Question No: 13
Which of the following is not the component of Modelling and Simulation?
- Operator training
- Reactor design
- Trouble shooting
Question No: 14
Which of the following is not related to Small and medium refineries?
- Microcrystalline wax production
- Needle coke production
- Anode grade coke
- Lubes and fuel integration
Question No: 15
Which cost includes expenses such as travelling, printing, insurance and other related overhead expenditure?
- General administrative
Question No: 16
Which of the following is not the inclusive of the cost of crude oil?
- Wharf age
- Customs duty
Question No: 17
Which cost includes depreciation on plant and machinery?
- General administrative
Question No: 18
Feed is heated to ……………. in convection section of the furnace before it enters the bottom section of fractionator column.
Question No: 19
Fresh water is used in ………….plant before utilising in boilers for steam generation.
Question No: 20
Which gas is used for catalyst regeneration, blanketing tanks from atmospheric oxygen?
Question No: 21
……………..is generated in Hydrogen plant or catalytic reformer unit.
Question No: 22
…………………for a refinery begins early in the development and design stage with the establishment of a set of energy saving guidelines applicable to the project.
- Energy optimisation
- Value addition strategies
- Catalytic Reforming
Question No: 23
Which of the following is not the area in improvement of Refining?
- Delayed coking
Question No: 24
Which cost is related to the manpower deployed?
Question No: 25
The ……………..is the difference between gross margin and operating cost.
- Operating cost
- Gross margin
- Net margin
Question No: 26
Which of the following is not related to hydrogen production plant?
- Refinery fuel gas
- Saturated Ethane
- Light Naphtha
- Natural gas
Question No: 27
………….is absorbed in ZnO bed.
Question No: 28
……………from LPG is removed by extraction with regenerated lean Amine in Amine Treating Unit.
Question No: 29
Which of the following is not related to the Quality related units?
- Tail gas treatment
- Fuel oil HDS
- Facilities for benzene management
Question No: 30
Which of the following is not related to refinery of 21st century?
- Computerised performance monitoring
- Possible employment of robots
- Increase of ‘S’ (sulphur) from MS, HSD and FO
- Plant/equipment should require less space
Question No: 31
Which of the following is not related to environment management related units?
- Co-production of value added fertilizer
- High efficiency SRUs
- Bottom of the barrel upgradation related unit
- Computerised integrated refinery
Question No: 32
Average fuel loss in the refineries in India during 2000–01 was ……………which is higher compared to global levels.
Question No: 33
Which of the following function is not related to Value addition?
- Better quality and increased lube oil production
- Petrochemicals production
- Speciality chemicals production
- Production of better quality products
Question No: 34
Mobil Distillate Dewaxing (MDDW) to upgrade heavy fuel oil to high quality distillate and gas yield of ……………….
Question No: 35
Which of the following is not related to Real losses?
- Automatic tank gauging
- Automating road/rail dispatch facilities
- Routing of offgases from vacuum column to furnaces
- Minimising slop generation
Question No: 36
…………….. cost is incurred in various mechanical, electrical and civil jobs carried out for the maintenance of plant and machinery.
Question No: 37
……………..is used either directly in the refining process or to generate power and utilities to be used in the refining process.
Question No: 38
Ex-bonding of crude is related to which function of Oil Accounting System?
- Despatch of Finished Petroleum Products
- Accounting of Manufactured Petroleum products
- Accounting of Crude Oil Receipts and Duty Implications
- Compliance of Excise Procedure and Maintenance of Records
Question No: 39
What is the full form of DSA?
- Daily Stock Account
- Division Support Area
- Database Security Analyst
- Deploy, Secure and Analyse
Question No: 40
Indigenous crude oil is sourced from offshore oilfields of……………….
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