Total Quality Management
1 Explain service quality.
Answer:-Every customer has an ideal expectation of the service they want to receive when they go to a restaurant or store. Service quality measures how well a service is delivered, compared to customer expectations.
Businesses that meet or exceed expectations are considered to have high service quality. Let´s say you go to a fast food restaurant for dinner, where you can reasonably expect to receive your food within five minutes of ordering. After you get your drink and find a table, your order is called, minutes earlier than you had expected.
Tangibles:-One dimension of service quality has to do with the tangibles of the service. Tangibles are the physical features of the service being provided, such as the appearance of the building, cleanliness of the facilities, and the appearance of the personnel.
Going to a restaurant and finding that your table and silverware are dirty would negatively impact your assessment of the service quality. On the other hand, walking into a beautifully decorated, clean restaurant with impeccably dressed wait staff would positively affect your opinion of the service.
Reliability and Responsiveness:-
Another dimension of service quality is the reliability of the service. Reliability refers to the ability to provide the service as it was promised on a regular basis. It is very important that businesses are able to fulfil the service that they advertise.
For example, if you own a pizza restaurant and promise to deliver a pizza within 30 minutes, you must consistently provide that service in order to meet your customers´ expectations and be considered a reliable business.
Responsiveness, or responding to customers in a timely manner, is another dimension that affects service quality. It is very important that businesses are prepared to respond to customers quickly.
For example, if a customer calls a store with a complaint about a product they purchased, they shouldn´t be left on hold for an hour before being connected to a manager. The call should be taken promptly and with a sense of urgency.
- Mention the various measurements of dispersion.
Answer: - MEASURES OF DISPERSION:-
Measures of central tendency, Mean, Median, Mode, etc., indicate the central position of a series. They indicate the general magnitude of the data but fail to reveal all the peculiarities and characteristics of the series. In other words, they fail to reveal the degree of the spread out or the extent of the variability in individual items of the distribution. This can be explained by certain other measures, known as ‘Measures of Dispersion’ or Variation.
We can understand variation with the help of the following example:
Series 1 Series 11 Series III
10 2 10
10 8 12
10 20 8
∑X = 30 30 30
In all three series, the value of arithmetic mean is 10. On the basis of this average, we can say that the series are alike. If we carefully examine the composition of three series, we find the following differences:
(I) In case of 1st series, three items are equal; but in 2nd and 3rd series, the items are unequal and do not follow any specific order.
(ii) The magnitude of deviation, item-wise, is different for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd series. But all these deviations cannot be ascertained if the value of simple mean is taken into consideration.
(iii) In these three series, it is quite possible that the value of arithmetic mean is 10; but the value of median may differ from each other.
This can be understood as follows;
The value of Median’ in 1st series is 10, in 2nd series = 8 and in 3rd series = 10. Therefore, the value of the Mean and Median are not identical.
(iv) Even though the average remains the same, the nature and extent of the distribution of the size of the items may vary. In other words, the structure of the frequency distributions may differ even (though their means are identical.
3.Explain the contribution of Juran to the quality movement.
Answer: - Dr. Joseph M. Juran has also contributed a lot in the total quality movement. He is considered one of the early leaders in the field of quality management and has greatly helped in developing conceptual basis for quality management. He has pursued his career in the field of quality management.
He acted as an engineer, industrial executive, government administrator and management consultant. He has contributed many books in the field of quality management viz., ‘Quality Control Hand Book’, ‘Quality Planning and Analysis’, Managerial Breakthrough, ‘Juran on Quality Planning’ and ‘Juran on Leadership for Quality.
He is the founder chairman of the Juran Institute. He has also contributed many research papers and articles relating to the subjects of quality. He has been awarded over thirty medals, fellowships, and honorary memberships in more than twelve countries.
His services were greatly recognised and appreciated in Japan. He was conferred the second order of Sacred Treasure by the Emperor of Japan for helping the development of quality control in Japan.
Juran is known for his development of the concepts of determining the avoidable and unavoidable costs of quality, companywide quality management and quality Triology. Juran highlighted managerial responsibility for quality and strongly stressed that quality was achieved through people rather than through techniques.
- Discuss about the implementation steps of TQM and mention the importance of the management commitment.
Answer:-Implementation Principles and Processes:-
A preliminary step in TQM implementation is to assess the organization’s current reality. Relevant preconditions have to do with the organization’s history, its current needs, precipitating events leading to TQM, and the existing employee quality of working life. If the current reality does not include important preconditions, TQM implementation should be delayed until the organization is in a state in which TQM is likely to succeed.
If an organization has a track record of effective responsiveness to the environment, and if it has been able to successfully change the way it operates when needed, TQM will be easier to implement.
If an organization has been historically reactive and has no skill at improving its operating systems, there will be both employee scepticism and a lack of skilled change agents. If this condition prevails, a comprehensive program of management and leadership development may be instituted.
A management audit is a good assessment tool to identify current levels of organizational functioning and areas in need of change. An organization should be basically healthy before beginning TQM. If it has significant problems such as a very unstable funding base, weak administrative systems, lack of managerial skill, or poor employee morale, TQM would not be appropriate.
However, a certain level of stress is probably desirable to initiate TQM. People need to feel a need for a change.
A crisis, if it is not too disabling, can also help create a sense of urgency which can mobilize people to act. In the case of TQM, this may be a funding cut or threat, or demands from consumers or other stakeholders for improved quality of service.
After a crisis, a leader may intervene strategically by articulating a new vision of the future to help the organization deal with it. A plan to implement TQM may be such a strategic decision. Such a leader may then become a prime mover, who takes charge in championing the new idea and showing others how it will help them get where they want to go. Finally, action vehicles are needed and mechanisms or structures to enable the change to occur and become institutionalized.8
Steps in Managing the Transition:-
Beck hard and Pritchard (1992) have outlined the basic steps in managing a transition to a new system such as TQM: identifying tasks to be done, creating necessary management structures, developing strategies for building commitment, designing mechanisms to communicate the change, and assigning resources.
Task identification would include a study of present conditions (assessing current reality, as described above); assessing readiness, such as through a force field analysis; creating a model of the desired state, in this case, implementation of TQM; announcing the change goals to the organization; and assigning responsibilities and resources.
This final step would include securing outside consultation and training and assigning someone within the organization to oversee the effort. This should be a responsibility of top management. In fact, the next step, designing transition management structures, is also a responsibility of top management.
To communicate the change, mechanisms beyond existing processes will need to be developed. Special all-staff meetings attended by executives, sometimes designed as input or dialog sessions, may be used to kick off the process, and TQM newsletters may be an effective ongoing communication tool to keep employees aware of activities and accomplishments.
Management of resources for the change effort is important with TQM because outside consultants will almost always be required. Choose consultants based on their prior relevant experience and their commitment to adapting the process to fit unique organizational needs. While consultants will be invaluable with initial training of staff and TQM system design, employees (management and others) should be actively involved in TQM implementation, perhaps after receiving training in change management which they can then pass on to other employees. A collaborative relationship with consultants and clear role definitions and specification of activities must be established.
In summary, first assess preconditions and the current state of the organization to make sure the need for change is clear and that TQM is an appropriate strategy. Leadership styles and organizational culture must be congruent with TQM. If they are not, this should be worked on or TQM implementation should be avoided or delayed until favourable conditions exist.
- Explain about the new seven tools of quality and its applications in detail.
Answer: - Devices used in understanding and improving production processes.
Tool 1: Cause and effect diagram visual representation of the main causes and sub-causes leading to an effect or symptom, also called fishbone diagram (after its shape) or Ishikawa diagram (after its inventor).
Tool 2: Check sheet data recording table (matrix) designed by the user to facilitate the recording and interpretation of test results.
Tool 3: Control chart visual representation of comparison between actual performance and pre-determined control limits; helps in detecting assignable causes of variation, also called C chart.
Tool 4: Flowchart visual representation of relationship between planned performance and actual performance over a period.
Tool 5: Histogram graph of side-by-side vertical bars representing a frequency distribution; it reveals patterns that remain hidden in tables of numbers, sometimes it is substituted or supplemented with a Gantt chart.
Tool 6: Pareto chart based on Pareto principle (a small percentage of the elements comprising a group accounts for the largest fraction of the value or the impact), it ranks causes from the most significant to the least significant.
Tool 7: Scatter chart graph that displays the relationship between two variables; the variable to be predicted (dependent variable) is plotted on the vertical (´Y´) axis, and the variable used to make the prediction (independent variable) plotted on the horizontal (´X´) axis.
- Discuss about the need, types, construction and applications of control charts.
Need of control charts:-
Statistical tool used in quality control to
(1) analyze and understand process variables, determine process capabilities, and to (3) monitor effects of the variables on the difference Statistical tool used in quality control to (1) analyze and understand process variables,
(2) Determine process capabilities.
(3) Monitor effects of the variables on the difference between target and actual performance. Control charts indicate upper and lower control limits, and often include a central (average) line, to help detect trend of plotted values. If all data points are within the control limits, variations in the values may be due to a common cause and process is said to be ´in control´. If data points fall outside the control limits, variations may be due to a special cause and the process is said to be out of control.
Type of control charts: - The most basic type of control chart, the individuals chart, is often used for all types of data. Yet often more specialized types of control charts can provide more valuable information about process performance, data variation, and process changes. Learn the different types and when to use them.
About control chart types:-
In addition to the individual charts, a variety of specialty control charts are at your disposal for charting your data, calculating statistical control limits and detecting special causes. Many of these charts can look very similar to individual’s charts, but the limits are calculated differently and do a better job of detecting special causes for the specific type of data for which they are designed.
P & np charts
For discrete-attribute data, p-charts and np-charts are ideal. Attribute data is for measures that categorize or bucket items, so that a proportion of items in a certain category can be calculated. Thus a p-chart is used when a control chart of these proportions is desired.
An np-chart is appropriate when the number of items used to calculate each proportion is the same. For example, 100 reports may be reviewed each week and categorized as either accurate or inaccurate. The proportion of inaccurate reports could be plotted on a p-chart or the actual number of inaccurate reports could be plotted on an np-chart. If the number of reports reviewed each week varies, then a p-chart must be used.
C & u charts
Discrete-count data differs from attribute data in that the occurrence of a characteristic or event can be counted, but a non-occurrence cannot be counted. Thus the data plotted for a c-chart or u-chart is always the count of occurrences. The c-chart is used when the opportunity for occurrences is equal for each data point and the u-chart is required when the opportunities differ.
Construction of control charts:-Two approaches to constructing control charts for linguistic data. Linguistic data can provide more information than the binary classification used in control charts by attributes. A generic approach for constructing attribute control charts using linguistic data is described. Several methods for calculating the values representing sample means, and for determining the centre line and the control limits are presented.
Application of control charts:-Control charts are useful for analysing and controlling repetitive processes because they help to determine when corrective actions are needed. Because they display running records of performance, control charts provide numerous types of information to management. For example, control charts are useful for:
- Pinpointing errati or unpredictable processes;
- Obtaining warning of impending trouble, such as an unexpected change in a process;
- Evaluating product (service) consistency over time;
- Decreasing performance variability in a process, thereby decreasing the level of post-process inspection of the output generated by the process;
- Determining the cause of trouble when a process is generating output which has errors and mistakes; and
- Knowing when a process is doing the best that can be expected
- Discuss about the objectives, process, outcome and benefits of Quality Function Deployment (QFD).
Answer:- objective of QFD:- Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a team-based system of tools and techniques that provides a means of identifying critical customer needs and requirements, translating them into technical specifications for product planning, design, process, and production.
QFD is a very valuable approach to delivering value to customers and has been used by hundreds of companies. With QFD companies can set product strategies, identify customer needs, and implement design initiatives that will satisfy customers and beat competitors
Process and outcome of QFD:-QFD has had a significant role in the manufacturing industry. With the main objective of any manufacturing company being to produce new products sooner than the competition, with lower costs, and improved quality, QFD is a solution.
According to Akao, QFD "is a method for developing a design quality aimed at satisfying the consumer and then translating the consumer’s demand into design targets and major quality assurance points to be used throughout the production phase.
(QFD) is a way to assure the design quality while the product is still in the design stage It is common for implementation of QFD to reduce lead-times (time to market and stable production), start-up costs, and engineering changes by over 30 percent.
The QFD technique is based on the analysis of the clients’ requirements, which normally are Expressed in qualitative terms, such as: “easy to use”, “safe”, “comfortable” or “luxurious”.
In order to develop a service it is necessary to “translate” these fuzzy requirements into Quantitative service design requirements; QFD makes this translation possible.
Services are not developed as a whole; instead, these are developed through the integration Of different components. The component features are what provide the functionality, that in Turn satisfy client requirements.
Firm organization is another factor that effects service development. Unfortunately, the Importance of the service development process is not known by all the employees. For this Reason, the establishment of an appropriate communication system is particularly Important. This system must keep the meaning of the clients´ requirements during the Development process.
- Discuss about the documentation process in ISO 9000:2000 system.
ISO 9000 documentation includes the following functions:
- The quality policy is a formal statement from management, closely linked to the business and marketing plan and to customer needs. The quality policy is understood and followed at all levels and by all employees. Each employee needs measurable objectives to work towards.
- Decisions about the quality system are made based on recorded data and the system is regularly audited and evaluated for conformance and effectiveness.
- Records should show how and where raw materials and products were processed, to allow products and problems to be traced to the source. ISO 9000 documentation includes procedures to control quality documents in your company. Everyone must have access to up-to-date documents and be aware of how to use them.
- To maintain the quality system and produce conforming product, ISO 9000 documentation must provide suitable infrastructure, resources, information, equipment, measuring and monitoring devices, and environmental conditions.
- You need to map out all key processes in your company; control them by monitoring, measurement and analysis; and ensure that product quality objectives are met. If you can’t monitor a process by measurement, then make sure the process is well enough defined that you can make adjustments if the product does not meet user needs.
- For each product your company makes, you need to establish quality objectives; plan processes; and document and measure results to use as a tool for improvement. For each process, determine what kind of procedural documentation is required (note: a “product” is hardware, software, services, processed materials, or a combination of these).
- You need to determine key points where each process requires monitoring and measurement, and ensure that all monitoring and measuring devices are properly maintained and calibrated. You need to have clear requirements for purchased product.
- You need to determine customer requirements and create systems for communicating with customers about product information, inquiries, contracts, orders, feedback and complaints. When developing new products, you need to plan the stages of development, with appropriate testing at each stage. You need to test and document whether the product meets design requirements, regulatory requirements and user needs.
- ISO 9000 documentation stresses the need to regularly review performance through internal Audits and meetings. Determine whether the quality system is working and what improvements can be made. Deal with past problems and potential problems. Keep records of these activities and the resulting decisions, and monitor their effectiveness (note: you need a documented procedure for internal audits).
- ISO 9000 documentation includes procedures for dealing with actual and potential non-conformances (problems involving suppliers or customers, or internal problems). Make sure no one uses bad product, determine what to do with bad product, deal with the root cause of the problem and keep records to use as a tool to improve the system.
A spindle with specifications 20 ± 0.05 mm was machined in a lathe. The standard deviation of the spindle machined was found to be 0.25 mm.
1) Compute the capability index.
Answer: - The process capability indices, process average, and the standard deviation were obtained from the process data assuming that the data is normally distributed. The capability indices are obtained from the following expressions:-
Cp = (USL – LSL) / (6* σ r)
Cp = (USL – LSL) / (6* R Bar / d2)
Cp for Process Mean close to USL
If your Process Mean (central tendency) is closer to the USL, use: [USL – x(bar) ] / [3 * R Bar / d2], where x(bar) is the Process Mean.
Cp for Process Mean close to LSL
Cp= (20-0.05)/ (6*0.25)
If you’re Process Mean (central tendency) is closer to the LSL, use: [x (bar) – LSL] / [3 * R Bar / d2], where x (bar) is the Process Mean.
The capability ration is the inverse of Cp
Cr = 1/ Cp = (6* σr) / (USL – LSL)
If Cr < 0.75, the process is capable.
If Cr = 0.75 – 1.00, the process is capable with tight control.
If Cr >1, the process is not capable.
2) State whether the machining process in the lathe is capable of meeting the specifications.
Where the process capability is for two-sided specification limit, irrespective of process centre, is the process capability for two-sided specification limits accounting for process centring and s is the standard deviation. The statistical process control (SPC) technique was used to assure that the process remains stable. The output of the turning process was compared with the specification limit using the capability indices.
And since Cp < 1 the process is considered not adequate. The machine capability for industrial application is therefore not adequate and the process
3.If the specifications are 10 ± 2 mm for a particular quality characteristic and the average repair coot is Rs. 200/-, determine the loss function. Determine the loss at y=11.
Describes the Taguchi method of defining loss function. In this situation, loss occurs as soon as the performance characteristic, departs from the target, τ.
The quadratic loss function is described by the equation
Where L = cost incurred as quality deviates from the target (τ)
Y is the performance characteristic, k = quality loss coefficient.
The loss coefficient is determined by setting
K=200/ (2) ^2
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Question No. 1
Malcolm Baldrige national quality award is for (MBNQA)
- Total Quality Management
- International Standard Organization
- Total Productive Maintenance
- Total Quality Control
Anwer: - a) Total Quality Management
Question No. 2
The process mapping is a ______ diagram.
- Data flow
- Work flow
Answer: - b) Work flow
Question No. 3
Control chart is a
- Process monitoring tool
- Process control tool
- Both (a) and (b)
- None of the above
Answer C):- Both (a) and (b)
Question No. 4
The objective of ISO-9000 family of Quality management is
- Customer satisfaction
- Employee satisfaction
- Skill enhancement
- Environmental issues
Answer: - a) Customer satisfaction
Question No. 5
Total Quality Management (TQM) focuses on
- Both (a) and (b)
- None of the above
Answer: - c) Both (a) and (b)
Question No. 6
Which of the following is responsible for quality objective?
- Top level management
- Middle level management
- Frontline management
- All of the above
Answer: - a) Top level management
Question No. 7
The following is (are) the machine down time.
- No material
- All of the above
Answer: - d) All of the above
Question No. 8
TQM & ISO both focuses on
- All of the above
Answer: - a) Customer
Question No. 9
According to Deming, Quality problems are
- Due to management
- Due to method
- Due to machine
- Due to material
Answer: - a) Due to management
Question No. 10
While setting Quality objective, ________ to be considered.
- Material quality
- Customer need
- Market demand
- All of the above
Answer: - b) Customer need
Question No. 11
_______ helps organization reduce employee turnover and absenteeism.
- Job design
- Training & development
- Wage revision
- All of the above
Answer: - b) Training & development
Question No. 12
CMM stands for
- Capability maturity model
- Capability monitoring model
- Capability measuring model
- Capability matching model
Answer: - a) Capability maturity model
Question No. 13
While setting Quality objective, ________ to be considered.
- Customer need
- Organizational need
- Supplier need
- Worker need
Answer:-a) Customer need
Question No. 14
Which of the following is for Environment management?
Answer: - a) ISO-9000
Question No. 15
What perspective does Crosby adopt when defining quality?
- Fitness for purpose is the key.
- Quality must be defined subjectively.
- Setting and meeting specifications is the critical issue.
- All of these.
Answer: - c) Setting and meeting specifications is the critical issue
Question No. 16 If "quality is free", why do authorities recognise that an improvement programme needs investment?
- There is an inevitable worsening of quality during periods of change.
- Reductions in prevention and appraisal costs lag behind investment in prevention.
- It is never free.
- Zero defects is not possible.
Answer: - b) Reductions in prevention and appraisal costs lag behind investment in prevention.
Question No. 17
Which of Lister´s statements about poor service quality is incorrect?
- Being upset at treatment is the main reason given for stopping business.
- Satisfied customers tell fewer people of their experience than dissatisfied ones do.
- Each complaint may hide many unresolved problems.
- Among those who complain, few will do business again even though their complaints are handled effectively.
Answer: - d) Among those who complain, few will do business again even though their complaints are handled effectively
Question No. 18
Which two of the following were not given as a weakness of product standards?
- Applied only to some aspects of a product or service
- Not recognised internationally
- Limited scope
Answer: - b) Not recognised internationally
Question No. 19
What does the term kaizen mean when applied to quality?
- The place where activity takes place
- Maintain a steady flow
- Continuous improvement
- Mutual dependence
Answer: - c) Continuous improvement
Question No. 20
Which, according to our discussion, was not among the weaknesses of the 1987 and 1994 versions of ISO 9000?
- Weak links between product and process standards.
- Insufficient guidance on improvement.
- Including broad dimensions of customer satisfaction within the quality definition.
- Universality meant average.
Answer: - c) including broad dimensions of customer satisfaction within the quality definition
Question No. 21
Which of the following was not given as a key feature of Total Quality Management
- Continuous improvement
- Establishing clear specifications
- Teamwork, trust and empowerment
- Identifying customers and their needs
Answer: - b) Establishing clear specifications
Question No. 22
What human factors did Dawson see as posing problems for the introduction of TQM?
- Over-educated staff
- TQM may make existing social tensions worse.
- Hierarchical structures
- Early enthusiasm may tail off quickly.
Answer: - b) TQM may make existing social tensions worse
Question No. 23
What do the initials of the PDCA cycle stand for?
- Purpose, develop, carry out, assess
- Plan, design, control, assess
- Plan, do, check, act
- Problem, diagnosis, conclusion, action
Answer: - c) Plan, do, check, act
Question No. 24
Name the practice of examining the best practices in an industry or in the world and using this knowledge as a basis for improvement.
Answer: - b) Benchmarking
Question No. 25
A control chart to record process performance usually identifies control limits and specification limits. Which one of the following is true?
- Control limits should equal specification limits to prevent any output outside specification.
- Control charts do not prevent poor quality output.
- Designers always set upper and lower limits.
- Control charts require complex statistical analysis to set them up.
Answer: - b) Control charts do not prevent poor quality output.
Question No. 26
Which item is not among the SERVQUAL dimensions?
Answer: - d) Quality
Question No. 27
Which organisation defines self-assessment as ‘a comprehensive, systematic, and regular review of the organisation’s activities and results referenced against a model of business excellence’?
- ISO 9000
- Taguchi Institute
- European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM)
- International Quality Foundation
Answer: - c) European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM
Question No. 28 The concept of total quality control, i.e. that quality must be attended to at all stage of the industrial cycle and throughout the organisation, is the creation of which of the following pioneers?
- W Edwards Deming
- Genichi Taguchi
- Joseph M Juran
- Armand Feigen Baum
Answer: - d) Armand Feigen Baum
Question No. 29
The so-called ´quality gurus´ of total quality management (TQM) do NOT include which one of the following?
- Joseph M Juran
- Bill Cosby
- Kaoru Ishikawa
- W Edwards Deming
Answer: - b) Bill Cosby
Question No. 30
The specific concerns of total quality management (TQM) include a number of aspects. Which of the following is NOT normally associated with TQM?
- Covering all parts of the organisation
- Primarily a ´worker´ rather than a management activity
- Inclusion of every person in the organisation
- Meeting the needs and expectations of customers
Answer: - b) Primarily a ´worker´ rather than a management activity
Question No. 31
The preferred method for achieving total quality in process output is to:
- Build and install an error-proof process and maintain it.
- Rely on a team of highly trained and dedicated inspectors.
- Rely on operator self-inspection and self-correction.
- Perform inspection at the next process.
Answer: - a) Build and install an error-proof process and maintain it
Question No. 32
Total quality management (TQM) programmes are more likely to remain effective if a number of prescriptions are followed. Which of the following prescriptions should NOT be followed?
- TQM does not become a separate ´bolt-on´ set of activities.
- TQM should become a substitute for normal managerial leadership.
- Quality improvement relates to an operation´s performance objectives.
- Slogans and exhortations about TQM´s effectiveness are avoided.
Answer: - b) TQM should become a substitute for normal managerial leadership
Question No. 33
One of the most powerful aspects to emerge from TQM is the concept of the internal customer and supplier. This means that:
- It is the responsibility of the executive in charge of TQM to manage internal customer-supplier relationships.
- Every part of the organisation contributes to external customer satisfaction by satisfying its own internal customers.
- Service Level Agreements must be in place to ensure standards are met.
- The product or service must be inspected prior to its delivery to the external customer.
Answer: - b) Every part of the organisation contributes to external customer satisfaction by satisfying its own internal customers.
Question No. 34
Which of the following would NOT normally be considered as a ‘costs of quality’?
- Internal failure costs
- Prevention costs
- Marketing costs
- Inspection costs
Answer: - c) Marketing costs
Question No. 35
Which one of the following would normally be considered as one of the ‘costs of quality’?
- Marketing costs
- Overhead costs
- Appraisal costs
- Transport costs
Answer: - c) Appraisal costs
Question No. 36