Management in Action-Social Economic & Ethical Issue
- What do you understand by consulting process? Discuss phases of consultancy
- Discuss Management Objectives, Goals and Functions of Manager
- Discuss Geert Hofstede Cultural Model, Elaborate Power Distance with examples
- Write short note on
- a. Pros and Cons of charging fee on hourly basis
b. Outsourcing management services
- What is power? Explain the various sources of power giving suitable example
In early June 2013, the Financial Times ran a lengthy feature entitled “Succession Lessons Sought for Asian Family Businesses.” The subject of succession is especially prominent these days in China, the Financial Times suggests, because many enterprises there were founded during the economic reforms of the 1980s and will soon be facing generational changes. The gist of this piece was that “although problems with succession are not unique to Asian family businesses, the difficulties are more acute because there is an added cultural reluctance to broach the issue of succession.” Well, maybe. But when culture is invoked in this way, many economic historians will feel the urge to reach for Beta Blockers so that their blood pressure doesn’t spike.
If the passionate debates of the 1990s regarding “Asian values” have quieted down, assertions of culturally determined differences between “Asian” and “Western” business organizational strategies and structures are still going strong. Making binary distinctions between the characteristics of “Western” and “Asian” (typically “Chinese”) business organization and behaviour is com+B89mon. Discussions involve impersonal corporations vs. family-run firms, transaction-based relationships vs. guanxi (personalized connection or influence) networks, contracts vs. trust, individual vs. group orientation, short term vs. long run thinking, transparency vs. opaqueness, etc. — or, more to the point, Western vs. Asian business characteristics.
In these discussions, “culture” is assumed to be an exogenous variable parachuted in to account for any and all perceived differences. To be sure, differences can be expected — and often are discernible — when widely separated individuals and groups, with different histories and cultures, practice business. But such differences are generally a matter of degree rather than of kind. When culture is employed as an explanatory variable, it is better understood as endogenous, the component parts and roles of which are determined largely by the state of (and interaction with) other variables within the system in question. A brief glance back at Asian business history can help to illustrate this point. The enterprises of two pioneering overseas Chinese businessmen in Southeast Asia in the early twentieth century named Aw Boon Haw and Tan Kah Kee offer excellent examples. Differences can be expected – and often are discernible — when widely separated individuals and groups, with different histories and cultures, practice business. But such differences are generally a matter of degree rather than of kind.
These two men were arguably the most powerful, and certainly the most famous, big businessmen in the Straits Settlements (essentially peninsular Malaysia and Singapore) during the first third of the twentieth century. Although they both eventually became involved in other businesses, each is remembered mainly for the activities wherein they began. Aw Boon Haw is best known for his business efforts in the area of Chinese folk medicine. Along with his brother, he founded a pharmaceutical empire based on a product whose formula their firm acquired early on: the now iconic medicinal salve known as Tiger Balm.
Tan Kah Kee’s business fortune was based on commodities, particularly rubber. He was not the first “Rubber King” in British Malaya, but he was the most eminent and is the best remembered for it even today. Writers studying Aw and Tan as businessmen have almost always evaluated their organizational and strategic decisions in terms of their Chinese heritage, attributing many, if not most, such decisions to family considerations, guanxi, clan spirit, etc., and in Tan’s case, even to feng shui (the Chinese belief that the way in which one’s surroundings are arranged can affect the “harmony” of such surroundings and, in so doing, help to create conditions for success or failure). The problem is that there are other, more persuasive explanations, if one knows where to look.
During the first two decades of the twentieth century, when Aw and Tan’s small businesses first began to flourish, the economic environment in Southeast Asia in many ways resembled that of the United States and other parts of the West in the late nineteenth century. This environment was increasingly characterized by large, integrated markets and innovations in manufacturing technology that offered the possibility for significant increases in productive capacity. To varying degrees, such environmental changes transformed the structure of business opportunities the world over, leading some business entities to pursue adaptive measures that would better enable them to succeed under the new conditions. Such measures significantly changed the way these entities were organized, controlled, and operated. The stories of the business empires created by Aw Boon Haw and Tan Kah Kee are better explained by firmly embedding ´Chinese business culture´ in the economic environment of early twentieth century Southeast Asia than by invoking a rather free-floating sense of ´Chineseness´ abstracted from space and time
The structural/strategic changes affecting (some) businesses in the United States and Europe — the shift to corporate organization, multiple operating units, professional management, and external and internal integration — manifested themselves in Southeast Asia as well, including in the business concerns of Aw and Tan. Both men pursued manufacturing, marketing, and managerial strategies that would not have seemed out of place in the United States: expanding operations via multiple units in multiple countries; employing new, more efficient procurement methods and manufacturing technologies; establishing more formal management hierarchies; attempting to achieve greater market coordination via vertical and horizontal integration; developing fuller product lines and diversifying. And aw, like pioneering business contemporaries in the West, made a major push into brand development via trademarking, packaging, and labelling, and employed advertising and PR creatively.
Yes, in retrospect, management structures in both cases remained overly familial and centralized, which later led to succession problems. But such characteristics were due in large part to weak institutions relating to contract enforcement and underdeveloped mechanisms for training, identifying, and recruiting non-familial managerial talent, not to anything ineffable about the culture of the Chinese who migrated to the Straits Settlements. By and large, the stories of the business empires created by Aw Boon Haw and Tan Kah Kee are better explained by firmly embedding “Chinese business culture” in the economic environment of early twentieth century Southeast Asia than by invoking a rather free-floating sense of “Chineseness” abstracted from space and time. Discussions about generational changes in business ownership in the future — in China and elsewhere — need to be less parochial to be useful.
1.What were the characteristics of environment in South East Asia when Aw and Tan started their business?
- In which year did Aw and Tan establish their business?
- Which strategies were not implemented?
Question No. 1 Marks - 10
The acronym CSR stands for
- Corporate Search and Rescue
- Corporate Social Responsibility
- Corporate Sensitive Reliability
- Corporate Social Reality
Question No. 2 Marks - 10
All those who are affected by or can affect the operations of the organisation are known as:
- interested parties
Question No. 3 Marks - 10
The stakeholder view of social responsibility states that organisations must respond to the needs of
- employees and customers
- shareholders and owners
- all interested parties
- all those who might sue the organization
Question No. 4 Marks - 10
A firm is said to have good corporate social performance when:
- stockholders invest in socially responsible causes
- charitable deductions are automatically deducted from pay without the consent of employees
- the company has not been convicted of ethical violations for five consecutive years
- stakeholders are satisfied with its level of social responsibility
Question No. 5 Marks - 10
A socially responsible mutual fund will only purchase stocks in companies that
- have a no-smoking policy in place
- have a culturally diverse management team
- hire some job candidates who are HIV positive
- Have good social performance.
Question No. 6 Marks - 10
A whistle blower is an employee who
- exposes organisational wrongdoing
- complains a lot to company management
- engages in un-ethical behavior
- referees disputes with other employees
Question No. 7 Marks - 10
Which one of the following approaches to creating an ethical and socially responsible workplace is likely to be the most powerful?
- Passing out buttons with the statement "Just Say No to Bad Ethics"
- Placing posters about ethics throughout the organisation
- Top management acting as models of the right behavior
- Including a statement about ethics and social responsibility in the employee handbook
Question No. 8 Marks - 10
A recommended way of minimising unethical behaviour is for employees to
- write anonymous notes to ethical violators
- immediately report all suspicious behaviour to top management
- spend part of their vacation preparing a personal philosophy of ethics
- confront fellow employees about ethical deviations
Question No. 9 Marks - 10
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) consists of which four kinds of responsibilities
- Economic, ethical, societal, and altruistic
- Economic, legal, ethical, and altruistic
- Fiscal, legal, societal, and philanthropic
- Economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic
Question No. 10 Marks - 10
Which of the items listed is NOT a product of a "favourable corporate reputation"?
- Charge more for its products and services
- Attract, hire and keep higher quality applicants/employees
- Enhance their access to better capital markets
- Ignore the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
Question No. 11 Marks - 10
Aftermath of Bhopal, the chemical industry wishing to demonstrate responsible corporate citizenship has added which additional behaviours set out below
- Legal compliance
- Continuous improvement, communication with external stakeholders and training of suppliers on the standards
- Pollution prevention
- Safe handling of chemicals from manufacture through disposal
Question No. 12 Marks - 10
Why, according to stakeholder theory, is it in companies´ best interests to pay attention to their stakeholders?
- If firms only act in their own self-interest employees may feel exploited
- If firms only act in their own self-interest government might put more regulation on them
- If firms only act in their own self-interest customers might not like the image that the company portray
- If firms only act in their own self-interest and inflict harm on stakeholders then society might withdraw its support
Question No. 13 Marks - 10
What is triple bottom line?
- An accounting tool that looks at the impact on people, planet and profits
- A management strategy which states all the attention should be on profits
- An accounting tool that looks at cost, profit and loss
- A management strategy which focuses on corporate social responsibility
Question No. 14 Marks - 10
Why do alternative organisations run differently from conventional shareholder led approach?
- They do not have shareholders
- They are run in non-hierarchical ways which aim to provide a positive impact on society rather than to make profit
- They prioritise corporate social responsibility.
- They aim to give money to charities and good causes
Question No. 15 Marks - 10
Which of the following would most effectively act as the primary objective of a business organisation?
- To procure resources
- To make a profit
- To communicate with shareholders
- To mediate between the organisation and the environment
Question No. 16 Marks - 10
Which of the following does the term Corporate Social Responsibility relate to?
- Ethical conduct
- Human rights and employee relations
- All of the above
- None of the above
Question No. 17 Marks - 10
Who are organisational stakeholders?
- Providers of finance
- All of the above
Question No. 18 Marks - 10
The human activity, among the following, which causes maximum environmental pollution having regional and global impacts, is:
Question No. 19 Marks - 10
The ____________ dimension of social responsibility refers to a business´s societal contribution of time, money, and other resources.
Question No. 20 Marks - 10
Stakeholders are considered more important to an organisation when:
- they can make use of their power on the organisation
- they do not emphasise the urgency of their issues
- their issues are not legitimate
- they can express themselves articulately
Question No. 21 Marks - 10
Better access to certain markets, differentiation of products, arid the sale of pollution-control technology are ways in which better environmental performance can:
- increase revenue
- increase costs
- decrease revenue
- decrease costs
Question No. 22 Marks - 10
Atmospheric issues include all of the following except:
- acid rain
- global warming
- air pollution
- water quantity
Question No. 23 Marks - 10
In a _____ organisation, decision making is delegated as far down the chain of command as possible
Question No. 24 Marks - 10
_____ refers to a strategic process involving stakeholder assessment to create long-term relationships with customers, while maintaining, supporting, and enhancing the natural environment.
- Green marketing
- Superfund reauthorization
- Recycle and reprocess management
Question No. 25 Marks - 10
Sustainable development will not aim at:
- Social economic development which optrrruse the economic and societal benefits available in the present, without spoiling the likely potential for similar benefits in the future.
- Reasonable and equitably distributed level of economic well-being that can be perpetuated continually.
- Development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
- Maximising the present day benefits through increased resource consumption
Question No. 26 Marks - 10
Which of the following statements in relation to sustainable development is not true
- Sustainable development is defined as the development that meets the needs of present without compromising the ability of our future generations to meet their own needs.
- Sustainability has the main objective of purely focusing on the natural environment.
- Sustainable development of various countries and the entire world is the only solution left with mankind to survive for a longer period on Earth.
- Sustainable development not only considers the protection of the environment but also the maintenance of economic viability as well as the social and ethical considerations.
Question No. 27 Marks - 10
The term sustainability refers to ________
- Maintaining resource use at current or higher levels
- Keeping the natural environment and human society in a happy, healthy and functional state
- Holding or increasing the current quality of human life
- Always focusing on fulfilling short-term needs e. Opposing change from current policies
Question No. 28 Marks - 10
Social sustainability refers to what?
- The concept of the enterprise supporting jobs and delivering income to communities in the long term
- Stewardship of resources and managing and conserving the environment
- The concept of the enterprise supporting jobs and delivering income to communities in the short term
- Sharing benefits fairly and equitably and respecting the quality of life of communities and of human rights
Question No. 29 Marks - 10
The Brundtland definition comprises of which three parts?
- Development, Needs and Future Responsibility
- Development, Issues and Future Generations
- Development, Needs and Future Generations
- Growth, Needs and Future Generations
Question No. 30 Marks - 10
What is the most commonly cited definition for, and accepted thinking about sustainable development?
- Brundtland World on Committee Environment and Sustainable Development
- Bruntland World Committee on Environment and Development
- Brundtland World Commission on Environment and Sustainable Development
- Brundtland World Commission on Environment and Development
Question No. 31 Marks - 10
Which one of the following characteristics is widely regarded as being an important aspect of sustainable development?
- Inter-generational equity
- Increasing consumption expenditure
- Intra-generational inequity
- Increased levels of saving
Question No. 32 Marks - 10
A "green transport plan" is:
- An environmentally acceptable travel plan devised by a local authority for its area
- An internationally agreed strategy for reducing the impact of international transport activity on the global environment.
- A plan devised by a company or organisation to reduce the environmental impact of the transport demands generated by itself and its employees
- The UK government´s plan for a sustainable transport sector
Question No. 33 Marks - 10
Food, space, disease, natural disasters, climate, competition and predation are examples of what?
- Capacity Factors
- Limiting Factors
- Predation Factors
- Sustainable Factors
Question No. 34 Marks - 10
Sustainable Development focuses on more use of:
- Renewable resources
- Abiotic resources
- Agricultural resources
- Natural resources
Question No. 35 Marks - 10
Which of the following perspectives takes the strongest stance in support of sustainability?
- Free market
- Deep ecology
Question No. 36 Marks - 10
Social, economic and ecological equity is the necessary condition for achieving
- Social development
- Economic development
- Sustainable development
- Ecological development
Question No. 37 Marks - 10
Meeting the needs of the present compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own need´ is
- Mahatma Gandhi
- Sunderlal Bahugana
Question No. 38 Marks - 10
The idea of sustainable development was conceived in early
Question No. 39 Marks - 10
The definition of sustainable development was expressed during the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987, chaired by
- Gro Harlem Brundtland
- Murray Bookchin
- Rees and WackernackeJ
- John Elkington
Question No. 40 Marks - 10
Electronic waste is the adverse effect of