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Title Name Amity Solve Assignment Journalism and Mass Communication for Print media
University AMITY
Service Type Assignment
Course BA-(Journalism-and-Mass-Communication)
Semister Semester-I Cource: BA-(Journalism-and-Mass-Communication)
Short Name or Subject Code Print media
Commerce line item Type Semester-I Cource: BA-(Journalism-and-Mass-Communication)
Product Assignment of BA-(Journalism-and-Mass-Communication) Semester-I (AMITY)

Solved Assignment


  Questions :-

                                                                                                        Print media

Assignment A

  1. What is journalism? Explain in detail.
  2. What forms make different mediums of mass communication?
  3. What are the different departments in newspaper organization?
  4. What are the qualities of a reporter? What are the responsibilities of a reporter?
  5. What do you understand by NEWS? Give its basic elements.
  6. What has been the contribution of print journalism in the development of the Indian society after independence?
  7. Drawing the organizational set up of a newspaper office discuss the roles and responsibilities of the editorial department.
  8. Write a news report on an election rally of a major political party addressed by its party president in Delhi. Compare your report with a newspaper report

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assignment B

Case study: 

Case Study

One form of media that has become increasingly popular in today’s society is mass media (mainstream media). It consists of radio, television, magazines, newspapers, and of course, the Internet. Mass media’s primary objective and purpose is to inform, educate and entertain the largest possible audience. An important facet of mass media is its ownership and consumer-based motives.

On a daily basis we are bombarded with messages and advertising, but we are able to think critically and analyse them based on how money, values, political influence, and corporate ownership affect the content within. When we do this, we are practicing media literacy: the ability to separate fact from fiction as well as understand the nature of media.

Issues of representation must also be considered in a media analysis. Are diverse people and viewpoints represented? Do we see varied representations of class, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, social role and occupation, or only stereotypes? It is easy to see how the dominant Western culture in our society sways and influences every decision relating to mass media and how little minorities have a say in what goes on in the communications industry.

Beyond simply receiving, we too can create the messages. Independent media is thriving on the Internet and young activists are behind the surge of empowered citizen-driven communication. This new trend proves how the citizen of the country even today requires media and feels the importance of it.

 

Questions:

  1. What is the primary objective of mass media?
  2. What role Internet is playing in information dissemination and creation?
  3. What is media analysis? Explain it in detail.

 

 

 

 

  

 

Assignment C

Question No.  1          Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is the role of editorial department?  

Options          

  1. Is the management body
  2. Looks after sports section
  3. Is responsible for news and editorial section
  4. Establishes strategic role of the news paper

 

 

 

Question No.  2          Marks - 10

________________________________________

 What is Electronic Copyediting?   

Options          

  1. Copy editing through robot
  2. Automatic copyediting
  3. Auto corrects syntax errors
  4. To correct and prepare copy for printing on computer

 

 

Question No.  3           Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is the role and functions of desk?        

Options               

  1. People work on desk
  2. Desk people take important decisions
  3. Ensures that stories are prioritized.
  4. Editing stories

 

 

Question No.  4           Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is the role of copy editor in newspaper?          

Options                    

  1. Copy editors check written material, usually as the final step before it is set into type
  2. He checks the copies
  3. He issues copies
  4. Checks the accuracy of text

 

 

Question No.  5           Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is inverted pyramid?     

 Options                   

  1. To create a news-story reporter goes through several stages ranging from identifying sources to gathering information
  2. One can see thins shape in the news item
  3. It is opposite to the structure of pyramid
  4. All of above

 

 

Question No.  6           Marks - 10

________________________________________

What are different Sources of News?

 Options                     

  1. Vox pop – Press conferences – Tip offs – Leaked documents
  2. Reporter gets news from sources
  3. Different sources contacts to newspaper
  4. Publications, broad casts, police stations etc

 

 

Question No.  7           Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is lead in news story?   

 Options                  

  1. People who take lead in decision of deciding story            
  2. Is the opening paragraph of news-story?
  3. Leader of the team decides news
  4. That enhances curiosity

 

 

Question No.  8           Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is Body text?    

 Options                    

  1. Managing body
  2. Middle portion of the news-story
  3. A body or group of people decides about news
  4. All of above

 

 

Question No.  9           Marks - 10

________________________________________

 What is Hard News? 

 Options                     

  1. Hard to read
  2. News without any interesting thing
  3. News reported using facts with little description or opinion
  4. None of above

 

 

Question No.  10         Marks - 10

________________________________________

 Which country invented printing?    

 Options                   

  1. Philippines
  2. Germany
  3. Sweden
  4. India

 

Question No.  11         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Printing technology came in Indian in which year?   

 Options                 

  1. 1578
  2. 1947
  3. 1857
  4. 1869

 

 

Question No.  12         Marks - 10

________________________________________

When was the Bengal Gazette launched?     

 Options                    

  1. 1750
  2. 1440
  3. 1650
  4. 1857

 

 

 

Question No.  13         Marks - 10

________________________________________

The Times of India Newspaper was started in India in which year? 

 Options                    

  1. 2008
  2. 1838
  3. 1775
  4. 1857

 

 

Question No.  14        Marks - 10

________________________________________

When Amrit Bazar Patrika started in India? 

 Options                  

  1. 1101
  2. 1405
  3. 1920
  4. 1868

 

 

 

Question No.  15         Marks – 10  (Solved by www.solvezone.in ; please do not copy, plagiarism warning; contact: 8882309876)

________________________________________

What is News design?

 Options                   

  1. Its designing of news
  2. It is the process of arranging material on a newspaper page, according to editorial and graphical guidelines and goals
  3. Its designing of paper
  4. All of above

 

 

Question No.  16         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is Prediction Lead?      

 Options                 

  1. Its prediction of lead
  2. Its prediction about lead part of the news
  3. Tomorrows news today
  4. It has its uses in stories dealing with the future

 

Question No.  17         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is Quotation Lead?       

 Options                

  1. It begins with an apt quote upon which the story is built.
  2. It uses quotation
  3. Lead having quotations
  4. None of above

 

Question No.  18         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is First Person Lead?    

 Options                     

  1. Its written in first person
  2. Lead having first person
  3. It goes well with a first person story
  4. One who breaks the news
  5. One who breaks the news

 

Question No.  19         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is Investigative Reporting?      

 Options          

  1. Investigate things
  2. Investigate about persons
  3. Dig Deep beyond Hard News
  4. All of above

 

 

Question No.  20         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is Legislature Reporting?         

 Options               

  1. Its about legislative authorities
  2. Its about people working in legislative organizations
  3. All of above
  4. Parliament, State Legislature, Vidhan Sabha, Vidhan Parishad

 

 

Question No.  21         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is Interpretative Reporting?     

 Options                     

  1. It interpret things
  2. It interpret about people
  3. It combines facts with interpretation. It delves into reasons 
  4. One who explains the story

 

Question No.  22         Marks - 10

________________________________________

A Chief Reporter is a person—         

 Options                      

  1. He is the boss of reporters
  2. He allocates and supervises the work of team of reporters
  3. He works in the field
  4. All of above

 

 

Question No.  23         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Reporter or a Special Correspondent is the person --

 Options                      

  1. Who are specialized reporters in their fields
  2. Who sells news 
  3. They read news
  4. The one who is specially deputed to cover the story

 

Question No.  24         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is journalism?    

Options                  

  1. It is a printing process
  2. Journalism means media
  3. Journalism is the timely reporting of events at the local, provincial, national and international levels
  4. Conveying news and events to public

 

Question No.  25         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is Mass Media? 

 Options                    

  1. Mass media denotes a section of the media specifically designed to reach a very large audience
  2. It is a type of traditional media
  3. It is something related to Internet
  4. All of above

 

Question No.  26         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is the main role of press information bureau?  

 Options                     

  1. It is a media organization
  2. It public broadcasting service
  3. It is the main channel of communication between the government and the media
  4. It is government agency

 

Question No.  27         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Registrar of newspaper for India was established in--          

 Options                    

  1. 2005 
  2. 1805
  3. 1956
  4. 1947

 

 

Question No.  28         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Directorate of advertising and visual publicity is the central agency of--     

 Options                    

  1. It makes advertisements for newspapers
  2. The Government of India for undertaking advertising and visual publicity campaigns on behalf of the various ministries, departments and autonomous bodies
  3. It makes advertisements for TV
  4. It routes government advisements to media

 

 

Question No.  29         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Song and drama division is-- 

 Options                    

  1. The live media unit of the ministry of information and broadcasting
  2. Make song 
  3. Its body of payback singers
  4. None of above

 

 

Question No.  30         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Interview is--  

 Options                    

  1. One of the key inputs in reporting for media
  2. Meeting with people
  3. Public relation activity
  4. All of above

 

 

Question No.  31         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Political reporting is-- 

 Options                    

  1. Reporting of political leaders
  2. Considered one of the most important beats in a newspaper
  3. About politics of the nation
  4. Always found on cover page

 

Question No.  32         Marks - 10

________________________________________

In depth reporting is--

 Options                     

  1. It requires lot of research
  2. It is a research activity
  3. Delve deeply into the report
  4. Coverage that goes into a lot in detail and has been well searched

 

 

Question No.  33         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Jargon is--       

 Options                    

  1. It is a country
  2. It is technical term related to video photography
  3. It is terminology
  4. Terms used in one specialist area

 

 

Question No.  34         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Follow up is a--          

 Options                    

  1. To follow politicians
  2. News story that has been spotted in another newspaper or media and investigated further
  3. It follows latest trends
  4. None of above

 

Question No.  35         Marks - 10

________________________________________

News gathering is--    

 Options                     

  1. Telephonic Interview
  2. Electronic devices are used in news collection
  3. The system by which news is obtained from source
  4. Sorting news from information

 

Question No.  36         Marks - 10

________________________________________

Three Qualities of a news reporter--  

 Options                  

  1. Reading/reading/reading
  2. Writing/reading/taking notes
  3. Reading/writing/rewriting
  4. None of above

 

Question No.  37         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is Pool Reporting?        

 Options                    

  1. A small group of reporters who have personal access to an event or source, who distribute their reports to the wider media
  2. It is reporting about swimming pools
  3. It is pooling a news story
  4. None of above

 

Question No.  38         Marks - 10

________________________________________

ABC stands for          

 Options                    

  1. Audit Bureau of Circulation
  2. Audit Brief of Circulation 
  3. Audit Box of Circulation
  4. None

 

Question No.  39         Marks - 10

________________________________________

In which language was Amrita Bazar Patrika first published?          

 Options                     

  1. Hindi
  2. Kannada
  3. Tamil
  4. Bengali

 

 

Question No.  40         Marks - 10

________________________________________

What is timeliness in news?   

 Options                     

  1. It is an important factor that decides the news value
  2. Exact time when news happened
  3. Reaching office on time
  4. Significance of news with time

 

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  Answers :-

                                                                                                        Print media

Assignment A

  1. What is journalism? Explain in detail.

Answer:

Journalism is gathering, processing, and dissemination of news, and information related to news, to an audience. The word applies to the method of inquiring for news, the literary style which is used to disseminate it, and the activity (professional or not) of journalism.

The media that journalism uses vary diversely and include: content published via newspapers and magazines (print), television and radio (broadcast), and their digital media versions — news websites and applications.

In modern society, the news media is the chief purveyor of information and opinion about public affairs. Journalism, however, is not always confined to the news media or to news itself, as journalistic communication may find its way into broader forms of expression, including literature and cinema. In some nations, the news media is controlled by government intervention, and is not a fully independent body.

In a democratic society, however, access to free information plays a central role in creating a system of checks and balance, and in distributing power equally amongst governments, businesses, individuals, and other social entities. Access to verifiable information gathered by independent media sources, which adhere to journalistic standards, can also be of service to ordinary citizens, by empowering them with the tools they need in order to participate in the political process.

The role and status of journalism, along with that of the mass media, has undergone profound changes over the last two decades with the advent of digital technology and publication of news on the Internet. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people increasingly consume news through e-readers, smartphones, and other electronic devices, challenging news organizations to fully monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish news in print. Notably, in the American media landscape, newsrooms have reduced their staff and coverage as traditional media channels, such as television, grapple with declining audiences. For instance, between 2007 and 2012, CNN edited its story packages into nearly half of their original time length.

This compactness in coverage has been linked to broad audience attrition, as a large majority of respondents in recent studies show changing preferences in news consumption.The digital era has also ushered in a new kind of journalism in which ordinary citizens play a greater role in the process of news making, with the rise of citizen journalism being possible through the Internet. Using video camera equipped smartphones, active citizens are now enabled to record footage of news events and upload them onto channels like YouTube, which is often discovered and used by mainstream news media outlets. Meanwhile, easy access to news from a variety of online sources, like blogs and other social media, has resulted in readers being able to pick from a wider choice of official and unofficial sources, instead of only from traditional media organizations.

 

 

  1. What forms make different mediums of mass communication?

Answer:

Print Media

Print media encompasses mass communication through printed material. It includes newspapers, magazines, booklets and brochures, house magazines, periodicals or newsletters, direct mailers, handbills or flyers, billboards, press releases, and books.

Newspapers: Newspapers enjoyed the position of the most preferred medium to reach a wider audience until electronic communication emerged on the media scene. In the early days, newspapers were the only medium that masses at large depended on, for daily news. A newspaper carries all kinds of communication related to a variety of topics like politics, socialism, current affairs, entertainment, finance, stocks, etc. Apart from this, it also includes topics which are in lighter vein like cartoons, crosswords, Sudoku, movie reviews, book reviews, puzzles, crosswords, etc. This captivates the imagination and interests of readers, from all age groups. Newspapers are an important platform of mass communication as they reach every nook and corner of the world where electronic media fails to reach. It plays a pivotal role in providing authentic firsthand information, building opinions, updating the knowledge of the reader, and serves as a good platform for advertisers to promote their products. However, with the emergence of Internet, which updates information every second, and is just a click away, the popularity of newspapers has reduced.

Magazines: Magazines are another type of popular culture print media. They usually cater to a specific type of audience who are looking for information based on a particular subject. Magazines cover a plethora of topics like current affairs, business, finance, consumers, gadgets, self-help, luxury, lifestyle, beauty, fashion, entertainment, travel, etc. Magazines like TIME and Reader´s Digest include information which is all-pervasive. The frequency of magazines can be weekly, fortnightly, bi-monthly, quarterly, half-yearly, or yearly. These magazines are the best forum for advertisers as they have a niche readership. The readers look for a specific type of information, say for example, a camera ad in a Gadget magazine will definitely have a direct brand impact on the reader who wants to buy a camera. Also, the shelf life and brand recall of magazines is far better than newspapers which have a short life span.

Booklets and Brochures: Booklets and brochures are a part of the promotional literature of a product, or an organization. There are two types of booklets and brochures.

Pre-buying promotion: Usually in malls and stores, promotional literature is distributed free to all (with discount offers, or other schemes which seem profitable). For example, a free booklet about cosmetics will include information about the products, latest trends, contents, the benefits of using them, the available range, or colors, discount coupons, etc. This, will most likely, have a positive impact on your decision-making.

Post-buying promotion: These booklets and brochures are usually given with a product for better customer experience and easy usage, post purchasing. You must have observed when you buy any new item, it is usually accompanied with a small booklet giving details about the benefits of using the product, usage directions, cleaning and storage instructions. The guidelines are usually followed by a series of ´how to´ images which facilitate easy information about the product. These booklets may also include ´Other offerings´ section. Organizations also have their own profiles in the form of brochures which they give to their stakeholders to create a favorable image. It highlights the information about the company, its capacity and capability, services and solutions offered, milestone achievements, sustainability, innovation, awards, etc. In this case people "do judge the book by its cover", and hence, these booklets and brochures are designed in an attractive format using colors and photos.

House Magazines, Periodicals or Newsletters: Most of the organizations today have learned that it is important to communicate with all the stakeholders in order to be successful. Hence, the customers, shareholders, investors, solicitors, and employees are updated about the activities of the organization from time to time. Many organizations today invent various platforms like house magazines, periodicals, or newsletters to keep the stakeholders posted about the news related to the company. Usually the house magazines include data about a company´s achievements, employee engagement activities, and information about the offerings. A periodical or newsletter, is more or less, designed on similar lines but its size is restricted to a few pages only. Mostly, it includes similar information but in a very short format. Their frequency ranges from weekly to yearly. It has an encouraging impact on the stakeholders because of the ´feel-good factor´. They believe that the company cares to communicate with them, and this also increases their confidence about the prospects of the company.

Direct Mailers: Direct mailers are small pamphlets, which are devices for direct advertising and marketing. Usually they arrive at our doorstep through the postal mails. Direct mails are a relatively cheaper option of marketing as bulk advertising is cost-effective through post. Most of them include colorful advertisements, discount and gift coupons, preapproved credit card offers, automobile, realtor, and political promotion. Direct mailing system is best suited for B2B business. People have a tendency to remember what they see in the advertisement, and recall it while making a purchase, or a voting decision. Also, the attractive offers on a commercial direct mailer prompt many to make a positive buying decision.

Handbills or Flyers: Handbills or flyers is a form of communication which is printed on a small paper. It is easy to carry, colorful, attractive, and legible to read. They are handed out to all the passers-by. These are useful mainly for restaurants, hotels, nightclubs, political campaigns, delis, concerts, rallies, political campaigns, etc. People are more prompted to throw it away without reading. Hence, many a time this fails to be an effective medium of mass communication.

Billboards: Billboards or hoardings are huge advertisements that are put up at a height in strategic locations to fetch more attention. They usually attract the targeted audience by their bold colors, attention-grabbing headlines, creativity, designs, special effects, etc. Initially, billboards started by hand painting huge boards, and eventually graduated to putting up printed sheets. Later came a trend for incorporating neon signs, videos, and graphic (which are part of electronic communication) cut-outs which extend out from the boards, 3D rubber, or plastic balloon objects, etc. Such billboards are called bulletins. They command the best customer exposure. Communication in these types of billboards should be in minimum words. The images should speak louder than the words. They are a successful medium of communication as they are good at captivating and retaining customer attention.

Press Releases: A press release is an important device of communication because it takes the relevant communication directly to the press. Whenever government, organizations, NGOs, retail outlets, design houses, celebrities, etc. have a newsworthy announcement to make, they draft a press note which is then sent to the members of the press in the form of a hard copy, fax, mail, or CD. A press release is also distributed in a press conference. A press release answers all the "W type" questions like what, who, where, how, and when, in its content. A quote of the spokesperson is also added to give it credibility. This is issued on the letterhead of the organization. It begins with a headline and dateline, and closes with the media contact for the organization. Most of the matter in a press release gets picked up by journalists, hence it should be worded wisely and strategically.

Books: Last but not the least, books are a significant medium of mass communication as they have a large reader base. The expressions and opinions of the writer are taken to the readers in the form of a compiled book.

The printed form of communication was popular earlier. However, with the advent of electronic media, print media has taken a backseat. Although, it is said that the electronic, or new age media have replaced the print media, there exists a majority of audience who prefer the print media for various communication purposes. However, it is true that, print media harms the environmental balance with its requirement for paper and chemical ink. Also, disposing off redundant print material is a problem. Most of the people today have television sets, radios, and Internet access which are sustainable, eco-friendly, and cost-effective forms of communication. Moreover, print is a one way communication, while electronic media allows interaction.

Electronic Media

Electronic media is the kind of media which requires the user to utilize an electric connection to access it. It is also known as ´Broadcast Media´. It includes television, radio, and new-age media like Internet, computers, telephones, etc.

Television: Television appeals both the auditory and visual senses, and hence is an important communication device as it beholds the attention of the audience. For many people, it is impossible to imagine a life without their television sets, be it the daily news, or even the soap operas. Television has become an advertising hub where advertisers are ready to spend huge amounts for an ad of few seconds, especially for programs with high viewership. An apt example would be, Super Bowl Season. It offers various programs to appeal the masses of different age groups. It is a popular means of communication which provides both information and entertainment. This category also includes electronic media like movies, CDs and DVDs as well as the electronic gadgets.

Radio: Radio has a significant reach. A considerable number of Americans tune into radio every week while on their way to work. Advertising on the radio with catchy jingles and phrases is a tried and tested means of communication. Radio lost its popularity with the boom of television. But till day, radio remains one of the favorite means of electronic communication. Moreover, it is an interactive means of communication with all the dial-in programs which give the listeners an opportunity to feature on radio.

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New Age Media

With the advent of Internet, we are now enjoying the benefits of high technology mass media, which is not only faster than the old school mass media, but also has a widespread range. Mobile phones, computers, and Internet are often referred to as the new-age media. Internet has opened up several new opportunities for mass communication which include email, websites, podcasts, e-forums, e-books, blogging, Internet TV, and many others which are booming today. Internet has also started social networking sites which have redefined mass communication all together. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube have made communication to the masses all the more entertaining, interesting, and easier!

Mobile Phones: Mobile phones have become a boon to mankind. It has made communication possible at anytime, and from anywhere. Nowadays, a smart device like a mobile phone is not only used for interaction, but also for other technical utilities like operating pumps from remote locations, etc. You can also get alerts of your monetary transactions on a mobile phone. About a decade ago, who would have thought of having Internet on mobiles? Today, we can stay in touch with the whole world via Internet on our mobile phones.

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Computers: With the invention of computers the impossible has become possible. We virtually get information about everything from pin to piano with the help of computers. It has added speed and multimedia to the information which was earlier available only in the print format. Also, anyone can voice their opinions through computers. Computers have added a new breakthrough in the mass media by combining human intelligence with the cutting edge technology.

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Internet: This is the most important device of the new age media. The discovery of Internet can be called the biggest invention in mass media. In earlier days, news used to reach people only with the morning newspaper. But today, live updates reach us simultaneously as the events unfold. For example, the royal wedding of Kate Middleton and Prince William was watched live on the Internet by millions of people around the world. Internet has inspired interaction and connectivity through its social networking medium. It has become one of the core means of mass communication. We cannot think of leading our lives without it. Let us see how Internet impacts mass communication through the following mediums.

Emails: Emails or electronic mails have drastically reduced the time it took for drafting and sending letters, or mails. Electronic mails have also facilitated lesser usage of paper.

Websites: Internet has a plethora of websites dedicated to various people, companies, brands, causes, activities, etc. The most significant utility of these websites is for providing information, search engines, downloads through libraries, and interaction through the social networking sites. Because of these websites, carrying out e-commerce transactions has also become easy.

Podcasts: Podcasts are mediums of mass communication that include short video or audio files. They can be seen and heard on mobiles, computers, and portable media instruments. They are engaging devices of communication.

eForums: eForums are bulletin boards on websites where people start threads on topics. These are usually hosted on a website. These forums are open platforms to discuss a range of topics right from which wall color is appropriate for a baby girl´s room to the research on the God particle. People give their opinions and share their experiences on various topics.

eBooks: There are a number of websites which have hosted eBooks and online libraries. The main benefit of having eBooks is that you don´t have to carry bulky books. You can read them on your eBook readers, mobiles, computer screens, or other devices. You can even adjust the font size to suit your requirements.

Blogging: A blog is a space on the Internet where a single person or a group of people record their information, opinions, photos, videos, etc. It is an interesting and free platform to talk about any topic. Interaction happens in the form of comments or feedback.

Internet TV: It is also known as online TV. It usually has an archive of programs. You have to choose the program, you wish to view from the list. You can either view the programs directly from the host server, or download the content on your computer. It is an effective means of communication.

Facebook: It is the most popular social networking website. Facebook has several applications which people utilize. It is the best platform to meet old friends, or make new ones. Advertisers also like this forum for communicating about their products.

Twitter: It is also a famous social networking website. Twitter is a microblogging site which allows interaction and feedback of different people. There was a time when it was very popular among celebrities and individuals. Today, the governments of various nations have understood the importance of "tweeting" information to the public, and regularly share information through Twitter.

YouTube: It is a website which uploads content in a video format. It houses a range of interesting videos that appeal to people of all generations. From films to educational videos, you will find everything on YouTube

 

 

  1. What are the different departments in newspaper organization?

Answer:

Below is a list of the basic departments that the average newspaper organization has:

  1. The Editorial Department – as the name implies, this department is the one responsible for content creation in any newspaper establishment. It is headed by the Editor. The main responsibilities of this department is the gathering of news, selecting of which news and features get to be published in the paper, editing the news and features that have been selected for publication and then laying them out for print. Like was said above, the Editor is the head of the Editorial department of a newspaper and he or she is the one responsible for all the content that appears in a newspaper.  The Editor works in conjunction with Assistant Editors, Sub Editors, Copy tasters, feature writers, correspondents and so many others to gather news from various sources and bring them to the doorsteps of readers.
  2. Advertising Department – the advertising department is also another very important department of any newspaper establishment. Everyone knows how much revenue advertisement brings newspapers. As a matter of fact, advertisement is said to be the major source of revenue for newspaper establishments. Without advertisements in a newspaper, the establishment cannot survive. The Advertising department of a newspaper is in charge of advertisements that are published in the paper.
  3. The Circulation Department – this department as the name suggests is in charge of circulating or distributing the newspapers. They are also a very very crucial department in a newspaper organization. This department is responsible for selling the newspapers, which is also another major source of revenue for the organization. The department also sees to it that the newspapers are delivered to the right places.
  4. The Production/Printing Department – this is another department in a newspaper establishment whose name simply tells people the job that they perform. This department is responsible for the printing of the newspapers. The department is in charge of everything that has to do with the production and printing of the papers, which includes, transforming journalists’ stories into type and maintaining the printing machines.
  5. The Accounting Department – this is where figures are worked on. Every business needs accounting in order to survive and move forward. The accounting department is responsible for all the accounting work in the establishment. Some of these accounting works include the preparation of books of accounts, preparation of the budget, making financial plans, preparing the balance sheet, and what have you.
  6. The Administrative Department – this department is responsible for the general administration of the entire establishment. The department is in charge of certain very important duties such as planning, organizing and staffing.
  7. The stores Department – this is a department that has one sole responsibility which is to properly store newsprint and all the raw materials used for printing. They also store all other materials that are used in the establishment.

 

 

  1. What are the qualities of a reporter? What are the responsibilities of a reporter?

Answer:

The following are the basic qualities of a reporter or rather a good reporter:

  1. Credibility is something that every good reporter should have. In other words, a reporter must exhibit characters and behaviors that make him or her to be believed and trusted by people.
  2. A good reporter should be courageous and confident. Without courage and confidence it is difficult for a person to be a good reporter. Timidity on the part of any reporter will get them nowhere.
  3. Curiosity is another very important quality of any good reporter. There is the need to be curious all the time. The spirit of curiosity helps the reporter get good stories.
  4. A journalist should have a healthy skepticism. This means checking and rechecking information which is very important because every story is based on facts and evidence.
  5. A reporter should be able to work fast and enthusiastically on any given story. News writing especially has a lot to do with deadlines. This therefore means that a good reporter should be able to work under pressure and meet deadlines. If you can’t soak the pressure then it is going to be hard to work as a reporter.
  6. A good reporter should be able to gather facts in a very careful and accurate way.
  7. Reporters should be able to write well. By writing very well I mean writing clear and well-focused stories that is easy to understand by everyone. Good spellings, punctuations and grammar are also requirements.
  8. Reporters should be able to write very good leads for their news stories and features.
  9. A good reporter should have the habit of self-editing their copy before submitting it to their editors.
  10. There is the need to have wide general knowledge on different issues.
  11. A good reporter should have an eye for what is newsworthy and should be able to produce new stories without being told.
  12. Another very important skill a good reporter should have is the skill of producing stories that are fair and balanced.
  13. A good reporter should be skilled at taking notes.
  14. A good reporter must be able to analyze and interpret information.
  15. Must be good at asking the right questions at the right time.
  16. The work of news gathering is quite an unpredictable one. One might never know when news will break or where it will happen. It is for this reason that a reporter should be able and willing to work at irregular hours.
  17. A reporter should be a good team player and be capable of working with other reporters, photographers and even editors.
  18. A good reporter should be able to take corrections and criticisms in the course of performing their job.

 

 

  1. What do you understand by NEWS? Give its basic elements.

Answer:

News is packaged information about current events happening somewhere else; or, alternatively, news is that which the news industry sells. News moves through many different media, based on word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, and electronic communication. Common topics for news reports include war, politics, and business, as well as athletic contests, quirky or unusual events, and the doings of celebrities. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, laws, taxes, public health, and criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times. Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news from elsewhere, which they satisfy by traveling and talking to each other. Technological and social developments, often driven by government communication and espionage networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content. The genre of news as we know it today is closely associated with the newspaper, which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press, to Europe. The development of the electric telegraph in the mid-19th century revolutionized news by enabling nearly instantaneous transmissions, and by empowering a cartel of news agencies which consolidated the world news system. In the 20th century, the style of news and its impact on national populations expanded considerably with constant live broadcasting of radio and television, and finally, with the popularization of the internet.

Basic elements of a news:

  1. Timeliness. Based on the idea that news is something you didn’t know before which is significant or interesting to a group of readers, news items are basically timely or immediate. In other words, items are fresh and new as usually indicated in the news by the use of words “today” or “yesterday” or “at present time” and the use of the present tense in news headline as one principle in journalism. Although news is basically timely, it may not be always new or fresh, for it can be the development of an old event. There are news that are drawn from the historic past and are made to come alive by playing on or reporting the newest angle or latest development of the story. For example: Jose P. Rizal’s death in 1896 will always be presented on its newest angle as readers recall his death anniversary.
  2. Popularity.Popular or prominent persons, places, or events make news. Persons become popular due to their position, rank, wealth, intellect, talent, skill, personality, and achievement. Well-known places make news due to their tourism value, historical, political, economical, and social significance. Popular events are usually those that involve a multitude of people or some well-known personalities as in the case of the NBA games, Miss Universe Pageant, and film festivals. Most of the events or activities or any gathering that involves the president of the country is newsworthy. Besides, the president of a country is a significant figure and is undoubtedly a popular person. So even if the incident is routinary like the raising of the flag, if the president of a country does it on a certain occasion, it is a page one story.
  3. Nearness. What readers consider interesting and important can be news but the degree of interest and importance will vary from place to place and from one set of readers to another. What is news in the province may not be news in Manila. What is important or interesting to high schoolers may not be that significant to professionals or businessmen. Nearness to the event affects readers’ interest. Reports or events that happen nearest to the readers or to those that directly involve them will be most interesting to them. However, nearness is not merely physical, it can also be emotional. As such news in Japan will be more of interest to the Japanese than to the Filipinos. But a report on the life of Filipinos in Americawill be interesting to the people of the Philippines because of family ties or emotional links. The election of a Filipino-American lawyer, Ben Cayetano, as governor of Hawaii has dramatically touched the Filipino nation as the story was prominently displayed on page one of the local papers.
  4. Conflict. Events of ideas that involve physical or mental struggle, though these are not encouraged, would make news. These range from wars, rebellion, crimes, chaos, duel, or fist fight, and from games, competitions and even writing contests. As the various elements or criteria overlap, one event may have two or more elements portrayed as in a “word war” of two prominent personalities on a very significant issue. For this example of event, there are at least three dominant elements reflected: conflict, popularity or prominence, and significance.
  5. Significance. Persons, places, events, or things that are of value, use, and significance are necessarily interesting to a set of readers. The reading public has to be warned of an approaching typhoon, an impending war, and rise in prices of commodities and services, and bandits at large, even of new tax exemptions or measures. If it is worthknowing, then that must be news. Why should people be informed of such events of significance? It is because the newspapers has to serve the public and make people be more prepared and better equipped to face the trying times and life’s difficulties and tragedies.
  6. Unusualness. Anything that deviates from the normal or usual flow of happenings attracts attention and, therefore, to some extent, are of interest to readers. The writer’s watchful eye, nose for news, and keen senses are for catching the peculiar, the special, the odd, the unique, the different, the rare, and the bizarre. Of course, you have heard of the Siamese twins, the mudfish baby with human lips, the three-legged cock, and thing like one for Ripley’s.
  7. Emotions. Events, situations or ideas that cater to the emotions of people (not only those that tickle the minds), also make news. The poor, the street children, the disabled, the sick, — AIDS victims, are subject of emotional news reporting. Human interest situations draw various feelings from readers. Such may make the readers do something about some particular tragic events. For instance, reports on the victims of earthquakes influence readers to react to some charitable knocks to their hearts. Dramatic events like suicide, coup de tat, massacre, or hunger strikes appeal to the emotions of people, and are, therefore, newsworthy.
  8. Gender.Newspapers cater to different groups of readers due to the varying interests and activities of men, women, and “in betweens”. A news is created when women invade men;s usual territories or vice-versa. Like when women first went into space exploration, or when a woman ruled a nation or when men dominated the cuisine and even reigned the laundering which society considers places for women. Example: When former President Corazon Aquino became the first Philippine woman president and when she was subsequently chosen as Time Magazine’s Woman of the Year, these two instances made big events for newspapers.
  9. Progress. Reports on progress, whether physical, mental, economic, emotional, or social, constitute good news. Newspapers carry both good and bad news, for people learn from both events. It is just sad to note that generally speaking, some newspapers if not all the local papers consider “bad news as news”and “good news as no news.” The advent of development communication in the Philippine setting is good news. More developed countries in Asia like Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand practised development journalism in such a way that freedom of the press is utilized in support to the economic growth of the country as in writing articles to support government programs aimed at improving the quality of life of the people is a healthy measure for the Philippines media to practice.
  10. Change. Changes that affect the majority or certain groups of people make news. Some of these changes are change in administration and policies, change of name or popular places or events, changes of weather, fluctuating rates of exchange, and change of partners of party mates, change of schedule or postponement and other major or even insignificant changes that may pave way for big events.  While some changes are unexpected, there are also expected ones.
  11. Names and Numbers. Figures, statistics, numbers, and series of names also make news. Many names would also make many readers. Numbers or figures are parts of reports on a good number of newsworthy events like election results, scores in games, ratings in examinations, and percentage of passing, vital statistics for beauty pageants, number or fatalities  or casualties in catastrophes, accidents, and battles; prices of goods and services, increase in salaries, and other events that deal with figures. Names and numbers usually come together for these are two basic facts that reporters need to complete their news stories.

         

 

  1. What has been the contribution of print journalism in the development of the Indian society after independence?

Answer:

The print media scene in India has changed beyond recognition in the last 50 years. There has been a phenomenal rise in the number of newspapers and their circulation. The number of pages has increased. The quality of production has improved all round. Even medium Indian language newspapers have taken advantage of the advances in printing and communication technology to bring out multiple edition dailies. Newspapers of the big chains face a stiff competition from these newspapers because they are equally well produced. What is more, being rooted in the soil they are more aware of local problems. Colour printing has made the newspapers more attractive. Areas of national activity like commerce now find a prominent place in almost all-Indian language newspapers.

And yet, one will be deceiving himself to say that all is well with our print media. The Press in India, particularly the Indian language newspapers, was in the forefront of the struggle for freedom. Many leaders from Mahatma Gandhi downwards used their newspapers to activate the people to participate in the freedom struggle. But the newspapers are no longer active in the fight against poverty, disease, illiteracy and superstition. Why have newspapers declined to play an active role in this struggle? Why has the institution of the newspaper editor declined? There may be some that may not like to ask these questions but they are related to the role of a newspaper in a developing country. It is, therefore, only proper to raise these questions and to seek answers because questioning leads to introspection and introspection is the key to progress.

Growth

But before taking up these points, let us first look at the positive side. In its report, the first Press Commission said that at the end of 1952, there were 330 daily newspapers, 1,189 weeklies and 1,733 newspapers of other periodicity in India. Except for some lean years, the number of newspapers has gone up on an average by 5 per cent every year. At the end of 1998, there were 43,828 newspapers as against 41,705 in 1997. Of these, there were 4,890 dailies, 331 tri-and biweeklies, 15,645 weeklies, 12,965 monthlies, 5,913 fortnightlies, 3,127 quarterlies, 383 annuals and 1,474 publications with other periodicities. It will thus be seen that the number of daily newspapers went up more than 15 times since 1952.

The rise in circulation was even more remarkable. The latest break-down available is for 1996 and it shows that the daily newspapers that year had a circulation of 4,02,25,000. It must have gone up further in the next two years. The total circulation of all newspapers in 1998 was 12,68,49,500. An idea of the acceleration in the growth of circulation can be had from the fact that while circulation increased by 50 per cent between 1987-96, it went up by 42 per cent in just two years between 1996 and 1998.

Condition

Political leaders used the Press to rouse the people. It was, therefore, natural that the British rulers of India used every weapon in their armoury to silence the nationalist press. Newspapers always had the sword of Damocles hanging over their head. Security was asked at the slightest pretext and editors and publishers were prosecuted for sedition. Some editors were even transported to the Andamans. For the editors and people who worked in newspapers, journalism was a mission. Even captains of commerce who published newspapers treated this activity as their contribution to the struggle for freedom. Wages for journalists were poor and there was no security. Newspaper publication was not profitable and journalism was not paying as compared to other professions.

Things changed after Independence and each year saw acceleration in change. New sectors of commerce and industry became available to businessmen. They found newspapers useful in influencing the Government and the people. Some British-owned newspapers passed into Indian hands and started newspapers in Hindi and other Indian languages. The government accepted the demand for security of service for people working in newspapers and news agencies. All this helped in the growth in the number of newspapers and their circulation. The eighties and nineties saw the growth of medium Indian language newspapers. They adapted the latest printing and communication technology to bring out multiple editions.

Tendency

But this prosperity, both for newspaper publishers and the people working there, had some unforeseen results. The publisher was now more interested in profits. The earlier generation of publishers brought out serious literary and political journals even at a loss. That, they felt, was their duty to society. They ploughed the profits from viable publications to such journals. The new generation of industrialist-publishers felt no such obligation. They, therefore, closed down serious literary and political publications so as to retain the profit from the flagship publications. The tendency grew to treat the newspaper more as a marketable product than as an instrument of social change. At the root of it was the question of linkage between the newspaper publication and other industries. This problem was examined by the two Press Commissions and other bodies but no satisfactory solution has been found.

The change in the Press scenario has had unforeseen results in other areas also. In the pre-Independence era, the editorial in a newspaper was widely read for the lead it gave. In the new era, the editorial became shorter in length and weak in impact. The general line of least resistance often adopted was "things are bad – should have been better – but could have been worse". Before Independence, the readers were shocked when the renowned journalist, Pothan Joesph, editor of the nationalist Hindustan Times left the paper and became the editor of the Dawn, the mouthpiece of the Muslim League. Now not even an eyebrow is raised when professional editors switch over from one newspaper to another having diametrically opposite views. That is not the irony.The real irony is that the editor thinks he is entitled to the same respect that the editor of the earlier era enjoyed. The editor has become an ‘endangered species’. He ranks lower than not only the proprietor but also even the manager. Frequently, proprietors without any experience don the mantle of editors.

Journalists today are better paid and have greater security. Electronics has given them the tools to correct the copy as it appears on the computer screen. In the earlier era, there was the tribe of backroom boys called proofreaders. They scanned the copy with hawk-like eyes for mistakes of spelling or grammar. Readers often laid and, bet to find even one mistake of spelling in some of the prestigious dailies.

Today, with all available gadgets one often finds the same news item appearing on different pages of a daily newspaper on the same day. Even the entire third editorial was reproduced verbatim in a leading newspaper the next day. Another newspaper merrily printed the name of the Governor of the State wrongly many times. What else but carelessness could be the reason? The American automobile magnate, Henry Ford, had said that if people were paid well, they worked better. Obviously, this dictum like many others has been proved wrong in the Indian context.

Prospect

Newspaper circulation in western countries and advertisement revenue have fallen because of the spread of television. Though cable television has made many channels available to the Indian viewer, there is little danger of a fall in newspaper circulation in India in the foreseeable future. This is because electricity has yet to reach all the villages and television sets run on batteries, if designed at all, will be costly to run. The rise in population and literacy will be insurance at least for some time against the threat from television. There has, however, been a loss on revenue from advertisement. But if newspapers are to meet the challenge they will have to define their role. The two Press Commissions have commented adversely on undue importance our newspapers give to petty politics but this continues to be staple food for them.

The National Literacy Mission is making millions of people literate. These neo-literates are not children. They are adults who are playing a useful role as heads of families and as kisans and workers. They want reading material suited to their age and taste. They are prospective readers. How are our newspapers handling the question of turning these neo-literates into readers? So far, our newspapers have a pronounced urban bias. They are produced and read in big and small cities. If the newspapers are to maintain the increase in circulation, they have to take up the challenge of diversifying their approach and content and to relate more to the man living in the village than they have done so far.

 

 

7 .Drawing the organizational set up of a newspaper office discuss the roles and responsibilities of the editorial department.

Answer:

Advertising Sales

Traditionally, subscriptions generate much of the revenue for newspapers, but the Internet has undermined the subscription model and increased the importance of print and online advertising. Advertising sales in newspapers rely on knowledge of circulation and readership statistics, as well as negotiations about ad placement and page design. For online ads, sales may involve coordination with technical teams to accommodate specific client requests, as well as knowledge of the newspaper’s web metrics such as page-views, click-through rates, and bounce-rates.

Common Job Titles: Advertising Sales Executive, Advertising Account Representative, Advertising/Marketing Manager

Assignment Desk

The assignment desk has one of the busiest functions in the newsroom. The desk distributes time-critical information in the newsroom and often makes rapid decisions about leads. It handles incoming dispatches from the field, monitors emergency scanners and manages news teams and breaking stories.

Common Job Titles: Assignment Desk Editor, Producer, Assignment Editor/Producer

Editorial

The job of the editorial team is to make high-level executive decisions about what stories get coverage and what direction of content the newspaper takes, as well as to conduct the day-to-day business of fact-checking, editing for clarity, writing headlines, developing page layout and coordinating reporting activities with hard deadlines.

Common Job Titles: Editorial Director, Editorial Project Manager, Associate Editor, Editor

Information Graphics

Newspaper stories often feature informational graphics to help the reader understand aspects of the story. Graphics appear in print, and online they can take advantage of interactive web technologies. An information graphic can contain different kinds of charts and data visualizations, maps, photographs or even audio and video.

Common Job Titles: Visual Information Specialist, Graphic Designer, Graphic Editor, Data Scientist, Data Analyst

News Collection and Reporting

Reporting is the center of any news organization, and newspaper reporters have one of the most storied and iconic jobs in media. Woodward and Bernstein of the Washington Post are among the most recognizable names. News collection and reporting involves building rapport with trusted sources, developing story ideas for the editorial staff to evaluate and writing professional-quality content often on tight deadlines.

Common Job Titles: News Journalist, Multi-Media Journalist, Reporter

Online Community Development

A major driver of traffic from the web is a community of interested and opinionated website users. On modern websites comment boards frequently appear beneath stories and videos and facilitate feedback to journalists and public conversations between users themselves. Community moderators can help the most insightful comments gain visibility with voting and recommendation systems, but discourage the use of rancorous, ad hominem attacks. A well-run online community creates greater participation and click-through from its users and increases both the stature and top-line of a newsroom.

Common Job Titles: Marketing Communication Officer, Multimedia Specialist, Media Assistant, Digital Journalist

Photography

In the early twentieth century, the newspaper industry overcame the technical hurdles to perform mass publishing of photographs in periodicals. This happened approximately in concurrence with the development of reliable camera technology, and photojournalism has been a mainstay of newspapers ever since. Photography departments of a newspaper assign and coordinate with photographers in the field to shoot subjects relevant to the timely print coverage from the editorial team. Photo editors select and edit images from the field and assist in page design for a particular story. Photography is occasionally a source of controversy in a news operation. In particular, photo-editing software like Photoshop introduced to the profession new capabilities, as well as ethical quandaries.

Common Job Titles: Photographer, Image Specialist, Print Production Manager, Image Specialist, Photojournalist, Video and Media Services Specialist

Content Publishing

The publishing department is responsible for the overall operational, strategic and financial success of newspaper operations. Their duties include setting content requirements, ensuring that sales goals are met and setting and maintaining budgets. They are considered to be at the top of the newspaper chain, and one publishing department can have oversight of multiple newspapers. 

        

 

8 .Write a news report on an election rally of a major political party addressed by its party president in Delhi. Compare your report with a newspaper report

 Ans: 

 

 

 

 

Assignment B

Case study: 

Case Study

One form of media that has become increasingly popular in today’s society is mass media (mainstream media). It consists of radio, television, magazines, newspapers, and of course, the Internet. Mass media’s primary objective and purpose is to inform, educate and entertain the largest possible audience. An important facet of mass media is its ownership and consumer-based motives.

On a daily basis we are bombarded with messages and advertising, but we are able to think critically and analyse them based on how money, values, political influence, and corporate ownership affect the content within. When we do this, we are practicing media literacy: the ability to separate fact from fiction as well as understand the nature of media.

Issues of representation must also be considered in a media analysis. Are diverse people and viewpoints represented? Do we see varied representations of class, ethnicity, gender, sexuality, social role and occupation, or only stereotypes? It is easy to see how the dominant Western culture in our society sways and influences every decision relating to mass media and how little minorities have a say in what goes on in the communications industry.

Beyond simply receiving, we too can create the messages. Independent media is thriving on the Internet and young activists are behind the surge of empowered citizen-driven communication. This new trend proves how the citizen of the country even today requires media and feels the importance of it.

 

Questions:

  1. What is the primary objective of mass media?

Answer:

Mass communication conveys important matters to mass people. There are some worth mentionable purposes of mass communication.A communicator has several objectives or purposes in his mind to achieve through mass communication. The following are the notable purpose of mass communication:

  1. To Achieve

The main objective of mass communication is to achieve the target of the Organization by motivating and influencing the target audience. Here audience may be management of the business, employees, suppliers, creditors, bankers, debtors, shareholders, regulatory bodies, government, agencies, customers and the society as a whole.

  1. To Inform

Another important purpose of mass communication is to inform the public locally or globally. It is a kind of appeal of a sender to the receivers.

  1. To Raise Public Opinion

Creation of public opinion is also to be treated another important purpose of mass communication.

  1. To Grab the Market

Nowadays, Business is extending beyond its territory and for this it is using the electronic media. It is continuously changing its appeal towards consumers and customers. The advertising of multinational companies involves creativity and attracts the user group with different approaches. 

  1. To Play Diplomatic Role

Mass media are sometimes used to exercise influence in international politics. Such communication helps to reduce the adverse relationship existing between two countries.

  1. To Entertain

Mass communication also gives pleasure and amusements through the effect of sound, pictures & animation and creates enjoyable social environment.  E.g. Cinema, Drama, Video clip etc. On the other hand, Mass communication environment is the source of entertainment nowadays. So its objectives remain to maintain the source activities.

  1. To Face Emergencies

Combined and co-operative efforts of the mass people are essential to face emergency situation like natural calamities & foreign aggression. Mass communication does the job of influencing people to face such emergencies.

  1. To Solve Employee Problems

When management tries to avoid the problems of employee then mass communication highlights the issue and calls for early situation.

  1. To implement educational program

Mass communication now a days help to expand and implement educational programs. Primary, Vocational or Technical education are widely spread through radio, television, newspapers etc.

  1. To Explain Public Policy

Govt. policies related with national issues need public support. Such issues are therefore circulated among the people through mass media.

  1. To Socialization

Mass communication refers to the way in which an individual comes to adopt the behavior and values of a group. Mass media present tradition of society and by observing that we learn how people get support to act and what values are important.

 

 

  1. What role Internet is playing in information dissemination and creation?

Answer:

The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capabilities. The Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information dissemination, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographic location. The Internet represents one of the most successful examples of the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to research and development of information infrastructure. Beginning with the early research in packet switching, the government, industry and academia have been partners in evolving and deploying this exciting new technology.

This is intended to be a brief, necessarily cursory and incomplete history. Much material currently exists about the Internet, covering history, technology, and usage. A trip to almost any bookstore will find shelves of material written about the Internet.

History revolves around four distinct aspects. There is the technological evolution that began with early research on packet switching and the ARPANET (and related technologies), and where current research continues to expand the horizons of the infrastructure along several dimensions, such as scale, performance, and higher-level functionality. There is the operations and management aspect of a global and complex operational infrastructure. There is the social aspect, which resulted in a broad community of Internets working together to create and evolve the technology. And there is the commercialization aspect, resulting in an extremely effective transition of research results into a broadly deployed and available information infrastructure.

The Internet today is a widespread information infrastructure, the initial prototype of what is often called the National (or Global or Galactic) Information Infrastructure. Its history is complex and involves many aspects - technological, organizational, and community. And its influence reaches not only to the technical fields of computer communications but throughout society as we move toward increasing use of online tools to accomplish electronic commerce, information acquisition, and community operations.

Transition to Widespread Infrastructure

At the same time that the Internet technology was being experimentally validated and widely used amongst a subset of computer science researchers, other networks and networking technologies were being pursued. The usefulness of computer networking - especially electronic mail - demonstrated by DARPA and Department of Defence contractors on the ARPANET was not lost on other communities and disciplines, so that by the mid-1970s computer networks had begun to spring up wherever funding could be found for the purpose. The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) established MFENet for its researchers in Magnetic Fusion Energy, whereupon DoE´s high Energy Physicists responded by building HEPNet. NASA Space Physicists followed with SPAN, and Rick Adrion, David Farber, and Larry Landweber established CSNET for the (academic and industrial) Computer Science community with an initial grant from the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). AT&T´s free-wheeling dissemination of the UNIX computer operating system spawned USENET, based on UNIX´ built-in UUCP communication protoc

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