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Title Name Amity Solved Assignment PGDM JMC 2nd Sem for Press Ethics and Laws
University AMITY
Service Type Assignment
Course PGDM-(Journalism-and-Mass-Communication)
Semister Semester-II Cource: PGDM-(Journalism-and-Mass-Communication)
Short Name or Subject Code Press Ethics & Laws
Commerce line item Type Semester-II Cource: PGDM-(Journalism-and-Mass-Communication)
Product Assignment of PGDM-(Journalism-and-Mass-Communication) Semester-II (AMITY)

Solved Assignment


  Questions :-

                                                                                                                              Press Ethics & Laws                                                         

Assignment A

Q1). Meaning of Ethics and explain the concept of Ethics?

Q2). What are the various Types of Ethics?

Q3). Write short notes on: - a) Leaked Documents

Q4). Illustrate with examples Primary sources of Information?

Q5). Discuss the major differences between libel and slander.

Q6). How does Copyright law protects the work of the individual writer? Discuss

Q7). Why is the concept of Press Freedom controversial?

Q8). Discuss the major differences between libel and slander?

 

 

 

Assignment B

Case Study- Satellite News Gathering

Q1). Discuss how the performance of the EN8040 Voyager MPEG-4 AVC HD DSNG is becoming an essential asset for many news gathering businesses.

 

 

 

 

 

Assignment C

Question No. 1

Libel arises from ________.

Options

  1. a) Newspaper.
  2. b) Radio.
  3. c) Public Speech.
  4. d) Telephonic conversation

 

 

Question No. 2

The Copyright Act tends to ________ the rights of the creators.

Options

  1. a) Cease
  2. b) Protect
  3. c) Infringe
  4. d) Suppress

 

 

Question No. 3

Copyright infringement leads to ________.

Options

  1. a) Death sentence
  2. b) Lifetime imprisonment
  3. c) Payment of royalty.
  4. d) None of the above

 

Question No. 4

Press is subject to the restrictions that are provided under the article-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -of the Indian Constitution.

Options

  1. a) 19(1)
  2. b) 19(2)
  3. c) 19(3)
  4. d) 19(4)

 

 

Question No. 5

Official Secrets Act was passed in_______

Options

  1. a) 1932
  2. b) 1938
  3. c) 1934
  4. d) 1923

 

 

Question No. 6

Which of the following usage is exempted from infringement of copyright.

Options

  1. a) purpose of reporting current events
  2. b) purpose of a report of a judicial proceeding
  3. c) purpose of research or private study
  4. d) All of the above

 

 

Question No. 7

Which of the following is an infringement of copyright.

Options

  1. a) Imports into India, any infringing copies of the work.
  2. b) Steals some property.
  3. c) Creates fraudulent documents.
  4. d) Applies using wrong certificates to jobs

 

 

Question No. 8

Right to Information Act was enacted on __________.

Options

  1. a) 12, Oct, 2005
  2. b) 12, Sep, 2005
  3. c) 11, Sep, 2005
  4. d) 11, Oct, 2005

 

 

Question No. 9

In Plato´s ´Republic´, who or what should rule.

Options

  1. a) Tyrant
  2. b) Philosopher and king.
  3. c) Citizen.
  4. d) Democracy

 

 

Question No. 10

Spoken form of Defamation is referred to as __________

Options

  1. a) Libel
  2. b) Liberal
  3. c) Slander.
  4. d) Fake

 

 

Question No. 11

Contempt of Court Law was enacted in ________.

Options

  1. a) 1947
  2. b) 1961
  3. c) 1971
  4. d) 1950

 

 

Question No. 12

Which of the following is wrong in the case of Contempt of court?.

Options

  1. a) To threat the witnesses.
  2. b) Interfere in the judicial administration.
  3. c) Covering court news
  4. d) Charging the judge with unreason ability and inability

 

 

Question No. 13

Press and Books Registrations Act was enacted in_________.

Options

  1. a) 1857.
  2. b) 1867.
  3. c) 1887
  4. d) 1837

 

 

Question No. 14

Defamation is stated in Indian Penal Code ________..

Options

  1. a) Section 429.
  2. b) Section 439.
  3. c) Section 499
  4. d) Section 420

 

 

Question No. 15

Punishment for defamation has been dealt in IPC ________.

Options

  1. a) Sec.500-502
  2. b) Sec.400-402.
  3. c) Sec. 499.
  4. d) Sec. 420

 

 

Question No. 16

Registration of a newspaper is considered cancelled when_______..

Options

  1. a) It is not distributed evenly
  2. b) When it is not submitting a copy to RNI.
  3. c) When it is not published continuously for a year
  4. d) When it is not providing copy to public libraries.

 

 

Question No. 17

Which of the following is not stated as element of copyright

Options

  1. a) Art work.
  2. b) Writing.
  3. c) Illustration
  4. d) Adaptation

 

 

Question No. 18

Copyright entitles the owner of the work to___________.

Options

  1. a) To publish the work.
  2. b) To perform the work in public
  3. c) To make any adaptation of the work.
  4. d) All of the above

 

 

Question No. 19

The Press Council of India consists of __________ members.

Options

  1. a) 13
  2. b) 39
  3. c) 28
  4. d) 25

 

 

Question No. 20

The working journalists and other newspaper employees (Conditions of service) and miscellaneous provisions act was implemented in _________.

Options

  1. a) 1955
  2. b) 1978
  3. c) 1989
  4. d) 1857

 

 

Question No. 21

Which of the following does not contribute to the credibility of the press?

Options

  1. a) Believability.
  2. b) Sensationalism
  3. c) Impartiality
  4. d) Accuracy

 

 

Question No. 22

_______ is the practice of passing off another´s work as your own..

Options

  1. a) Slander
  2. b) Invasion of privacy.
  3. c) Libel.
  4. d) Plagiarism.

 

 

Question No. 23

The opportunity for permitting a person criticized in a story to respond to that criticism in the same story is known as _______.

Options

  1. a) Privileged statements.
  2. b) Right of reply
  3. c) Objectivity.
  4. d) Libel.

 

 

Question No. 24

A system of moral principles is known as ______.

Options

  1. a) Objectivity.
  2. b) Slander
  3. c) Ethics
  4. d) Common sense

 

 

Question No. 25

The correct chronology of four forms of media are _____, _________, _________,

Options

  1. a) Newspapers, Television, Radio, Internet
  2. b) Television, Newspapers, Radio, , Internet.
  3. c) Newspapers, Radio, Internet, Television
  4. d) Newspapers, Radio, Television, Internet

           

 

Question No. 26

Which among the following are the functions of the Supreme Court of India?.

Options

  1. a) Protection of Fundamental Rights of Citizens.
  2. b) Grant of clemency to condemned prisoners
  3. c) Arbitration between states and states and the centre.
  4. d) A and C

 

 

Question No. 27

The ideal condition for the success of parliamentary system is _______.

Options

  1. a) One dominant party.
  2. b) Two-party system.
  3. c) Single-party system..
  4. d) Multiple party systems.

 

 

Question No. 28

Indian Constitution does not clearly provide for the Freedom of Press but this freedom is implicit in the Article _______.

Options

  1. a) 19(1)a.
  2. b) 19(1)b.
  3. c) 19(1)c.
  4. d) 19(1)d.

 

 

Question No. 29

The thinkers of _______ have common tendency to entrust sovereignty to an organ of the government.

Options

  1. a) England
  2. b) France.
  3. c) Germany
  4. d) Switzerland

 

 

Question No. 30

Assertion (A): India is a union of destructible states. Reason (R): States have no control over the Constitution

Options

  1. a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
  2. b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
  3. c) (A) is true but (R) is false
  4. d) (A) is false but (R) is true.

 

 

Question No. 31

Secular was added in to the preamble in_______.

Options

  1. a) 1976.
  2. b) 1986.
  3. c) 1989.
  4. d) 1981

 

 

Question No. 32

The State is both Child and Father of Law. Who said it.

Options

  1. a) Aristotle.
  2. b) Plato
  3. c) MacIver.
  4. d) Laski

 

 

Question No. 33

State is prior to Individual. Who said it. Solve by www.solvezone.in contact for more details at - 8882309876

Options

  1. a) Plato
  2. b) Aristotle
  3. c) Hobbes
  4. d) Hegel

 

 

Question No. 34

Who propounded the Theory of Natural Rights

Options

  1. a) T. H. Green
  2. b) ]ohn Locke
  3. c) H. ]. Laski.
  4. d) Mahatma Gandhi

 

 

 

Question No. 35

A wilful disobedience of a court order is __________________.

Options

  1. a) Civil contempt
  2. b) Criminal contempt
  3. c) Contempt
  4. d) All of the above

 

 

 

Question No. 36

Who is the author of the book Public Opinion.

Options

  1. a) Bentham.
  2. b) Rousseau
  3. c) Locke
  4. d) Lipmann

 

 

 

Question No. 37

Provincial Autonomy was a feature of which Act _______.

Options

  1. a) The Government of India Act of 1909
  2. b) The Government of India Act of 1919.
  3. c) The Government of India Act of 1935.
  4. d) The Indian Independence Act of 1947

 

 

 

Question No. 38

Which one of the following Commissions examined the Centre-State relations in India

Options

  1. a) Thakkar Commission
  2. b) Sarkaria Commission
  3. c) Lingdoh Commission
  4. d) Mandal Commission

 

 

Question No. 39

Whose name is associated with the concept of Justice as Fairness

Options

  1. a) Rawls.
  2. b) Berlin
  3. c) Hayek.
  4. d) Nozick.

 

 

Question No. 40

Promoting wrong qualities of a product in advertisings termed as_________.

Options

  1. a) Plagiarism
  2. b) Paparazzi
  3. c) Puffery
  4. d) Advertors
  Answers :-

                                                                                                         Press Ethics & Laws                                                              

Assignment A

Q1). Meaning of Ethics and explain the concept of Ethics?

Ans) Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. The term ethics derives from the Ancient Greek word ἠθικός ethikos, which is derived from the word ἦθος ethos (habit, "custom"). The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of ethics and aesthetics, each concerned with values.

As a branch of philosophy, ethics investigates the questions "What is the best way for people to live?" and "What actions are right or wrong in particular circumstances?" In practice, ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality, by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime. As a field of intellectual enquiry, moral philosophy also is related to the fields of moral psychology, descriptive ethics, and value theory.

Three major areas of study within ethics recognised today are:

  1. Meta-ethics, concerning the theoretical meaning and reference of moral propositions, and how their truth values (if any) can be determined
  2. Normative ethics, concerning the practical means of determining a moral course of action
  3. Applied ethics, concerning what a person is obligated (or permitted) to do in a specific situation or a particular domain of action

The basic concepts and fundamental principles of decent human conduct. It includes study of universal values such as the essential equality of all men and women, human or natural rights, obedience to the law of land, concern for health and safety and, increasingly, also for the natural environment. See also morality.

Rushworth Kidder states that "standard definitions of ethics have typically included such phrases as ´the science of the ideal human character´ or ´the science of moral duty´". Richard William Paul and Linda Elder define ethics as "a set of concepts and principles that guide us in determining what behavior helps or harms sentient creatures". The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy states that the word ethics is "commonly used interchangeably with ´morality´ ... and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group or individual." Paul and Elder state that most people confuse ethics with behaving in accordance with social conventions, religious beliefs and the law and don´t treat ethics as a stand-alone concept.

The word "ethics" in English refers to several things. It can refer to philosophical ethics or moral philosophy—a project that attempts to use reason in order to answer various kinds of ethical questions. As the English philosopher Bernard Williams writes, attempting to explain moral philosophy: "What makes an inquiry a philosophical one is reflective generality and a style of argument that claims to be rationally persuasive." And Williams describes the content of this area of inquiry as addressing the very broad question, "how one should live" Ethics can also refer to a common human ability to think about ethical problems that is not particular to philosophy. As bioethicist Larry Churchill has written: "Ethics, understood as the capacity to think critically about moral values and direct our actions in terms of such values, is a generic human capacity." Ethics can also be used to describe a particular person´s own idiosyncratic principles or habits. For example: "Joe has strange ethics."

The English word ethics is derived from an Ancient Greek word êthikos, which means "relating to one´s character". The Ancient Greek adjective êthikos is itself derived from another Greek word, the noun êthos meaning "character, disposition".

 

 

Q2). What are the various Types of Ethics?

Ans) The main types of ethical systems include ethical relativism, divine command theory, deontology, utilitarianism and virtue ethics. These ethical systems stem from the study of moral philosophy and are influenced by the thought of Aristotle and Kant.

According to the ethical relativism system, no principles are universally valid, which means that moral principles are relative to cultural standards. For example, cannibalism is considered acceptable in some parts of the world, but strictly prohibited in the United States.

The Divine Command Theory system agrees that all moral standards depend on God. According to this ethical system, an act that conforms to divine law is right and one that breaks this law is deemed wrong. An example of the Divine Command Theory in use is the institution of the Ten Commandments in Christianity.

Deontology puts an emphasis on duty and moral rules, as well as on justice, autonomy and kind acts. This ethical system provides a special moral status for individuals and according to it, people should be treated as ends, not means.

Utilitarianism is an ethical system according to which actions are solely judged by their consequences. This system promotes equal happiness for all.

Finally, the virtue ethics system internalizes moral behavior and emphasizes achieving excellence.

Meta-ethics

Meta-ethics asks how we understand, know about, and what we mean when we talk about what is right and what is wrong. An ethical question fixed on some particular practical question—such as, "Should I eat this particular piece of chocolate cake?"—cannot be a meta-ethical question. A meta-ethical question is abstract and relates to a wide range of more specific practical questions. For example, "Is it ever possible to have secure knowledge of what is right and wrong?" would be a meta-ethical question.

Meta-ethics has always accompanied philosophical ethics. For example, Aristotle implies that less precise knowledge is possible in ethics than in other spheres of inquiry, and he regards ethical knowledge as depending upon habit and acculturation in a way that makes it distinctive from other kinds of knowledge. Meta-ethics is also important in G.E. Moore´s Principia Ethica from 1903. In it he first wrote about what he called the naturalistic fallacy. Moore was seen to reject naturalism in ethics, in his Open Question Argument. This made thinkers look again at second order questions about ethics. Earlier, the Scottish philosopher David Hume had put forward a similar view on the difference between facts and values.

Studies of how we know in ethics divide into cognitivism and non-cognitivism; this is similar to the contrast between descriptivists and non-descriptivists. Non-cognitivism is the claim that when we judge something as right or wrong, this is neither true nor false. We may for example be only expressing our emotional feelings about these things. Cognitivism can then be seen as the claim that when we talk about right and wrong, we are talking about matters of fact.

The ontology of ethics is about value-bearing things or properties, i.e. the kind of things or stuff referred to by ethical propositions. Non-descriptivists and non-cognitivists believe that ethics does not need a specific ontology, since ethical propositions do not refer. This is known as an anti-realist position. Realists on the other hand must explain what kind of entities, properties or states are relevant for ethics, how they have value, and why they guide and motivate our actions.

Normative ethics

Normative ethics is the study of ethical action. It is the branch of ethics that investigates the set of questions that arise when considering how one ought to act, morally speaking. Normative ethics is distinct from meta-ethics because it examines standards for the rightness and wrongness of actions, while meta-ethics studies the meaning of moral language and the metaphysics of moral facts. Normative ethics is also distinct from descriptive ethics, as the latter is an empirical investigation of people´s moral beliefs. To put it another way, descriptive ethics would be concerned with determining what proportion of people believe that killing is always wrong, while normative ethics is concerned with whether it is correct to hold such a belief. Hence, normative ethics is sometimes called prescriptive, rather than descriptive. However, on certain versions of the meta-ethical view called moral realism, moral facts are both descriptive and prescriptive at the same time.

Traditionally, normative ethics (also known as moral theory) was the study of what makes actions right and wrong. These theories offered an overarching moral principle one could appeal to in resolving difficult moral decisions.

At the turn of the 20th century, moral theories became more complex and are no longer concerned solely with rightness and wrongness, but are interested in many different kinds of moral status. During the middle of the century, the study of normative ethics declined as meta-ethics grew in prominence. This focus on meta-ethics was in part caused by an intense linguistic focus in analytic philosophy and by the popularity of logical positivism.

In 1971 John Rawls published A Theory of Justice, noteworthy in its pursuit of moral arguments and eschewing of meta-ethics. This publication set the trend for renewed interest in normative ethics.

Virtue ethics

Virtue ethics describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior, and is used to describe the ethics of Socrates, Aristotle, and other early Greek philosophers. Socrates (469–399 BC) was one of the first Greek philosophers to encourage both scholars and the common citizen to turn their attention from the outside world to the condition of humankind. In this view, knowledge bearing on human life was placed highest, while all other knowledge were secondary. Self-knowledge was considered necessary for success and inherently an essential good. A self-aware person will act completely within his capabilities to his pinnacle, while an ignorant person will flounder and encounter difficulty. To Socrates, a person must become aware of every fact (and its context) relevant to his existence, if he wishes to attain self-knowledge. He posited that people will naturally do what is good, if they know what is right. Evil or bad actions are the result of ignorance. If a criminal was truly aware of the intellectual and spiritual consequences of his actions, he would neither commit nor even consider committing those actions. Any person who knows what is truly right will automatically do it, according to Socrates. While he correlated knowledge with virtue, he similarly equated virtue with joy. The truly wise man will know what is right, do what is good, and therefore be happy.

Aristotle (384–323 BC) posited an ethical system that may be termed "self-realizationism". In Aristotle´s view, when a person acts in accordance with his nature and realizes his full potential, he will do good and be content. At birth, a baby is not a person, but a potential person. To become a "real" person, the child´s inherent potential must be realized. Unhappiness and frustration are caused by the unrealized potential of a person, leading to failed goals and a poor life. Aristotle said, "Nature does nothing in vain." Therefore, it is imperative for people to act in accordance with their nature and develop their latent talents in order to be content and complete. Happiness was held to be the ultimate goal. All other things, such as civic life or wealth, are merely means to the end. Self-realization, the awareness of one´s nature and the development of one´s talents, is the surest path to happiness.

Aristotle asserted that man had three natures: vegetable (physical/metabolism), animal (emotional/appetite) and rational (mental/conceptual). Physical nature can be assuaged through exercise and care, emotional nature through indulgence of instinct and urges, and mental through human reason and developed potential. Rational development was considered the most important, as essential to philosophical self-awareness and as uniquely human. Moderation was encouraged, with the extremes seen as degraded and immoral. For example, courage is the moderate virtue between the extremes of cowardice and recklessness. Man should not simply live, but live well with conduct governed by moderate virtue. This is regarded as difficult, as virtue denotes doing the right thing, to the right person, at the right time, to the proper extent, in the correct fashion, for the right reason.

 

 

Q3). Write short notes on: - a) Leaked Documents

Ans) WikiLeaks is an international non-profit journalistic organisation that publishes secret information, news leaks, and classified media from anonymous sources. Its website, initiated in 2006 in Iceland by the organisation Sunshine Press, claimed a database of more than 1.2 million documents within a year of its launch. Julian Assange, an Australian Internet activist, is generally described as its founder, editor-in-chief, and director. Kristinn Hrafnsson, Joseph Farrell, and Sarah Harrison are the only other publicly known and acknowledged associates of Julian Assange. Hrafnsson is also a member of Sunshine Press Productions along with Assange, Ingi Ragnar Ingason, and Gavin MacFadyen.

The group has released a number of significant documents that have become front-page news items. Early releases included documentation of equipment expenditures and holdings in the Afghanistan war and a report informing a corruption investigation in Kenya. In April 2010, WikiLeaks published gunsight footage from the 12 July 2007 Baghdad airstrike in which Iraqi journalists were among those killed by an AH-64 Apache helicopter, known as the Collateral Murder video. In July of the same year, WikiLeaks released Afghan War Diary, a compilation of more than 76,900 documents about the War in Afghanistan not previously available to the public. In October 2010, the group released a set of almost 400,000 documents called the "Iraq War Logs" in coordination with major commercial media organisations. This allowed the mapping of 109,032 deaths in "significant" attacks by insurgents in Iraq that had been reported to Multi-National Force – Iraq, including about 15,000 that had not been previously published. In April 2011, WikiLeaks began publishing 779 secret files relating to prisoners detained in the Guantanamo Bay detention camp.

In November 2010, WikiLeaks collaborated with major global media organisations to release U.S. State Department diplomatic "cables" in redacted format. On 1 September 2011, it became public that an encrypted version of WikiLeaks´ huge archive of unredacted U.S. State Department cables had been available via BitTorrent for months and that the decryption key (similar to a password) was available to those who knew where to find it. WikiLeaks blamed the breach on its former publication partner, the UK newspaper The Guardian, and that newspaper´s journalist David Leigh, who revealed the key in a book published in February 2011. The Guardian argued that WikiLeaks was to blame since they had given the impression that the encrypted file was temporary, taking it offline seven months before the book was published. The German periodical Der Spiegel reported a more complex story involving errors on both sides. The incident resulted in widely expressed fears that the information released could endanger people

WikiLeaks has contended that it has never released a misattributed document and that documents are assessed before release. In response to concerns about the possibility of misleading or fraudulent leaks, WikiLeaks has stated that misleading leaks "are already well-placed in the mainstream media. WikiLeaks is of no additional assistance." The FAQ states that: "The simplest and most effective countermeasure is a worldwide community of informed users and editors who can scrutinise and discuss leaked documents."

According to statements by Assange in 2010, submitted documents are vetted by a group of five reviewers, with expertise in different topics such as language or programming, who also investigate the background of the leaker if his or her identity is known. In that group, Assange has the final decision about the assessment of a document

 

 

Q4). Illustrate with examples Primary sources of Information?

Ans) A primary source is an original object or document -- the raw material or first-hand information, source material that is closest to what is being studied.

Primary sources vary by discipline and can include historical and legal documents, eye witness accounts, results of an experiment, statistical data, pieces of creative writing, and art objects. In the natural and social sciences, the results of an experiment or study are typically found in scholarly articles or papers delivered at conferences, so those articles and papers that present the original results are considered primary sources.

Primary sources are what remain from the past. Aside from human memory and the unrecorded passing down of information from generation to generation, histories based upon primary sources are really the only way the current generation can hope to understand what happened before.

Those who are not professional historians have the option of relying on others to find this evidence from the past and interpret it. But many people find it more fun and interesting to have direct contact with the historical records themselves, because they value learning about historical events in the words and images of the direct participants. Besides, everything worth finding out about hasn’t been written in a history book or journal– not by a long shot!

Example

Determining which kinds of documents constitute primary sources depends upon the topic you’re researching. (For example, sometimes the same book or article could be considered a primary source for one research topic and a secondary source for a different topic.)

The pages provide examples of types of primary sources, which can be published or unpublished and in any media format (print, audiovisual, digital, electronic). But keep in mind that primary sources are not easily categorized, so the following types are not all mutually exclusive. For example, photographs are listed as a specific type of source, but they can serve as either personal or institutional records.

Examples of primary sources:

Personal records

Sometimes people leave a personal record of events in which they have taken part or that they have witnessed. Examples of these are letters, emails, diaries, photographs and daily planners.

Personal records also include things like student identification cards and drivers’ licenses.

Examples of primary sources:

Vital records

In general, vital records are those records that are absolutely essential for an organization to continue functioning, and they are defined differently by each individual organization.

Birth certificates, death certificates, and marriage licenses are considered vital records for society, and they are maintained for a very long time in public institutions and used for genealogical research (research into family histories) as well as other research projects.

In the course of one’s life, any record that has very long-term and significant value could be considered vital, such as the title to one’s home, a birth or marriage certificate, a social security card, or a diploma.

Examples of primary sources:

Literary manuscripts

Novelists, screenwriters, playwrights, poets, and other writers often have original manuscripts included in their personal papers. These are the handwritten, typed, or word-processed versions of novels, stories, poems, scripts, articles and books as originally produced by these authors, often in multiple drafts or with scribbles and edits.

Some such manuscripts have been subsequently published or produced in some edited form, while others may never have seen the light of day.

Examples of primary sources:

Institutional records

Every organization produces records in the course of its everyday operations, and these serve to document the activities, transactions, and functions of the organization. A few examples of the many types of organizational records are: financial records, reports, meeting minutes, emails, memos, publicity materials, and internal publications like newsletters.

Examples of primary sources:

Mass media

The products of the mass media can be primary source documents if they were produced at the time of the events or phenomena in question. Examples are: newspaper and magazine articles, published photographs, recordings of television and radio broadcasts, sheet music and music recorded for mass distribution, advertisements, books, and magazines.

As we will discuss in Module 3, with any type of primary source, it is important to consider by whom, how and for what purpose it was produced. This is never more crucial than with mass media products.

Depending upon the particular mass media product, there are a number of levels at which people or institutions participated in its production and distribution. While a mass-produced source like a ‘zine or a personal blog may have very little or no mediation between the author and the reader, something like a magazine article has quite a bit: editor, copy editor, publisher, advertisers, legal restrictions, etc.

 

 

Q5). Discuss the major differences between libel and slander.

Ans) Libel and slander are both legal terms that refer to communications that can hurt a person’s reputation--and they can both lead to lawsuits--but the terms are not identical.  When it comes to defending your reputation, it’s worth knowing the difference between these important legal concepts.

The basic difference between libel and slander is that libel is published defamation, while slander is fleeting, mostly verbal. In the court of law, both are considered defamation—that is, the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual, business, or group. Some countries also have defamation laws that protect religions; these are usually known as blasphemy laws.

Origins of Slander and Libel

Slander derives from the Latin scandalum--that’s right, “scandal.” The connection is no coincidence. Historically, English and American judges subscribed to the theory that sticks and stones are more dangerous than words. In order to persuade a court to award compensation for a mere insult, it had to be something scandalous indeed.

On the Internet, messages posted to a bulletin board may constitute libel, at least according to a 2003 California Appellate Court decision.

Early slander cases were based on scurrilous accusations--like saying that a man had committed a felony, or that a woman was “unchaste.” Disease was also a popular put-down in the old days.  The 17th century fashion of accusing one’s rivals of “the pox” gave rise to lots of slander cases. Pox, you see, was a code word for syphilis.

Libel, which comes from the Latin libellus, or “little book,” came into fashion with the advent of the printing press. In the 16th century, defamatory pamphlets were known as libelli famosi, and by the 17th century, “libel” became a legal term for a written insult.

Slander is Spoken, Libel is Written

At first, a “libel” was just one example of slander.  But over time, courts began to accept the idea that putting nasty words on paper is inherently more harmful than merely speaking them. After all, documents create a permanent record that can be circulated to one’s boss or one’s in-laws.  In 1812, a British court definitively established that a claim for libel (a written insult) is legally distinct from a claim for slander (a spoken insult).

Both libel and slander are torts, meaning they are a type of injury to the person, just like a car accident is a personal injury. The Media, Pennsylvania, law firm of Barnard, Mezzanotte, Pinnie and Seelaus, LLP in Media, Pennsylvania, has represented plaintiffs in personal injury lawsuits since 1980. We have extensive experience with defamation cases, and we are also experienced litigators who have achieved numerous high-value sums in personal injury cases, including many six- and seven-figure verdicts and settlements.

To make a case for defamation—whether libel or slander—the plaintiff must show:

  • Identification: the statement clearly identifies him or her and could not be mistaken for another person
  • Publication: the statement was “disseminated to a third party,” either verbally or in writing
  • Defamatory meaning: the statement must do harm to the plaintiff’s personal or professional reputation, not just simply hurt the plaintiff’s feelings
  • Falsity: truth is a defense to a defamation claim, so the plaintiff must show that the statement was false
  • Statements of fact: statements of opinion cannot be defamatory; instead the statement must contain verifiable statements of fact
  • Damages: the defamatory statement must have caused actual economic injury or special damages as defined by the statute at issue

Public officials and public figures are held to a different standard than private citizens when it comes to defamation. A public figure may not sue for defamation unless he or she can also prove that the statements were made with actual malice, meaning knowing disregard that the statements were false.

Truthfulness of the statements is not the only defense to a claim of slander or libel. Other defenses include:

  • Statements in judicial or other proceedings are protected from claims of defamation
  • Statements reporting on the deliberations of a public agency, like a city council, are protected
  • Libel-proof plaintiffs are those public figures whose reputations are so poor that a defamatory statement could not do any additional harm

Defamation lawsuits are sometimes used offensively, in unconstitutional attempts to curb public discourse on important community issues. These lawsuits are known as SLAPP suits, or Strategic Lawsuits against Public Participation.

If you have questions as the object of a defamatory statement or a SLAPP lawsuit, consider Barnard, Mezzanotte, Pinnie and Seelaus, LLP. To schedule a free initial consultation, call 610-565-4055 or contact our Pennsylvania personal injury law firm online.

 

 

Q6). How does Copyright law protects the work of the individual writer? Discuss

Ans) What Copyright Law Covers

Copyright law protects "works of authorship" which include literary works such as short fiction, short stories, novels, nonfiction articles, poetry, newspaper articles, newspapers, magazine articles, magazines, computer software, software manuals, text advertisements, manuals, catalogs, brochures, and compilations of information, such as databases. Other categories of protected works include dramatic works, motion pictures, other audiovisual works, and sound recordings. Copyright law does not protect ideas, facts, inventions, processes, systems of operations, words, names, symbols or proprietary information, although it may protect the way these things are expressed. Inventions and processes are protected under patent law. Words, names and symbols used to identify good and services are protected by trademark law. Proprietary information (information secret to a business such as customer lists) is protected by trade secret law.

How Do You Get Copyright Protection for Your Work?

The original author of a work owns the copyright to that work, unless he or she has assigned those rights to a third party. Copyright protection arises automatically, without any action taken by the author, the moment the work is fixed in a tangible form so that it is perceptible either directly or with the aid of a machine or device. For a short-story writer, the work becomes fixed as soon as the author dictates the story, writes it down or types it into the computer. The work must be "original", e.g., not based upon someone else´s work. The fact that the short story may be similar to many other stories does not mean it is not "original" for copyright purposes, so long as the author did not copy the story from another source.

For works published before March 1, 1989, a formal copyright notice was required to be placed on the work in order to receive copyright law protections. That is no longer the case. For works published after March 1, 1989, no copyright notice need be placed on the work in order for full copyright protection to apply. From a practical standpoint, however, an author should always place the following notice on his or her work: Copyright © 1997 by Author´s Name. All Rights Reserved. The reason for this advice is purely practical; such a notice warns people who view the work that the author takes copyright issues seriously and may have a deterrent effect upon possible infringers, especially those who are unfamiliar with the intricacies of copyright law. Furthermore, if the work carries a proper notice, in the event of a subsequent infringement lawsuit the defendant will be unable to claim "innocent infringement"--that is, that he or she did not realize that the work was protected. (A successful innocent infringement defense may allow the defendant to pay less in damages than the copyright owner would otherwise receive if the infringement was found to be unintentional).

 

 

Q7). Why is the concept of Press Freedom controversial?

Ans) Freedom of the press protects the right to obtain and publish information or opinions without government censorship or fear of punishment. Censorship occurs when the government examines publications and productions and prohibits the use of material it finds offensive. Freedom of press applies to all types of printed and broadcast material, including books, newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, films and radio and television programs.

The Constitution´s framers provided the press with broad freedom. This freedom was considered necessary to the establishment of a strong, independent press sometimes called "the fourth branch" of the government. An independent press can provide citizens with a variety of information and opinions on matters of public importance. However, freedom of press sometimes collides with other rights, such as a defendant´s right to a fair trial or a citizen´s right to privacy. In recent years, there has been increasing concern about extremely aggressive journalism, including stories about people´s sexual lives and photographs of people when they were in a private setting.

In the United States, the government may not prevent the publication of a newspaper, even when there is reason to believe that it is about to reveal information that will endanger our national security. By the same token, the government cannot:

  • Pass a law that requires newspapers to publish information against their will.
  • Impose criminal penalties, or civil damages, on the publication of truthful information about a matter of public concern or even on the dissemination of false and damaging information about a public person except in rare instances.
  • Impose taxes on the press that it does not levy on other businesses.
  • Compel journalists to reveal, in most circumstances, the identities of their sources.
  • Prohibit the press from attending judicial proceedings and thereafter informing the public about them.

To a great extent, however, what we mean by freedom of the press today was shaped in an extraordinary era of Supreme Court decision-making that began with Sullivan and concluded in 1991 with Cohen v. Cowles Media Co. During that remarkable period, the Court ruled in at least 40 cases involving the press and fleshed out the skeleton of freedoms addressed only rarely in prior cases. In contrast, although the Court in the early part of the last century had considered the First Amendment claims of political dissidents with some frequency, it took nearly 150 years after the adoption of the Bill of Rights, and the First Amendment along with it, for the Court to issue its first decision based squarely on the freedom of the press.

In 2001 in Bartnicki v. Vopper, the Court held that, even when a statute is directed at deterring unlawful conduct (e.g., the interception of telephone conversations) and not at penalizing the content of press reports, it nevertheless constitutes a “naked prohibition” on the dissemination of information by the press that is “fairly characterized as a regulation of pure speech” in violation of the First Amendment. In so holding, the Court ushered in a new century of First Amendment jurisprudence by reaffirming both the Daily Mail principle — the fundamental right of a free press to disseminate truthful information about public matters — and the “central meaning of the First Amendment” on which it is based — Sullivan’s recognition that the “‘freedom of expression upon public questions is secured by the First Amendment’” so that “‘debate on public issues should be uninhibited, robust and wide-open.’”

While it is undeniable fact that freedom of press is essential ingredient of democracy, it does not mean it will advance the goals of democracy.

Namely, once in this country that now seems far away, radio and television broadcasters had an obligation to operate in the public interest. That generally accepted principle was reflected in a rule known as the Fairness Doctrine. The rule, formally adopted by the Federal Communications Commission in 1949, required all broadcasters to devote a reasonable amount of time to the discussion of controversial matters of public interest. It further required broadcasters to air contrasting points of view regarding those matters. The Fairness Doctrine arose from the idea imbedded in the First Amendment that the wide dissemination of information from diverse and even antagonistic sources is essential to the public welfare and to a healthy democracy.

In August 1987 the FCC repealed the Doctrine, claiming that it was unconstitutional, although the Supreme Court had ruled unanimously in 1969 that the Fairness Doctrine was not only constitutional but essential to democracy. As a result, general public is very rarely served with fair and balanced information. The public airwaves serve today no other purpose but to express the opinions of those who can pay for air time. Some authors argue that mainstream media journalism today is a shameful joke because of president Reagan´s decision to abolish Fairness Doctrine. Once upon a time, the Fairness Doctrine ensured that the information we receive - information vital to the ability of the people to govern in the manner intended - came from a wide variety of sources and perspectives. Reagan´s policies annihilated the Fairness Doctrine, opening the door for a few mega-corporations to gather journalism unto themselves. Today, Reagan´s old bosses at General Electric own three of the most-watched news channels. This company profits from every war Americans fight, but somehow is trusted to tell the truths of war. Thus, the myths and lies are sold to us.

 

 

Q8). Discuss the major differences between libel and slander?

Ans) Libel and slander are both legal terms that refer to communications that can hurt a person’s reputation--and they can both lead to lawsuits--but the terms are not identical. 

When it comes to defending your reputation, it’s worth knowing the difference between these important legal concepts.

The basic difference between libel and slander is that libel is published defamation, while slander is fleeting, mostly verbal. In the court of law, both are considered defamation—that is, the communication of a false statement that harms the reputation of an individual, business, or group. Some countries also have defamation laws that protect religions; these are usually known as blasphemy laws.

Origins of Slander and Libel

Slander derives from the Latin scandalum--that’s right, “scandal.” The connection is no coincidence. Historically, English and American judges subscribed to the theory that sticks and stones are more dangerous than words. In order to persuade a court to award compensation for a mere insult, it had to be something scandalous indeed.

On the Internet, messages posted to a bulletin board may constitute libel, at least according to a 2003 California Appellate Court decision.

Early slander cases were based on scurrilous accusations--like saying that a man had committed a felony, or that a woman was “unchaste.” Disease was also a popular put-down in the old days.  The 17th century fashion of accusing one’s rivals of “the pox” gave rise to lots of slander cases. Pox, you see, was a code word for syphilis.

Libel, which comes from the Latin libellus, or “little book,” came into fashion with the advent of the printing press. In the 16th century, defamatory pamphlets were known as libelli famosi, and by the 17th century, “libel” became a legal term for a written insult.

Slander is Spoken, Libel is Written

At first, a “libel” was just one example of slander.  But over time, courts began to accept the idea that putting nasty words on paper is inherently more harmful than merely speaking them. After all, documents create a permanent record that can be circulated to one’s boss or one’s in-laws.  In 1812, a British court definitively established that a claim for libel (a written insult) is legally distinct from a claim for slander (a spoken insult).

Both libel and slander are torts, meaning they are a type of injury to the person, just like a car accident is a personal injury. The Media, Pennsylvania, law firm of Barnard, Mezzanotte, Pinnie and Seelaus, LLP in Media, Pennsylvania, has represented plaintiffs in personal injury lawsuits since 1980. We have extensive experience with defamation cases, and we are also experienced litigators who have achieved numerous high-value sums in personal injury cases, including many six- and seven-figure verdicts and settlements.

To make a case for defamation—whether libel or slander—the plaintiff must show:

  • Identification: the statement clearly identifies him or her and could not be mistaken for another person
  • Publication: the statement was “disseminated to a third party,” either verbally or in writing
  • Defamatory meaning: the statement must do harm to the plaintiff’s personal or professional reputation, not just simply hurt the plaintiff’s feelings
  • Falsity: truth is a defense to a defamation claim, so the plaintiff must show that the statement was false
  • Statements of fact: statements of opinion cannot be defamatory; instead the statement must contain verifiable statements of fact
  • Damages: the defamatory statement must have caused actual economic injury or special damages as defined by the statute at issue

Public officials and public figures are held to a different standard than private citizens when it comes to defamation. A public figure may not sue for defamation unless he or she can also prove that the statements were made with actual malice, meaning knowing disregard that the statements were false.

Truthfulness of the statements is not the only defense to a claim of slander or libel. Other defenses include:

  • Statements in judicial or other proceedings are protected from claims of defamation
  • Statements reporting on the deliberations of a public agency, like a city council, are protected
  • Libel-proof plaintiffs are those public figures whose reputations are so poor that a defamatory statement could not do any additional harm

Defamation lawsuits are sometimes used offensively, in unconstitutional attempts to curb public discourse on important community issues. These lawsuits are known as SLAPP suits, or Strategic Lawsuits against Public Participation.

If you have questions as the object of a defamatory statement or a SLAPP lawsuit, consider Barnard, Mezzanotte, Pinnie and Seelaus, LLP. To schedule a free initial consultation, call 610-565-4055 or contact our Pennsylvania personal injury law firm online. Call for better Price on 8882309876 or visit at www.solvezone.in

 

 

 

 

Assignment B

Case Study- Satellite News Gathering

Q1). Discuss how the performance of the EN8040 Voyager MPEG-4 AVC HD DSNG is becoming an essential asset for many news gathering businesses.

Ans) The new, third-generation EN8040 Voyager is the world’s most integrated MPEG-4 AVC DSNG solution and combines MPEG-2 and MPEG-4 AVC encoding with a wide range of integrated output options including ASI, DVB-S2 satellite, COFDM and IP. This makes the unit not only suitable for a wide variety of roles, but also makes it multi-purpose since many of these options can be fitted and used simultaneously to target contribution applications using virtually any delivery format.

Testing proved for their application that the EN8040 Voyager could halve MPEG-2 video bit- rates while maintaining excellent video quality and low end-to- end latency. The integrated satellite modulator enabled the benefits of MPEG-2 to be concatenated with the encoding savings, providing on average a further 25 percent savings. Extensive functional testing within DSNG vehicles as well as in the lab proved that the EN8040 Voyager was reliable, simple yet very flexible and compact enough to integrate easily into existing news gathering fleets with a small amount of staff training and minimal disruption.

Working in combination with the successful Ericsson RX1290 Multi-format Professional Receiver, this contribution-focused, latency and performance optimized solution readily achieved the goal of delivering a 50 percent transponder bandwidth reduction, and resulted in a contract being placed with SIS LIVE to roll the solution out throughout the news gathering network. This included a London-based national news gathering team, 13 regional teams based around the UK and a number of international operations. Today, the EN8040 Voyager is in full service supporting all of these operations and is providing a healthy return on investment by delivering substantial bandwidth savings.

The outstanding performance of the EN8040 Voyager MPEG-4 AVC HD DSNG is becoming an essential asset for many news gathering businesses around the world. Its combination of best-in- class encoding coupled with the most efficient modulation can allow satellite bandwidth to be reduced by 50 percent, or HDservices to be offered within the same SD bandwidths. The EN8040 Voyager can rapidly repay its initial investment cost many times over, and with HD hardware fitted as standard, it is no wonder why the EN8040 Voyager is establishing itself as the new powerhouse behind modern news gathering operations. The new encoding equipment was central to the success of the project and was tasked with delivering outstanding operational efficiency without compromising either the stringent video quality or latency requirements. Since MPEG-4 AVC promises substantial bit-rate savings over MPEG-2 and is fast replacing it as the compression technology of choice in contribution applications, it was clear that equipment best able to exploit the benefits of this technology for news gathering was required. However, with many solutions on the market claiming to provide the best answer, SIS LIVE conducted its own investigations to identify the best solution in conjunction with their customer’s own testing facilities. The list of requirements was extensive and included a very high level of “systems in a box” integration, extreme ease of use and a step-change in encoding and modulation efficiency with very low end-to- end latency and very high video quality. Finally, the solution had to be HD ready to support the very real possibility of conducting news gathering in HD as well as supporting alternative delivery methods such as IP. “Our operation relies on providing a first class service to our customers who include high profile broadcasters. It was essential that our chosen solution delivered the best video quality but was also easy to use, offered a high level of integration and operated across broad range of operating points. Ericsson EN8040 Voyagers clearly met these criteria.”

 

 

 

 

Assignment C

Question No. 1

Libel arises from ________.

Options

  1. a) Newspaper.
  2. b) Radio.
  3. c) Public Speech.
  4. d) Telephonic conversation

 

 

Question No. 2

The Copyright Act tends to ________ the rights of the creators.

Options

  1. a) Cease
  2. b) Protect
  3. c) Infringe
  4. d) Suppress

 

 

Question No. 3

Copyright infringement leads to ________.

Options

  1. a) Death sentence
  2. b) Lifetime imprisonment
  3. c) Payment of royalty.
  4. d) None of the above

 

Question No. 4

Press is subject to the restrictions that are provided under the article-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -of the Indian Constitution.

Options

  1. a) 19(1)
  2. b) 19(2)
  3. c) 19(3)
  4. d) 19(4)

 

 

Question No. 5

Official Secrets Act was passed in_______

Options

  1. a) 1932
  2. b) 1938
  3. c) 1934
  4. d) 1923

 

 

Question No. 6

Which of the following usage is exempted from infringement of copyright.

Options

  1. a) purpose of reporting current events
  2. b) purpose of a report of a judicial proceeding
  3. c) purpose of research or private study
  4. d) All of the above

 

 

Question No. 7

Which of the following is an infringement of copyright.

Options

  1. a) Imports into India, any infringing copies of the work.
  2. b) Steals some property.
  3. c) Creates fraudulent documents.
  4. d) Applies using wrong certificates to jobs

 

 

Question No. 8

Right to Information Act was enacted on __________.

Options

  1. a) 12, Oct, 2005
  2. b) 12, Sep, 2005
  3. c) 11, Sep, 2005
  4. d) 11, Oct, 2005

 

 

Question No. 9

In Plato´s ´Republic´, who or what should rule.

Options

  1. a) Tyrant
  2. b) Philosopher and king.
  3. c) Citizen.
  4. d) Democracy

 

 

Question No. 10

Spoken form of Defamation is referred to as __________

Options

  1. a) Libel
  2. b) Liberal
  3. c) Slander.
  4. d) Fake

 

 

Question No. 11

Contempt of Court Law was enacted in ________.

Options

  1. a) 1947
  2. b) 1961
  3. c) 1971
  4. d) 1950

 

 

Question No. 12

Which of the following is wrong in the case of Contempt of court?.

Options

  1. a) To threat the witnesses.
  2. b) Interfere in the judicial administration.
  3. c) Covering court news
  4. d) Charging the judge with unreason ability and inability

 

 

Question No. 13

Press and Books Registrations Act was enacted in_________.

Options

  1. a) 1857.
  2. b) 1867.
  3. c) 1887
  4. d) 1837

 

 

Question No. 14

Defamation is stated in Indian Penal Code ________..

Options

  1. a) Section 429.
  2. b) Section 439.
  3. c) Section 499
  4. d) Section 420

 

 

Question No. 15

Punishment for defamation has been dealt in IPC ________.

Options

  1. a) Sec.500-502
  2. b) Sec.400-402.
  3. c) Sec. 499.
  4. d) Sec. 420

 

 

Question No. 16

Registration of a newspaper is considered cancelled when_______..

Options

  1. a) It is not distributed evenly
  2. b) When it is not submitting a copy to RNI.
  3. c) When it is not published continuously for a year
  4. d) When it is not providing copy to public libraries.

 

 

Question No. 17

Which of the following is not stated as element of copyright

Options

  1. a) Art work.
  2. b) Writing.
  3. c) Illustration
  4. d) Adaptation

 

 

Question No. 18

Copyright entitles the owner of the work to___________.

Options

  1. a) To publish the work.
  2. b) To perform the work in public
  3. c) To make any adaptation of the work.
  4. d) All of the above

 

 

Question No. 19

The Press Council of India consists of __________ members.

Options

  1. a) 13
  2. b) 39
  3. c) 28
  4. d) 25

 

 

Question No. 20

The working journalists and other newspaper employees (Conditions of service) and miscellaneous provisions act was implemented in _________.

Options

  1. a) 1955
  2. b) 1978
  3. c) 1989
  4. d) 1857

 

 

Question No. 21

Which of the following does not contribute to the credibility of the press?

Options

  1. a) Believability.
  2. b) Sensationalism
  3. c) Impartiality
  4. d) Accuracy

 

 

Question No. 22

_______ is the practice of passing off another´s work as your own..

Options

  1. a) Slander
  2. b) Invasion of privacy.
  3. c) Libel.
  4. d) Plagiarism.

 

 

Question No. 23

The opportunity for permitting a person criticized in a story to respond to that criticism in the same story is known as _______.

Options

  1. a) Privileged statements.
  2. b) Right of reply
  3. c) Objectivity.
  4. d) Libel.

 

 

Question No. 24

A system of moral principles is known as ______.

Options

  1. a) Objectivity.
  2. b) Slander
  3. c) Ethics
  4. d) Common sense

 

 

Question No. 25

The correct chronology of four forms of media are _____, _________, _________,

Options

  1. a) Newspapers, Television, Radio, Internet
  2. b) Television, Newspapers, Radio, , Internet.
  3. c) Newspapers, Radio, Internet, Television
  4. d) Newspapers, Radio, Television, Internet

           

 

Question No. 26

Which among the following are the functions of the Supreme Court of India?.

Options

  1. a) Protection of Fundamental Rights of Citizens.
  2. b) Grant of clemency to condemned prisoners
  3. c) Arbitration between states and states and the centre.
  4. d) A and C

 

 

Question No. 27

The ideal condition for the success of parliamentary s

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