Q1). Conduct an interview of 4 reporters and find out rules used by them to make a good news report
Ans) While conducting an interview, the reporter said, he had managed to draw the hurdler out about where he had been in the last few months. With the editor´s guidance, the reporter managed to turn out an acceptable story. This incident illustrates the four principles of interviewing to make a good news report:
- Prepare carefully, familiarizing yourself with as much background as possible.
- Establish a relationship with the source conducive to obtaining information.
- Ask questions that are relevant to the source and that induce the source to talk.
- Listen and watch attentively.
Because much of the daily work of the journalist requires asking people for information, mastery of interviewing techniques is essential. The four principles underlie the various techniques the reporter uses. Clearly, the sportswriter´s troubles began when he failed to prepare by obtaining background about the athlete he was to interview. Lacking background, the reporter was unable to ask questions that would draw out his source. Furthermore, he had failed to establish a rapport with the hurdler, so that the session was more like dentistry than journalism, with the reporter painfully extracting bits and pieces of information from an unwilling subject. Fortunately, the reporter had listened carefully so that he managed to salvage something from the interview.
If we analyze news stories, we will see they are based on information from several kinds of sources: physical sources, such as records, files and references; the direct observations of the reporter; interviews with human sources; online sources. Most stories are combinations of two or three of these sources.
Glance at today´s newspaper. Listen carefully to tonight´s evening newscast. You will be hard‑pressed to find a story that lacks information from an interview. A front‑page story about a court decision on welfare assistance, for example, has a quotation from the governor about the consequences of the decision. A story about the city´s plan to put desk officers on the street quotes the police chief. An obituary contains an employee´s comments about the generosity of his late boss.
Straight news stories seem to consist of physical sources and observations. Yet if you examine them closely, you will more often than not find information a source has supplied through an interview, brief as that interview may have been.
Let´s examine in detail the four principles of interviewing that we mentioned following the young reporter´s frustrating interview with the hurdler.
There´s a saying in newsrooms that good interviews follow the two “P´s” ¾ persistence and preparation. Persistence is necessary to persuade people to be interviewed, and it is essential in following a line of questioning that the subject may find objectionable.
Preparation may consist of a few minutes spent glancing through a story in last week´s newscast before dashing out to interview a congresswoman on a flying visit to look at the local Veterans Hospital where cutbacks have affected care. It may be a prolonged examination of clippings, material from Nexis and articles that databases have turned up for a profile of the new university president.
Clyde Haberman, a New York Times columnist, says “exhaustive research is the basic building block of a successful interview.”
A.J. Liebling, a master reporter who moved from the newspaper newsroom to The New Yorker magazine, is quoted in The Most of A.J. Liebling, edited by William Cole: “The preparation is the same whether you are going to interview a diplomat, a jockey, or an ichthyologist. From the man´s past you learn what questions are likely to stimulate a response.”
Research begins with the library´s clippings about the subject. If the topic has more than local importance or if the interviewee is well‑known, The New York Times Index, Facts on File or a database may have a reference that can be useful. The Readers´ Guide to Periodical Literature may list a magazine article about the topic or the person. Who´s Who in America and other biographical dictionaries can be consulted. Most of these reference works are on CD‑ROM and are accessible online. People who know the interviewee can be asked for information.
These resources provide material for three purposes: (1) They give the reporter leads to tentative themes and to specific questions. (2) They provide the reporter with a feel for the subject. (3) They provide useful background.
This was the fifth session Claudia Dreifus was spending with Dan Rather for a profile, and she knew a mile‑high barrier separated them. Finally, she told Rather, “This isn´t working.” Rather agreed and he invited Dreifus to accompany him in his pickup from Sam Houston State University in Hunstville, from which he graduated, south to Wharton, where he was born, and then over to Austin for dinner.
Back home, Rather relaxed and opened up, complaining about his ill‑fated pairing with Connie Chung on “The CBS Evening News” and worrying about the cost‑cutting that has affected news coverage.
“At CBS News, we´re down to the bone, past the bone, and we´ve been there a long time,” he told Dreifus.
With experienced subjects, interviews usually go smoothly as both stand to gain from the interview: The subject will have his or her ideas and comments before the public, and the reporter will have a story.
But with less‑experienced sources or with those who are reluctant to speak to the questions the reporter is there to ask, there can be tension. The reporter has to find ways to reach the source.
Fred Zimmerman, a long‑time reporter for The Wall Street Journal, has these suggestions about how to prepare for an interview:
- Do research on the interview topic and the person to be interviewed, not only so you can ask the right questions and understand the answers, but also so you can demonstrate to the interviewee that you have taken the time to understand the subject and also that you cannot easily be fooled.
2, Devise a tentative theme for your story. A major purpose of the interview will be to obtain quotes, anecdotes and other evidence to support that theme.
- List question topics in advance ¾ as many as you can think of, even though you may not ask all of them and almost certainly will ask others that you do not list.
- In preparing for interviews on sensitive subjects, theorize about what the person´s attitude is likely to be toward you and the subject you are asking about, What is his or her role in the event? Whose side is he or she on? What kinds of answers can you logically expect to your key questions? Based on this theorizing, develop a plan of attack that you think might mesh with the person´s probable attitude and get through his or her probable defenses.
Careful preparation leads the interviewer to a few themes for the interview, and these, in turn, suggest questions to be asked. But before the specific questions are put to the interviewee, a few housekeeping details usually are attended to, vital data questions. For some interviews, these may involve age, education, jobs held, family information. For well‑known people, the questions may be about their latest activities.
Questions of this sort are nonthreatening and help make for a relaxed interview atmosphere. Also, they are sometimes necessary because of conflicting material in the files, such as discrepancies in age or education.
People want to know these details. Harold Ross, the brilliant and eccentric former newspaperman who founded and edited The New Yorker, slashed exasperatedly at the pages of profiles and interviews that lacked vital data. “Who he?” Ross would scrawl across such manuscripts.
Even the obvious questions about background can result in fascinating and revealing answers. For a personality profile, the interviewer asked Whoopi Goldberg why she adopted Goldberg as her stage name. She replied:
“It was my mother´s idea. It´s a name from the family past. There are lots of names hangin´ on our family tree, Jewish, Catholic, Asian Black folks, white folks. I´m just the all‑American mutt.”
Simple question. Fascinating quotation.
“Great reporters are great listeners,” says Carl Bernstein of the Woodward‑Bemstein reporting team that exposed the Watergate cover‑up that led to President Nixon´s resignation.
The good listener hears good quotes, revealing slips of the tongue, the dialect and diction of the source that sets him or her apart.
In an interview with Luis Manuel Delgado whom Diana Griego Erwin encounters at a motor vehicle office in Santa Ana, Calif., she finds Delgado unable to tell the English‑speaking clerks what he needs. Does that bother him? Erwin asks. Here is an excerpt of their conversation from The Orange County Register:
“I should know how to speak English,” he said with a quiet simplicity. “This is the United States.”
“My kids are very good,” he said. “They get good marks in school. They speak English. No accent. One wants to be a doctor. When they first came here I told them to study English and learn it well. Don´t let them treat you like a donkey like they treat your papa.”
I asked him if it didn´t hurt, being treated “como un burro,” as he said.
“No, I am not a donkey and my children know it. They know I do all this for them.
“They are proud of me. Nothing anyone else says or does can make me sad when they have pride in me.
“And they will never be donkeys.”
Sometimes, a single quote can capture the person or illuminate the situation the interview is about. In an interview with a former governor of Arkansas, Sid McMath, a single quotation told a great deal. First, the background.
Q2). List down the names of the countries that use “Enactment of Anti-Press Laws”
Ans) This type of threat to the practice of press freedom is obtainable in nations pretending to be practicing democracy while in actual practice the leadership is autocratic and corrupt. To inhibit the practice of journalism and cover up their corrupt and autocratic practices, they result to promulgating anti-press laws so as to give their actions against the press a human face. These ant-press laws are found most in countries of the Third World where the press is an appendage of government (Ekeanyanwu, 2012).
FREEDOM OF PRESS IN SOUTH AFRICA
Morris (2004) defines freedom of the press in South Africa as the right to publish newspapers, magazines, and other printed matter without governmental restriction; subject only to the laws of libel, obscenity, sedition, etc. freedom of the press definition and the right to circulate opinions in print without censorship by the government. Press in South Africa has the right of publishing books, pamphlets, newspapers, or periodicals without restraint or censorship subject only to the existing laws against libel, sedition, and indecency.
According to Morris (2004) the freedom of the press was established in the Cape Colony through the efforts of journalist John Fairbairn, founder of The South African Commercial Advertiser. After Cape governor Lord Charles Somerset had repeatedly censored the newspaper, Fairbairn appealed to the British government and gained the right to publish without hindrance. This led to what became known as the "Magna Carta" of press freedom in South Africa, and concerned the proclamation of Ordinance No 60, the so-called "Press Ordinance". According to one source the date is May 8, 1829, but according to two other sources, it was promulgated on April 29, 1829, and took effect on May 15. John Fairbairn who fought to have this ordinance - though it had limitations - accepted, is today one of the honoured names in the history of press freedom in our country. The colonists were so happy with this new freedom, that they acknowledged their appreciation with a gift in the form of a priceless silver vase at a somewhat exorbitant price of 2000 rixdollars.
The practice of press freedom in the world will be discussed under the three-world groups that were in existence before the end of Cold War. The reason is that even after the end of the Cold War, these world divisions still exist and the ideological differences have not really been wiped out from their subliminal.
- The world divisions that will be discussed in this section include the following.
- The Western World which will also be referred to as the West or the First World
- The Eastern World which will also be referred to as the East or the Second World
- The Developing nations, which will also be referred to as the South Nations.
Press Freedom in the Western World
The Western World is made up of the developed capitalist nations of Europe and North America. Some of the prominent nations under this group are the US, Great Britain, France, Canada, the Republic of Germany and Australia. There are other countries in this group but their press system is not as well organised and developed as the ones mentioned above. Even the ones mentioned above are not all in the same pedigree but we chose to use them, as prototype of what is obtainable in their world. In fact, only US, Britain and France have a near perfect media system to be referred to as the First World in the hierarchy of developed media systems.
Press Freedom in the Eastern World
The Eastern world is made up of the former nations under USSR (Soviet Union), Poland, Hungary, Romania, Czech’s Republic, Slovenia, Yugoslavia, China and the other nations in part of Asia where socialism is practiced. The Eastern World is sometimes referred to as the Second World because the nations in this group are next to the West in socio political cum economic development or simply the East (from the Cold War era).
Press Freedom in the Developing World
The developing World is also referred to as the South (in international communication parlance) and is made up of “underdeveloped or the “developing” nations of Africa, Asia and Latin America. The developing World major problem, which affects every other aspects of its living, is acute underdevelopment, which has given rise to poverty and hunger. This underdevelopment cuts across all spheres of the South’s existence including the practice of journalism. Another major problem that affects and influences the practice of press freedom in the developing World is political and socio-economical instability. Some nations in this region claim to be practicing democracy while others claim they are socialist oriented. The developing World’s region is also replete with coups and counter coups and it is in this region that political leaders will prefer to die in office than vacate when public opinion is against their continued stay in power. Wars and conflicts of various natures also abound in this region and have taken their toll in both human and socio political development.
The developing nations, however, offer a mixed picture with regards to press freedom. As there are different nations at their different levels of development; so also are the different media systems in their different levels of development. Ogunsiji (1989: 162) has this to say on the controversy:
- Compared to communist countries, the developing nations offer a mixed picture. In some developing countries, such as Tanzania, Benin, Libya and Cuba, mass media are owned and directly controlled by the State within countries such as Nigeria, Libya and Ghana; news media are partly controlled by the State. In some countries, rulers have taken action to curb the press. Some have gone as far as to make treasonable any form of criticism of governments. In many more countries, while professing freedom of the press, governments have let it be known that they expect the press to toe the time to a great extent.
Q3). To establish a rapport with a source you are about to interview, few things are required. List down
Ans) Things required to establish a rapport :
Make small talk. An interview is not social hour, so there shouldn’t be too much nonprofessional small talk unless the interviewer initiates it. However, it’s perfectly OK to ask your interviewer basic questions related to her work at the company right off the bat. First, make sure you tell her how it´s a pleasure to meet and that you’re excited about the job opportunity. If she doesn’t launch directly into interview mode, feel free to ask a quick question to show your interest in her by asking something like, “how long have you worked for this company?”
Engage. The best interviews are those that are not completely one-sided. You want a back and forth in which you ask questions as they come to you. If you need to write down a reminder on your notepad as the interviewer is talking, that’s fine. Don’t interrupt her, but when she is done speaking, ask away. Another way to demonstrate your interest is to refer back to something she said earlier. You should only do this if something comes to you naturally. Otherwise, it will feel and look forced.
Inject personality. Show her your sense of humor, and let her see your smile or hear your laugh. These are all positive gestures that can enhance rapport between you two and thus the impression the interviewer has of you. Don’t resort to jokes to show your humor, but if there is a place in the conversation where it feels appropriate to say something funny and politically correct, don’t hold back.
Ask questions. While you should attempt to interact with the interviewer throughout the conversation, you absolutely must ask at least one question at the end. During the interview, ask for clarification on things you´re not sure you understand. This is not a mark against you, but rather shows the interviewer you´re listening and want to see the full picture. Asking follow-up questions during and at the end of the interview accomplishes both of these things. Make sure when you walk out the door you understand what the job entails and the company culture as best you can.
Show gratitude. Tell the interviewer how much you’ve enjoyed the conversation and that you hope to hear from her soon. Be sure to ask for her business card or email address if you don’t already have one or the other. Write a thank-you email, and send a handwritten thank-you note in the mail the following day. Make them as meaningful as possible and different. Mention something from your conversation that sparked further interest in joining the company. You can say similar things in each note, but you’ll need to paraphrase or use different information. Job seekers think thank-you notes – emailed and handwritten - don’t matter. They do, and they can make all the difference in getting an offer or not.
Q4). Analyze news and study its important terms
Ans) News is information about current events. Journalists provide news through many different media, based on word of mouth, printing, postal systems, broadcasting, and electronic communication.
Common topics for news reports include war, government, politics, education, health, the environment, business, and entertainment, as well as athletic events, quirky or unusual events. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, laws, taxes, public health, and criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times.
Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news, which they satisfy by talking to each other and sharing information. Technological and social developments, often driven by government communication and espionage networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content. The genre of news as we know it today is closely associated with the newspaper, which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press, to Europe.
The English word "news" developed in the 14th century as a special use of the plural form of "new". In Middle English, the equivalent word was newes, like the French nouvelles and the German neues. Similar developments are found in the Slavic languagesthe Czech and Slovak noviny (from nový, "new"), the cognate Polish nowiny, the Bulgarian novini, and Russian novosti — and in the Celtic languages: the Welsh newyddion (from newydd) and the Cornish nowodhow (from nowydh).
Jessica Garretson Finch is credited with coining the phrase "current events" while teaching at Barnard College in the 1890s.
As its name implies, “news” typically connotes the presentation of new information.The newness of news gives it an uncertain quality which distinguishes it from the more careful investigations of history or other scholarly disciplines. Whereas historians tend to view events as causally related manifestations of underlying processes, news stories tend to describe events in isolation, and to exclude discussion of the relationships between them. News conspicuously describes the world in the present or immediate past, even when the impost important aspects of a news story have occurred long in the past—or are expected to occur in the future. To make the news, an ongoing process must have some “peg”, an event in time which anchors it to the present moment. Relatedly, news often addresses aspects of reality which seem unusual, deviant, or out of the ordinary. Hence the famous dictum that “Dog Bites Man” is not news, but “Man Bites Dog” is.
Another corollary of the newness of news is that, as new technology enable new media to disseminate news more quickly, ´slower´ forms of communication may move away from ´news´ towards ´analysis´
According to some theoretical and understandings, "news" is whatever the news industry sells. Journalism, broadly understood along the same lines, is the act or occupation of collecting and providing news. From a commercial perspective, news is simply one input, along with paper (or an electronic server) necessary to prepare a final product for distribution. A news agency supplies this resource “wholesale” and publishers enhance it for retail.
Most purveyors of news have claimed the values impartiality, neutrality, and objectivity, despite the inherent difficulty of reporting without political bias. Perception of these values has changed greatly over time. Michael Schudson has argued that, before the era of World War I and the concommitant rise of propaganda, journalists were not aware of the concept of bias in reporting, let alone actively correcting for it. News is also sometimes said to portray the truth, but this relationship is elusive and qualified.
Paradoxically, another property commonly attributed to news is sensationalism, the disproportionate focus on, and exaggeration of, emotive stories for public consumption. Thus news is also not unrelated to gossip, the human practice of sharing information about other humans of mutual interest. A common sensational topic is violence; hence another news dictum, “if it bleeds, it leads”.
Newsworthiness is defined as a subject having sufficient relevance to the public or a special audience to warrant press attention or coverage. In some countries and at some points in history, what news media and the public have considered "newsworthy" has met different definitions, such as the notion of news values. Many news values seem to be common across cultures. People seem to be interested in news to the extent which it has a big impact, describes conflicts, happens nearby, involves well-known people, and deviates from the norms of everyday happenings. War is a common news topic, partly because it involves unknown events that could pose personal danger.
Q5). Critically analyze various formats of the story and its various elements
Ans) Analysis will make up most of the body of the paper. It is helpful to look at analysis as "decoding". Authors rarely say what they mean in a straightforward, obvious way, but they are trying to communicate with readers nonetheless. In doing so they use a variety of tools to enrich their purpose, tools such as character, setting, symbol, etc. These tools are the elements of fiction, and they make up a "code". Analysis means literally picking a story apart--separating out the characters, the plot, the imagery, the setting, and so on, from one another in order to get a look at how they work together to get a theme across to a reader. By doing this, one decodes the story. These can be mysterious and confusing to the beginner. However, with practice, a reader can learn to unravel the code.
After stating one´s idea about the theme of the story in the thesis statement, one must prove one´s idea, and this follows in the body of the paper. One proves the thesis through analysis; analysis usually looks something like this: give a thesis for your paper (the thesis is the jist of your argument); make a series of assertions supporting your thesis (these can consist of the topic sentences of your paragraphs), find evidence from the text that supports your assertions, and explicate the evidence in light of the assertions you have made (these make up the supporting details of your paragraphs).
For example, one might say the following:
Katherine Mansfield presents conflicting views of the character of Miss Brill. On the one hand Mansfield seems to appreciate people with Miss Brill´s sensitivity and imagination because of the loving detail with which she paints her. The author´s loving detail helps us to understand Miss Brill´s perspective on life and sympathize with her sensitive soul. On the other hand, Mansfield shows us that when a couple of characters are cruel to Miss Brill, she is crushed; her naivete has left her completely unprepared for their behavior.
Mansfield thus shows that characters like Miss Brill are heading for disappointment because they either refuse to or are unable to acknowledge the "evil" that coexists with the "good" in people. However, the conflicts Mansfield create present a balanced, and therefore a literarily "good," presentation of her theme. Mansfield does not approve of human cruelty because she also presents us with the pain it causes Miss Brill, a character with whom the reader has been made to sympathize at least partially. In spite of the representation of "evil" and its aftermath, Mansfield neither wholly condemns nor wholly approves of any character in the story. In evaluation, one might say that this story has merit because Mansfield herself is able to balance her critical observations of the character of Miss Brill with sympathy, and thus achieves a valid insight into a particular kind of personality and its relationships with others. In this way, Mansfield´s story successfully presents a complex idea about complex human beings in a fair, balanced way.
The above analysis has focussed on one character and her thoughts and behavior; however, one does not have to write only about character. In fact, there are really very few rules to follow in writing a critical analysis. One can write an analysis devoted exclusively to a writer´s use of any one element or device present in fiction. One can write an analysis by talking about a combination of elements. This is because every story is different, and writers use different elements in different ways for different reasons. Thus it is really up to the writer of a critical paper to decide what is important in an individual story and why it is important enough to be written about.
Examining stories in terms of each literary element will help a great deal in the interpretation of a story. What follows is a list of major story elements and a set of questions for consideration. It is not necessary to answer each and every question in a critical analysis paper; they are there to help writers get ideas. It should be kept in mind that some elements are given more emphasis than others in different stories, so only those that apply to a particular story need be discussed in a critical analysis. Finally, the "so what?" question should always be answered--in other words, critical papers should tell why something in a story is important and should give proof of any assertion about a story.
It is a good idea to put the story´s theme at the center of the paper; focusing on one theme will help keep the paper unified. A theme is similar to a message, a main idea, or a moral; however, it is "deeper", more profound, than any of these. A theme is the author´s statement about his view of human nature, about certain kinds of people, about certain classes of people, about particular human emotions, or about life in general. It should be expressed in one or, at most, two sentences.
A character is a person in a story. Is the character being discussed static or dynamic? Is he two dimensional or complex? Does he have contradictory characteristics or is he consistent? Does his personality relate to conflicts in the story, and if so, how? Do different characters stand in for alternative ways of living and acting? Are there characters in the story with whom the reader might choose to compare the character being considered? Is the character presented directly or indirectly? What is implied by his mannerisms, clothing, speech, background, religion or lack of religion, goals, reaction to others? Does he have a value system, how is it presented, and what is it like? What do the character´s actions express about him? Is there any special imagery associated with the character, and what does it imply about him? What does the narrator say about him? Is the narrator accurate and reliable? What does the character say about himself? Is his self-knowledge limited or unrealistic, or is it accurate and complete? Is he able to apply his self-knowledge and change? Are his opinions of others reliable? What do other characters say about him? Are those characters reliable, or are they perhaps overly critical, unsympathetic or blind to his faults? What are the character´s motivations? Are they believable? What interactions between characters take place, and what are the results? Why are those interactions and their results important?
The plot consists of the events that take place in a story, plus the conflicts and suspense involved as the events take place. The plot should never be summarized; instead, one should assume that whoever reads the critical analysis paper already knows the sequence of events. Instead, one should talk about how and why things happen. Everything happens in a story for a reason, so whenever an event takes place it should be related in some way to the author´s purpose. What emotions does the reader experience at different points in the plot? These are clues to conflict and suspense? What are the conflicts--man versus man, man versus nature, society, or himself? Could any events be compared or contrasted? How do the conflicts relate to the story´s theme? Is there any symbolism or imagery connected to an event that helps the reader understand the event´s meaning? Is the plot suspenseful? If so, what creates the suspense--for example, which conflicts, dilemmas, important information unknown to a character? Why is the ending "true-to-life" or unrealistic? Is it crystal-clear and final, or is it indeterminate (open-ended)? Does the ending make sense when compared with what happens in the story? Does irony occur with an event or with an ending?
The main character or protagonist of a story usually has a conflict to deal with. What does the protagonist or other characters in question struggle against? How is the conflict revealed through plot, characterization, narration, dialogue, etc. Which events are particularly important in the progress of the conflicts? In other words, what are the turning points of the story? What characters or ideas are opposites in the story? Is this a story of man versus man, man versus nature, society, destiny, or himself? Is there a combination of these conflicts? Are there any choices that the character must make? Does the story show conflicting ways of looking at a person, problem, or event?
The setting consists of characters´ surroundings. In what era and what nation do the characters exist? What objects appear? Does the author mention a setting simply as a matter of course, or does he describe a setting to create an atmosphere or to give clues about the characters and events? What events are tied to certain settings? How does the connection effect the meaning of the events? What imagery belongs to a particular setting, what does it imply? Is the setting symbolic in any way? Is a certain setting associated with a fantasy for a particular character? Do certain characters seem to belong more in one setting than in another, and if so, why? Does a character change when he enters a new setting? Does the new setting actually cause him to change, or does it bring out hidden aspects of his personality?
Look at Literature: Structure, Sound, and Sense for a detailed discussion of the various types of point-of-view. Point-of-view, which is often called narration, has to do with the way information is presented in the story, and, as a result, what readers can know about characters and events. What one knows effects the interpretations one can make--the meanings one can get out of a story. Does the story change point-of-view? How does the change effect its meaning? If one of the story´s characters tells the story, how does this effect the meaning? Is he a major or a minor character? Does he present events accurately and interpret them fairly? How do his flaws, virtues, advantages, disadvantages effect his storytelling?
Tone reflects the author´s attitude toward the characters and events in his story. Is the writer detached (lacking emotion) or is he involved? Is the writer´s attitude admiring, approving, warm, or disliking, cold, bitter or perhaps even angry, harsh, or condemning? Is his attitude light-hearted, playful, or comic, or is it grand, lofty, or serious? What is it about the author´s writing that reflects the attitudes you find in the story? Does the writer understate or overstate his idea? Does he exaggerate or does he use irony? Does he write plainly, simply, matter-of-factly? What kinds of description does the writer use? Are his adjectives glowing and vivid or are they calm and bland? How does the author´s manner of description, and thus his attitude, change from character to character? Are there particular images that seem to point to a particular attitude on the writer´s part? Does the characters´ situation or setting relate to or reflect the story´s tone?
Irony is defined as a discrepancy between appearances and what one knows to be true, or between what one might expect to take place and what actually does. Is there a difference between what a character says and what the reader knows to be true? Does the story emphasize a difference between appearance and reality, between an expectation and an actual fulfillment? Is an outcome of a story the opposite of what one would think it would be? Does a character say one thing but mean the opposite? All of these situations signal irony. How do these situations relate to the story´s theme?
A symbol is simply something that means more than what it is; it has a different, abstract meaning apart from its literal significance. It can be an object, a person, a situation, an action, or any other thing presented in a story.
Q6). Identity types of news collected from five different sources
Ans) Historians and other scholars classify sources as primary or secondary. This distinction is important because it will affect how you understand these sources. In this first video of a 2-part tutorial, we will discuss primary sources.
Primary sources are most often produced around the time of the events you are studying. They reflect what their creator observed or believed about the event. These sources serve as the raw material that you´ll analyze and synthesize in order to answer your research question, and they will form key pieces of evidence in your paper´s argument. Secondary sources, in contrast, provide an interpretation of the past based on primary sources.
This newspaper article is an example of a primary source. It describes a visit Nixon made to the Soviet Union in 1959. It was written the day after by a journalist who witnessed the event, and it reflects what the journalist and his editors thought their readers would care about at the time. Another example is this pamphlet, which compiles legal testimony from a witch trial. It was published in 1646, the same year as the trial it documents. But, given the nature of the topic, you would probably want to research the pamphlet´s author, John Davenport, to determine the reliability of the transcription or what might have motivated him to publish it.
However, you should be aware that there´s nothing inherent in a source that makes it primary or secondary. Instead, its category depends on how you treat it, which in turn depends on your research question. For example, Black Reconstruction in America, written in 1935 by W.E.B. Du Bois, could be used as a secondary source for research about 19th-century America, since Du Bois draws on a range of government reports, biographies, and existing historical narratives in order to make a claim about the past. However, it could also be used as a primary source for research about Du Bois’s life or black intellectual culture during the 1930s.
One of the main challenges of dealing with primary sources is locating them. Many historical documents have never been published, and they may only be available in archives. For example, here is a page from the expense book of a student enrolled in the University of Illinois in 1930. It is a unique document located in the Student Life and Culture Archive here on campus, and it is only accessible to those who can come to the archive in person. This, on the other hand, is a published primary source: a diary, written in 1912, and first published several decades later. Our copy is in the Main Stacks.
Some of these materials, like letters, were not published at the time of creation, but have been subsequently published in a book, or digitized and made available online. For some topics, historical documents might be difficult to find because they have been lost or were never created in the first place. In other cases, the primary sources might exist, but not in English. Therefore, when you begin to formulate a topic, you will want to think about what kinds of evidence will be available to you.
When thinking about how to find or make sense of primary sources, you should ask yourself three questions:
- When and where was it created?
- Who created it?
- For what purpose or audience was it produced?
Depending on the topic and time period that you are studying, you’ll have to look for different kinds of primary sources. For example, if you are interested in the issue of birth control in 20th century America, you can expect to find many primary sources, including:
- court cases
- legislative documents
- newspaper articles
- and letters
If you are interested in a topic from a more distant historical time period, such as the status of Jews during the Renaissance, you may have to look harder, but you can still find documents such as:
- and pamphlets
If you’re interested in first-person accounts, you’ll want to take a look at sources like:
- oral histories
- literary works
- or polemical writings
You´ll have to determine if the source is a reliable account, or created with the intention of imposing a particular understanding of an event or situation. Were they created at the time of the events they recount, or were they written many years later? Some sources might make this point of view obvious, whereas others might pretend to be authoritative.
In other cases, you’ll want to think about what kinds of organizations might have created records related to your topic. You might be able to find:
- government reports
- legislative documents
- court records
- transactions of an association
- annual reports and financial records
- or reports of non-governmental organizations.
Again, you’ll want to determine the circumstances of the document´s creation. Was it an internal document, created to gather information, or was it intended to persuade others inside or outside the group to take a certain course of action?
Visual material can also provide a powerful window onto the time period you are studying. For instance, maps not only reveal contemporary political boundaries, but also how people thought of them. Other visual sources include:
- travel narratives
- and motion pictures
Keep in mind that primary sources can have multiple meanings. For example, this 1854 map provides evidence about the 1854 London cholera outbreak, but it also reflects a new understanding of how disease spreads and a concern with illness as a social problem.
You can find published primary sources by using the online catalog, or by searching in a digital collection of historical documents, such as the Gerritsen Collection of Women´s History, Chronicling America, and Empire Online. The History Library maintains a list of these collections on its website.
Remember, though, that these databases will not explicitly categorize the items they list as primary and secondary, and may even contain documents that you might want to use as a secondary source, so you’ll have to use your own judgment. For example, you might be interested in this Dictionary of Women´s Employment for the information it contains about wages, or for the attitudes that it conveys about what kinds of jobs are appropriate for women.
You can also find primary sources by consulting published bibliographies, and by looking at the secondary literature on your topic to see what sources other scholars have used in their research.
Q7). Identity types of news collected from three different sources
Ans) In journalism, a source is a person, publication, or other record or document that gives timely information. Outside journalism, sources are sometimes known as "news sources". Examples of sources include official records, publications or broadcasts, officials in government or business, organizations or corporations, witnesses of crime, accidents or other events, and people involved with or affected by a news event or issue.
According to Shoemaker (1996) and McQuail (1994), there are a multitude of factors that tend to condition the acceptance of sources as bona fide by investigative journalists. Reporters are expected to develop and cultivate sources, especially if they regularly cover a specific topic, known as a "beat". Beat reporters must, however, be cautious of becoming too close to their sources. Reporters often, but not always, give greater leeway to sources with little experience. For example, sometimes a person will say they don´t want to talk, and then proceed to talk; if that person is not a public figure, reporters are less likely to use that information. Journalists are also encouraged to be skeptical without being cynical as per the saying "If your mother says she loves you, check it out." popularized by the City News Bureau of Chicago. As a rule of thumb, but especially when reporting on controversy, reporters are expected to use multiple sources.
Using confidential information
Even if they cannot report certain information directly, journalists can use "off the record" information to uncover related facts, or to find other sources that are willing to speak on the record. This is especially useful in investigative journalism. Information about a surprise event or breaking news, whether on or off the record, is known as a "tip-off". Information that leads to the uncovering of more interesting information is called a "lead".
The identity of anonymous sources is sometimes revealed to senior editors or a news organization´s lawyers, who would be considered bound by the same confidentiality. (Lawyers are generally protected from subpoena in these cases by attorney–client privilege.) Legal staff may need to give counsel about whether it is advisable to publish certain information, or about court proceedings that may attempt to learn confidential information. Senior editors are in the loop to prevent reporters from fabricating non-existent anonymous sources and to provide a second opinion about how to use the information obtained, how or how not to identify sources, and whether other options should be pursued.
The use of anonymous sources has always been controversial. Some news outlets insist that anonymous sources are the only way to obtain certain information, while others hold strict prohibitions against the use of unnamed sources at all times. News organizations may impose safeguards, such as requiring that information from an anonymous source be corroborated by a second source before it can be printed.
Nonetheless, prominent reports based on anonymous sources have sometimes proven to be incorrect. For instance, much of the O. J. Simpson reporting from unnamed sources was later deemed inaccurate. Newsweek retracted a story about a Qur´an being flushed down a toilet that led to riots in the Middle East; the Qur´an desecration controversy of 2005 was based upon one unnamed military source. The Los Angeles Times retracted an article that implicated Sean "Diddy" Combs in the beating of Tupac Shakur. The original article was based on documents and several unnamed sources. When reporting on the original story, the Associated Press noted that "[n]one of the sources was named".
After the embarrassment, a news organization will often "clamp down" on the guidelines for using unnamed sources, but those guidelines are often forgotten after the scandal dies down. One study found that large newspapers´ use of anonymous sources dropped dramatically between 2003 and 2004. The Project for Excellence in Journalism, a research group found use of anonymous sources dropped from 29 percent of all articles in 2003 to just 7 percent in 2004.
Not on tape
Whether in a formal, sit-down interview setting or an impromptu meeting on the street, some sources request that all or part of the encounter not be captured in an audio or video recording ("tape"), but continue speaking to the reporter. As long as the interview is not confidential, the reporter may report the information given by the source, even repeating direct quotes (perhaps scribbled on a notepad or recalled from memory). This often shows up in broadcasts as "John Brown declined to be interviewed on camera, but said" or simply "a spokesperson said".
Some interview subjects are simply uncomfortable being recorded. Some are afraid that they will be inarticulate and make fools of themselves when the interview is broadcast. Others might be uncooperative or distrust the motives or competence of the journalist, and wish to prevent them from being able to broadcast an unflattering sound bite or part of the interview out of context. Professional public relations officers know that having the reporter repeat their words, rather than being on the air themselves, will blunt the impact of their words. The audience need not see or hear them being uncomfortable (if they have unpleasant news), and not being on air also allows them to be anonymous or identified only by title.
Q8). Evaluate information included in broadcast style of writing after doing research from internet
Ans) The world is full of information to be found—however, not all of it is valid, useful, or accurate. Evaluating sources of information that you are considering using in your writing is an important step in any research activity.
We live in an age overflowing with sources of information. With so many information sources at our fingertips, knowing where to start, sorting through it all and finding what we want can be overwhelming! This handout provides answers to the following research-related questions: Where do I begin? Where should I look for information? What types of sources are available?
Broadcast journalism is the field of news and journals which are "broadcast", that is, published by electrical methods instead of the older methods, such as printed newspapers and posters. Broadcast methods include radio (via air, cable, and Internet), television (via air, cable, and Internet) and the World Wide Web. Such media disperse pictures (static and moving), visual text and sounds.
Conducting Primary Research
Primary research involves collecting data about a given subject directly from the real world. This section includes information on what primary research is, how to get started, ethics involved with primary research and different types of research you can do. It includes details about interviews, surveys, observations, and analysis.
Television (TV) news is considered by many to be the most influential medium for journalism.[by whom?] For most of the American public, local news and national TV newscasts are the primary news sources.[attribution needed] Not only the numbers of audience viewers, but the effect on each viewer is considered more persuasive ("The medium is the message"). Television is dominated by attractive visuals (including beauty, action, and shock), with short soundbites and fast "cuts" (changes of camera angle). Television viewing numbers have become fragmented, with the introduction of cable news channels, such as Cable News Network (CNN), Fox News Channel and MSNBC
The industry divides local television in North America into media markets. These television markets are defined by viewing area and are ranked by the number of audience viewers. New broadcast journalists generally start in the smaller markets with fewer viewers and move up to larger television stations and television networks after gaining experience. The larger stations usually have more resources and better pay.
United States stations typically broadcast local news three or four times a day: around 4:30–6 am, 11:30 or noon, 5 or 6 pm, and 10 or 11 at night. Most of the nightly local newscasts are 30 minutes, and include sports television and weather. News anchors are shown sitting at a desk in a television studio. The news anchors read teleprompters that contain local interest stories and breaking news. Reporters frequently tell their stories outside the formal television studio in the field, in a remote broadcast setting where Electronic news-gathering (ENG) techniques are used with production trucks. Daytime television or morning shows include more "soft" news and feature pieces, while the evening news emphasizes "hard" news.
News anchors (formerly "anchormen") serve as masters-of-ceremonies and are usually shown facing a professional video camera in a television studio while reading unseen teleprompters. The anchors are often in pairs (co-anchors), who sit side by side and often alternate their reading. Meteorologists stand in front of chroma key backgrounds to describe weather forecasting and show maps, charts and pictures. Reporters research and write the stories and sometimes use video editing to prepare the story for air into a "package". Reporters are usually engaged in electronic field production (EFP) and are accompanied by a videographer at the scenes of the news; the latter holds the camera. the videographer or assistants manage the audio and lighting; they are in charge of setting up live television shots and might edit using a non-linear editing system (NLE). Segment producers choose, research and write stories, as well as deciding the timing and arrangement of the newscast. Associate producer, if any, specialize in other elements of the show such as graphics.
A newscast director is in charge of television show preparation, including assigning camera and talent (cast) positions on the set, as well as selecting the camera shots and other elements for either recorded or live television video production. The technical director (TD) operates the video switcher, which controls and mixes all the elements of the show. At smaller stations, the Director and Technical Director are the same person.
A graphics operator operates a character generator (CG) that produces the lower third on-screen titles and full-page digital on-screen graphics. The audio technician operates the audio mixing console. The technician is in charge of the microphones, music and audio tape. Often, production assistants operate the teleprompters and professional video cameras and serve as lighting and rigging technicians (grips).
Evaluating Sources of Information
Evaluating sources of information is an important step in any research activity. This section provides information on evaluating bibliographic citations, aspects of evaluation, reading evaluation, print vs. Internet sources, and evaluating Internet sources.
Searching the World Wide Web
This section covers finding sources for your writing in the World Wide Web. It includes information about search engines, Boolean operators, Web directories, and the invisible Web. It also includes an extensive, annotated links section.
This page contains links and short descriptions of writing resources including dictionaries, style manuals, grammar handbooks, and editing resources. It also contains a list of online reference sites, indexes for writers, online libraries, books and e-texts, as well as links to newspapers, news services, journals, and online magazines.
This resource discusses conducting research in a variety of archives. It also discusses a number of considerations and best practices for conducting archival research.
This resources was developed in consultation with Purdue University Virginia Kelly Karnes Archives and Special Collections staff.
News Gathering is one of the most competitive areas of broadcasting, making the ability to deliver high quality video and audio in the most efficient way possible an absolute commercial necessity. News Gathering is one of the most competitive areas of broa