Introduction to Journalism & Mass Communication
1.What is Harold Lasswell’s Model? Describe it in detail.
Harold Dwight Lasswell, the American political scientist states that a convenient way to describe an act of communication is to answer the following questions
- Says What
- In Which Channel
- To Whom
- With what effect?
This model is about process of communication and its function to society, According to Lasswell there are three functions for communication:
- Surveillance of the environment
- Correlation of components of society
- Cultural transmission between generation
Lasswell model suggests the message flow in a multicultural society with multiple audiences. The flow of message is through various channels. And also this communication model is similar to Aristotle’s communication model.
In this model, the communication component who refers the research area called “Control Analysis”,
Says what is refers to “Content Analysis”,
In which channel is refers to “Media Analysis”,
To Whom is refers to “Audience Analysis”
With What Effect is refers to “Effect Analysis”
CNN NEWS – A water leak from Japan’s tsunami-crippled nuclear power station resulted in about 100 times the permitted level of radioactive material flowing into the sea, operator Tokyo Electric Power Co said on Saturday.
Who – TEPC Operator
What – Radioactive material flowing into sea
Channel – CNN NEWS (Television medium)
Whom – Public
Effect – Alert the people of japan from the radiation.
Advantage of lasswell model:
- It is Easy and Simple
- It suits for almost all types of communication
- The concept of effect
Disadvantage of lasswell model:
- Feedback not mentioned
- Noise not mentioned
- Linear Model
2 What is magic bullet theory? Explain it with appropriate example.
The magic bullet perspective, also called the hypodermic needle model, is a model for communications. Magic bullet theory has been around since the 1920s to explain “how mass audiences might react to mass media,” reports Media Know All. According to University of Twent in the Netherlands, the theory states that mass media has a “direct, immediate and powerful effect on its audiences.”
Several factors, including widespread popularity of radio and television, led to this “strong effects” theory of media influence. Also important were the new “persuasion industries” of advertising and propaganda being utilized by industries and governments alike. In the 1930s, the Payne Fund, developed by the Motion Picture Research Council, studied the impact of motion pictures on children to see if the magic bullet effect was controllable. Even Hitler monopolized the mass media in the belief that he could use it unify the German public behind the Nazis in the 1940s.
The theory “suggests that the message is a bullet, fired from the ‘media gun’ into the viewer's head,’” states the University of Twente. In this model, the audience is passive. Viewers are sitting ducks with no chance to avoid or resist the impact of the message. Mass media, in this view, is dangerous because people believe the message since there is no other source of information. It is a "crude model," adds Media Know All, since it leaves out any attempt by the audience to consider or challenge the data.
Information, the theory claims, passes into the audience members’ consciousness as a mass or single entity, without regard for individual opinions, experiences or intelligence. In this theory, the creators of mass media strictly manipulate the audience as a single unit and the media-makers find it easy to direct viewer’s thoughts and actions. Magic bullet theory assumes that the audience is singular and passive.
This theory, based on assumptions about human nature rather than on empirical evidence, was not as widely accepted as mass-media experts of the era indicated. The most famous magic bullet incident was the 1938 radio broadcast of “The War of the Worlds” and the mass reaction of the American audience that thought it was real. In reality, this incident sparked research into the phenomenon and eventually showed that reactions depended on situational and attitudinal aspects of the various individual listeners.
In the 1940 presidential election of Franklin D. Roosevelt, a study called “The People’s Choice” tested the theory. The study, conducted by Paul Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson and Hazel Gaudet used a modification of the magic bullet theory called the Two Step Flow theory. Instead of proving the theory, it showed that the majority of viewers did not respond to the propaganda. The results actually showed that interpersonal relationships influenced people more often by the media.
The magic bullet theory is considered too cumbersome to test and offers inaccurate results. Modern researchers wanted more empirical explanations for the relationship between media and audience. Since media obviously did not turn the audience into unthinking drones, those studying the field sought a more definable reaction. Some groups still quote the theory to explain why certain audiences should not be exposed to certain media such as youth to comics in the 1950s or rap in the 2000s, reports Media Know All, “for fear that they will watch or read sexual or violent behavior[s] and will then act them out themselves.”
- What are the forms and elements of communication? Explain in detail.
Communication Process & The Elements of Communication
Systematic=Step by Step=Process
Communication as a Process
Human communication is interpersonal, it is purposive and it is a process.
Question: What do we mean by process?
Answer: By process we mean that steps have to be taken and in a set/particular order to achieve a desired result/goal. These are the important elements of the communication process:
The sender also known as the encoder decides on the message to be sent, the best/most effective way that it can be sent. All of this is done bearing the receiver in mind. In a word, it is his/her job to conceptualize.
The sender may want to ask him/herself questions like: What words will I use? Do I need signs or pictures?
The medium is the immediate form which a message takes. For example, a message may be communicated in the form of a letter, in the form of an email or face to face in the form of a speech.
The channel is that which is responsible for the delivery of the chosen message form. For example post office, internet, radio.
The receiver or the decoder is responsible for extracting/decoding meaning from the message. The receiver is also responsible for providing feedback to the sender. In a word, it is his/her job to INTERPRET.
This is important as it determines whether or not the decoder grasped the intended meaning and whether communication was successful.
Communication does not take place in a vacuum. The context of any communication act is the environment surrounding it. This includes, among other things, place, time, event, and attitudes of sender and receiver.
NOISE(also called interference)
This is any factor that inhibits the conveyance of a message. That is, anything that gets in the way of the message being accurately received, interpreted and responded to. Noise may be internal or external. A student worrying about an incomplete assignment may not be attentive in class (internal noise) or the sounds of heavy rain on a galvanized roof may inhibit the reading of a storybook to second graders (external noise).
The communication process is dynamic, continuous, irreversible, and contextual. It is not possible to participate in any element of the process without acknowledging the existence and functioning of the other elements.
- Write on current and future trends in mass communication.
Our age is no different from the age when mass society theory, limited effects perspective or social cognitive theory and uses and gratifications theories were produced.
The introduction of new technologies, the interest in and efforts at controlling them and a concern that their use not conflict with democratic and pluralistic ideals gave rise to different mass communication theories. These theories initiated and shaped emerging ideas about the role of media in the lives of individuals and in the cultures and societies they occupy.
Contemporary mass communication theory must evolve ¬ and in involving ¬ to accommodate these rapidly moving and powerful alterations in the audience/ mass media relationship.
As we have discussed that mass communication, research has undergone a profound transformation in the past 40 years.
Some changes were the result of the rise of critical and cultural theories and challenge they posed to the limited effects paradigm, but change also came from within the limited effects paradigm as researchers moved away from a narrow focus on short-term, direct effects and developed active audience theories of mass communication. Still more change was initiated by researchers who argued that mass communication theory to create comprehensive theories of communication.
We will first consider communication science, a perspective that unites researchers who prefer to base their inquiry on quantitative, empirical research methods.
Then we will discuss recent critical and cultural studies scholarship and see that these scholars also are moving toward consensus. Recently Klaus Bruhn Jensen, a Danish scholar, has offered social semiotics theory as a unifying framework for mass communication research.
We will also discuss the four major issues which are of special concern to the communication scholars in building new communication theories.
- The most obvious of the concern is the ongoing revolution in communications technology, one that shows no signs of weakening. This revolution is producing technologies and applications that fill every niche on the Communications spectrum, ranging from the intrapersonal communication we carry on with ourselves to powerful forms of mass communication capable of simultaneously sending messages to every person on earth. Each of these new media is likely to play different roles in society and in our personal lives. Some will quickly disappear and others will succeed ¬ often for unexpected reasons. Some older media will persist, but their role will be greatly altered or diminished. This is what happened to radio after the rise of television in the 1960s. Others will disappear entirely. Media researchers will struggle to keep pace with this rapidly changing media landscape.
- The second concern/ force is closely related to the first. Since the end of the cold war, a new world order has been emerging. One to the primary attributes of this world order is globalization. More and more social organizations are being developed that have worldwide scope.
These include multinational government organizations such as the EU, multi-national corporations and worldwide nongovernmental organizations.
As globalization becomes ever more prominent, the role of media and advertising and consumerism also increases. Ideal for the large multinationals that can take best advantage of globalization include the even larger "market" to which products can be sold. However, diverse cultures could sometimes be an obstacle to easy selling. Ideally then, attitudes and consumption habits need to be similar for best effect. As a result many media companies promote and project a more aligned culture that will cross these boundaries but also allow easier consumption of their products.
Though advertising has gone global, many advertisers have moved toward niche markets. Instead of marketing to the masses, they target segments. New media and communication technologies enable advertisers to reach select group of consumers with selective media. Marketers now search for and implement media and marketing plans aimed at special selective market.
Of all the media forms, it is television, according Nicholas Abercrombie in his book, Television and Society, 1996, that contributes most to a sense of globalisation. Television in its scope and effects has become truly international. First, its content is international. It is not only news programmes that depict events taking place in far away places. Further, television is, in effect creating a global audience. Second, television can be received internationally. This is partly a function of new means of supply, cable and satellite transmission. In certain circumstances, the international scope of television transmission can leave national governments powerless to regulate the content of programmes that its population can receive. Third, the ownership of television production and distribution is becoming internationalized. Fourth, the aspects of the globalisation of television concern the trade, the imports and exports in television programmes and products. Fifth and last, television is produced internationally. Some of the processes involved are most obvious in the production of news. There are television news agencies, which distribute raw, unedited news footage from around the world.
The convergence phenomenon has altered the conventional conceptions of mass communication. Richard Campbell along with his colleagues Christopher R Martin and Bettina Fabos defines age of media convergence as the merging of the electronic and digital eras. Media convergence according to the authors is a term that refers to the appearance of older media forms on the newest media outlets. For example, magazine articles radio programmes now accessible on the Internet.
In the context of audience, there is a shift by media toward smaller and smaller target audiences. The result is narrowcasting as against broadcasting. Today’s mass media is all about ‘specialized media’ for ‘specialized audiences’. Phrases such as the “18-24 year old” and “target audiences” are in use these days. Programming which at one time was directed was at mass audiences, has now become local programming directed at specialized audiences. City magazines are another example of specialized media.
As technology has allowed communication media to target audiences and get fast feedback, there has been increased emphasis on the interactivity. Now you have interactive television, interactive cable, interactive telephones, interactive computer services, interactive games, interactive commercials, and interactive compact discs and so on. Interactive is used as synonym for two-way. But few of the systems developed to date that are truly two ways in the same sense that a conversion between two people is.
The new technologies have made it possible to strip away many layers of the media organizations and to shrink the minimum size of the media enterprises back to the size of small cottage industries. Media corporations are getting bigger but the number of people required to turn out a media product within them is shrinking.
Theorists have long predicted trend toward specialized and personalized media. Industrial society eventually necessitated the creation of specialized media and post-industrial society results in the growth of service industries, which are “consumer of specialized media”. We are in the era of new media technologies and personalized media. There are videodisc and videotapes for personal viewing. Direct broadcast satellites make possible for us to purchase antenna and receive hundred of channels where the personal preferences and choices of what and when to watch is possible. Through Internet we can hook up to such services as stock market reports, gardening information and airline schedules. In the process we become not only the receivers of communication but also the senders and gatekeeper
Last but not the least, ownership of media companies in fewer and fewer hands is threatening diversity of opinion, alternative sources of information and a full public agenda are essential for the workings of a healthy society. The concentration of ownership in the mass media seems to work against this. Having a few huge corporations control our outlets of expression could lead to less aggressive news coverage and a more muted marketplace of ideas.
- Write on scope and nature of mass media.
Media plays a vital role in shaping our society. It plays a crucial role in mobilizing people to face challenging activities language being the first major development in human society, helped to put an end to communication problems. Thus emerged the oral and written forms of communication with the advancement of science and technology, tools were devised for recording massages and transferring them among and between individuals. Massages that were being conveyed included symbols words, hence we had verbal (words, symbols)and non verbal communication(Signs, gestures, feelings).communication is the shuttling of massages and ideas between individuals, where there is mutual gain till the goal is reached. Communication comes from the latin word communis means “to share”. Communication is also a social process.
Media uses channels to carry the massage. It includes not only the mechanical devices but also the institutions that uses these machines to transmit massages when we talk about the media of T.V, Radio, Newspapers, Magazines etc. The media of radio. T.v, film, book publishing sound recording, news papers, magazines and internet have the largest audience, employ the most people and have the greatest impact and we are very much familiar of these.
The media available to use are basically of two kinds. They are :
1) Using of modern means of communication.
2) Those which are known as traditional media.
The different media are :
1) Print – printed word and pictures – pictures mostly appeal to the sense of sight.
2) Radio – Sense of sound.
3) Audio – Visual- which appeal to both visual and auditory sense.
4) Traditional Media – folk dance, folklore, community singing, rural theatre.
5) Oral communication – Public meeting, group discussions, individual contacts.
6) Outdoor Media – Printed word and visual.
Eg : Posters, Cinema slides, hoardings etc
Media uses channels to carry the massage. Media includes not only the mechanical devices that transmit and sometimes store the massage but also the institutions that use these machines to transmit massage when we talk about the media of Television, radio, newspapers, magazines, sound recording, film and also the technology that goes into producing and distributing communication. The media of T.V, film, book publishing sound recording, newspapers, magazines and internet have the largest audience, employ the most people and have the greatest impact. They are also the ones with which most of us are most familiar.
There are two aspects of scope. They are : audience scope and subject scope.
Audience Scope :
It is necessary for the communicator to clearly identify the target audience of the communication. It will also allow the communicator to tailor the communication to the particular needs of the audience. The communicator must make sure that the target audience is clearly identified. Communication may be forwarded, or copied without the distribution list, at which point the target audience definition is lost.
Subject Scope :
A communication should always clearly identify the subject scope of the communication. It is the specification of the information covered by the communication. It may be more useful to specify the scope in terms of what is not covered by the communication. The scope of a communication should appear as near to the start of the communication as possible.
A communication will always have a purpose. A good technical communication will always have a purpose for the reader. Most technical communications the purpose of the communication must be clear to the recipient of the communication.
Communication opens scope like advertising, films, newspapers, magazines, websites, T.V. channels, radio, corporate communications, press information bureau, central information service etc. Doing a course in mass communication requires a lot of skills, such as creativity, imagination, spontaneity, innovation and flexibility. Any communication has a desired effect and it is the end of communication only if this takes place, communication is effective. Communication has effect. Noise is something that makes communication less effective. To make it effective we have to have a dynamic interplay between source, massage, channel, audience. It has short term and long term effect. Changes in people’s knowledge, attitude, behavior and skill are long term effect. Mass communication is a field interesting to be in and to make successful career in:
1) Types of media and
2) Its advantages and disadvantages
Mass Media Advantages and Disadvantages
- Television: It reaches more people than any other medium.
- Cable T.V: Better equipped to target a specific audience both psychographic ally and geographically more cost efficient, does not reach as many people.
- Radio: Able to target specific audiences with higher frequency of the massage; need to buy 2-3 stations for good reach, not as expensive as television.
- Newspapers: communicates details about arts organizations events; can geographically target a city or communities.
- Magazines: Reach upscale audiences, higher quality graphics and environment; based on a weekly, monthly publishing cycle, it is difficult to develop an adequate frequency level.
- Internet: Good support medium; communicates a lots of information for events.
Mass communication industry holds a prominent position in the society today. Its scope is very vast. Media becomes a part and parcel of daily life. We look up to the media to gain an insight of what really is happening. Mass communication keeps us informed, an educates us on the news that holds significance in same way or the other. Without it, we would definitely have no scope to grow or evolve.
The Mass communication industry provides exciting and well – paying job opportunities in agencies, print media, broadcasting media, visual media and internet etc. The biggest advantages which is associated with the mass communication industry is that it gives creatively inclined people a lot of opportunities to explore and experiment.
An interesting field to pursue a career in, the field of mass communication is definitely one of the leading industries which comes in with tremendous scope for mass communication students. Mass communication courses encompasses various streams. In general “Media” refers to various means of communication. Mass communication has developed to be an integral aspect of all our lives, without which, we could cease to exist as a well – informed, developed, civilized nation. The mass communication and the media industry are always on the lookout of hardworking and skilled professionals.
Communication is the process of exchanging information through a common system of symbols. It takes a Wide Variety of forms – from two people having face to face conversation to hand signals to massage sent over the world. Common forms of communication include speaking, writing, gesturing and broadcasting. Communication means to inform, tell, show or spread information. When a person communicates, he/she establishes a common ground of understanding.
Communication can also be defined as the process by which information and feelings are shared by people through an exchange of verbal and nonverbal massages. It is also the creation of shared understanding through interaction among two or more agents.
1) “Communication is transfer of information from one person to another, whether or not it elicits confidence. But the information transferred must be understandable to the receiver” – G.G.Brown.
2) “Communication is the intercourse by words, letters or massages” – fred G.Meyer.
Mass communication is an area of study that is institutionalized in various names like communication studies, communication sciences, communication arts, media studies, speech communication etc. It is often recognized as a backbone of our society. It is believed and said that it would be hard to construct a modern society without its active involvement. These days a number of private and government institutes offering mass communication courses to the young aspirations and help them to make their career in any of the media fields like journalism, advertising, radio and public relations etc.
There are different process of mass communication. They are:
The achievement of these objectives largely depends upon proper coordination and integration of human effort in an organization. It is the process which enables management to allocate and supervise the work of the employees. The effectiveness of management largely depends upon the effectiveness of their communication.
Characteristics of Business Communication:
Characteristics of Business Communication continuous process. A short lived process needs proper understand leads to the achievement of the Organizational objective Dispels misunderstanding.
Functions of Communication
Functions of Communication information: Information refers to the role of communication in facilitating decision making and problem solving.
Informal Communication when any one can tell anyone else anything informally, the result is a rapid flow of information along what is commonly known as grapevine.
Benefits, Limitations and guidelines
Miscommunication organizational structure: All organization irrespective of their size, have their own communication techniques and each nurtures its own communication climate.
Incorrect choice of Medium:
Choosing and inappropriate communication medium can distort the image and block the intended meaning.
Information overload: Too much information is bad because it reduces the audience’s ability to concentrate on the most important part of the massage. There are two significant reasons for any massage to become complex in a business setting. One, the difficult nature of the massage and the other, the difficulty in understanding it.
Steps to reduce Miscommunication
Step to reduce Miscommunication consider seriously the recipient of our massage. We should think about how to send the massage i.e we should mode the verbal or written. We should follow up our verbal massage with a written statement.
In Biology “Symbiosis” is defined as the association of two organisms for mutual benefit. In media the Television and film industries demonstrates what we might call a form of symbiosis. Although spoken of individually, those media do not exist in a vacuum. In the future, we are likely to see more examples of the synergy that exists among all communication media.
- Discuss the contribution of Wilbur Schramm to Communication Theory.
Life and Education:
Wilbur Schramm is considered one of the founding fathers of the mass communications field. In the 20th century, Schramm revolutionized mass communication as a scholastic discipline, segregating it from other forms of communication study. Schramm´s own personal affliction of struggling with a stutter affected the way in which he communicated with the world around him and how he thought about communication.
Schramm was born in 1907 in Marietta, Ohio. He graduated from Marietta College in 1928, earning his bachelor´s degree in History and Political Science, before moving on to Harvard where he worked toward his Masters in American Civilization. He completed the doctoral program at the University of Iowa in English Literature. It was at the University of Iowa that Schramm launched the first doctoral program in mass communication studies under the field of journalism.
Schramm spent years undergoing speech therapy to aid in helping him overcome his stutter. The practice of speech therapy influenced his post-doctoral research, working on experiments related to audiology problems. Continuing his career at the University of Iowa, Schramm took on the position of director of the Iowa Writers´ Workshop, which is renowned around the United States as one of the best programs of its kind. This workshop served as a model for Schramm to establish a doctoral communication program at the university years later. it was real advance
Some of Schramm´s most important work was conducted during World War II, at a time when the media was actively analyzing the way in which people received and interpreted information communicated via the mainstream media. This was most especially critical for the use of propaganda to gain support for the war and for politicians looking to gain support from their constituents. Schramm worked in the Office of Facts and Figures and the Office of War information. It was during this time that the study of mass communication and analysis began as Schramm and other scholars gathered to research how messages and propaganda should be prefaced to achieve the desired response from the audience.
In 1943, Schramm formally established the mass communication doctoral program at the University of Iowa. In 1947, he went on found and serve as the director of the Institute of Communications Research at the University of Illinois and then in 1955, he became the director of the Institute for Communication Research at Stanford University
Vision: Schramm’s vision made the discipline of communication science a reality in the sense of its academic and official basis in American universities. However, his impact in the field of communication extended beyond just the United States: it also went international, to Latin Countries, Africa, third world countries, and Asia
Theories: (demonstrated by models) Wilbur L. Schramm was a forefather in the growth of a basic model of communication. His model is a beginning of the Shannon-Weaver transmission model of communication. The Shannon-Weaver model was made up of six elements of communication: source, encoder, message, channel , decoder, and receiver
Wilbur Schramm´s 1954 model magnifies on this thinking by highlighting the process of encoding and decoding the message. Schramm proposed this process as a reciprocal circular communication between the sender and receiver. The Shannon-Weaver model is a more mathematical and technological one, Schramm incorporates the study of human behavior in the communication process.
Communication method: This is a diagram of Schramm’s feedback loop model
Field of Experience - an individual´s beliefs, values, experiences and learned meanings both as an individual or part of a group.
Diagram of Schramm´s field of experience:
Dr. Schramm suggests that the message can be complex by different meanings learned by different people. Meanings can be denotative or connotative. Denotative meanings are common or dictionary meanings and can be the same for most people. Connotative meanings are expressive or evaluative and based on individual experience. A message can also have external and hidden meanings. Other features of messages that impact communication between two individuals are: intonations and pitch patterns, accents, facial expressions, quality of voice, and gestures. The successful communication of a message depends on whether this message will be accepted over all the competing messages.
Philosophy: Dr. Schramm believed that all of these elements were important functions of communication in society. He believed that people in a society need information on their environment and methods of communicating in order to make choices.
Schramm believed that an individual’s knowledge, experience and cultural upbringing also play an important role in communication. People from different cultures, religion or background tend to interpret the message in dissimilar ways.
- Write a detailed script for a Tele-film on Communal Harmony.
My Great India
Teacher: Ok class, today is the 25th of January. Do you know what it means?
Student 1: No.
Student 2: Is it your birthday?
Student 1 and 2: Happy Birthday!!!!!!!!!
Teacher: It is not my birthday.
Student 1:Darn it.
Student 2: We could have had a celebration.
Teacher: . If today is the 25th, then tomorrow is the?
Student 1 and 2: Tomorrow is the 26th.
Teacher: Yes, and tomorrow is a holiday.
Student 1 and Student 2: YAY!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Teacher: Wait students, do you know why we have a holiday tomorrow?
Student 1 and Student 2: Don’t know, don’t care!
Teacher: Don’t you kids know what special occasion Indians celebrate on the 26th January?
Student 1 and 2: Why should we care, we get a holiday regardless, right?
Teacher: Tomorrow is Republic Day.
Student 1: Republic Day?
Student 2: What is that?
Teacher: That is YOUR homework, to find out all about Republic Day and its significance. And by the way, my birthday was yesterday.
Teacher walks away
Student 1: Come on, let’s go on the internet and see some videos about Republic Day.
Student 2: Look, I found a video. Let’s watch it.
Students 1 and 2 sit at the side while another scene starts.
Narrator: After the long fought battle for independence has been won, now we must decide what to do with this country. We need rules. We need a Constitution. But a Constitution cannot be made without people, and so, let the people themselves decide the rules. Let us see their progress.
Narrator walks off stage
A fight is brewing, many yells and shouts are heard.
Leader 1: There should be a monarchy system of government. We should have Kings and Queens like Britain.
Leader 2: Are you mad! If India has a monarchy, how are we different from the Britishers? We would be placing our trust in some idiot son of a king. We should go for communism. Everything should be owned by the government.
Leader 1: No way! I will never allow this!
Narrator: In times of trouble, we need one man to look to. Only one man can stop this argument, a man long dead before this argument. We must bring him back. Mahatma Gandhi!
Gandhi enters dramatically, followed by Jawaharlal Nehru.
Gandhi: Yeh war zone hai kya?
Nehru (sadly): Nai, yeh tho Indian Parliament hai.
Nehru (yells to the leaders): Zagda Zagdi Mat Karo , Gandhiji ko yaad karo
Gandhi: Why are you fighting? Have you forgotten me so easily?
Leader 1: Sir, this idiot wants to have a communism system of government.
Leader 2: Sir, this other idiot is no better, he wants to have a monarchy type of government.
Gandhi: Communism? Monarchy? Why is it that all countries have these types of government? My friends, this is India. India has a richer history and background than any other country. We are unique, just like the very people that constitute India. Why not have a democracy? Let us truly be unique. Mera Bharat Mahan!
Leader 1 and 2: Democracy? What is that?
Nehru: Freedom of speech, my friends,
Freedom of thought,
Freedom to vote
Freedom of press.
Democracy my friends, democracy.
Leader 1 and 2: Yes, democracy. That is the best idea for our India.
Narrator: And so, with the help of our leaders, we came up with a constitution, one that defines every one of us here now.
Everyone except Student 1 and 2 exit.
Student 1: Wow, what a video. I guess our homework is done.
Student 2: Wait, I want to see one more video.
Indian Guy: China is a dumb country. They don’t even have a democracy.
Chinese Guy: What did you say?! How dare you?
Indian Guy: Why not? I can say what I want. The other day, I was going to vote, but I found out that there was no democracy in this country!
Chinese Guy: Well this is not India. We do not allow such talk. Police!
2 policemen enter
Police 1: Sir, for disrespecting our country by articulating yourself, you are under arrest.
Indian Guy: What! You are ridiculous. Get your hands of me! I just spoke what I felt. I want to go back to India.
Police 2: Sir, until then, you are welcome to use our jail as your hotel. Please come.
Exit police officers and Indian guy and Chinese guy.
Student 1: Wow, imagine what it must be like to have no freedom to articulate your thoughts.
Student 2: I know, it makes me feel so happy that we have the privileges that others don’t .
Exit both students
- Write short notes on any three of the following.
A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region. Increasingly, film festivals show some films outdoors. Films may be of recent date and, depending upon the festival´s focus, can include international and domestic releases. Some festivals focus on a specific film-maker or genre (e.g., film noir) or subject matter (e.g., horror film festivals). A number of film festivals specialise in short films of a defined maximum length. Film festivals are typically annual events. Some film historians do not consider Film Festivals as official releases of film, like Jerry Beck.The best known film festivals are the Venice Film Festival, the Cannes Film Festival, the Toronto Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, and the Berlin International Film Festival, the latter being the largest film festival worldwide, based on attendance. The Venice Film Festival is the oldest major festival. The Melbourne International Film Festival is the largest film festival in the Southern Hemisphere and one of the oldest in the world. A 2013 study found 3,000 active films festivals worldwide—active defined as having held an event in the previous 24 months.
India is home to one of the largest film industries in the world. Every year thousands of movies are produced in India. Indian film industry comprises of Hindi films, regional movies and art cinema. The Indian film industry is supported mainly by a vast film-going Indian public, though Indian films have been gaining increasing popularity in the rest of the world, especially in countries with large numbers of emigrant Indians.
India is a large country where many languages are spoken. Many of the larger languages support their own film industry. Some of the popular regional film industries in India are Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Punjabi. The Hindi/Urdu film industry, based in Mumbai, formerly Bombay, is called Bollywood. Similar neologisms have been coined for the Tamil film industry Kollywood and the Telugu film industry. Tollygunge is metonym for the Bengali film industry, long centered in the Tollygunge district of Kolkata. The Bengali language industry is notable as having nurtured the director Satyajit Ray, an internationally renowned filmmaker and a winner of many awards.
The Bollywood industry is the largest in terms of films produced and box office receipts, just as Urdu/Hindi speakers outnumber speakers of other Indian languages. Many workers in other regional industries, once established, generally move to Bollywood for greater spotlight or opportunity. An interesting example of this phenomenon is the famous music director A.R. Rahman. He started his career in Tamil film industry and later moved to the Bollywood.
INSAT – 1C:
The INSAT-1C was the third spacecraft in the first generation Indian National Satellite system. The geostationary (at 94 deg E), three-axis stabilized spacecraft was functionally identical to INSAT 1A and 1B, and was designed to provide combined telecommunications, direct TV broadcast, and meteorological service to India´s civilian community over a 7-year-in-orbit life span. The telecommunications package provided two-way, long-distance telephone circuits and direct radio and TV broadcasting to the remotest areas of India. The meteorology package was comprised of a scanning very-high-resolution, two-channel radiometer (VHRR) to provide full-frame, full-earth coverage every 30 min. The visual channel (0.55-0.75 micrometer) had a 2.75-km resolution while the IR channel (10.5-12.5 micrometers) had an 11-km resolution. Using the INSAT TV capability, early warnings of impending disasters (i.e., floods, storms, etc.) can directly reach the civilian population, even in remote areas. The INSAT-1C also had a data channel for relaying meteorological, hydrological, and oceanographic data from unattended land-based or ocean-based data collection and transmission platforms.
The last trend that is shaping the transition of the mass media goes by the name “social media.” Although the label is simple, the concept is hard to define in a few words. At the risk of making things too simple, social media are online communications that use special techniques that involve participation, conversation, sharing, collaboration, and linkage.
Participation is the simplest technique that defines social media. It involves soliciting feedback from people about various issues or items. A news Web site that asks for opinions about a proposed new program and a Web operation such as Digg that lets people vote for their favourite online article or image are examples of participation.
Blogs and other Web sites that allow people to comment and to respond to one another are examples of the conversation function. Sharing is illustrated by YouTube, Flickr, and other sites where individuals can create and upload content for others to see. Wikis are social media that exemplify collaboration. The most elaborate social media involve linkage. These are sites such as Facebook, Myspace, Google Groups, and Twitter where people can link up with friends (both close and distant) and form their own social networks and communities.
- How social media is playing important part in communication? How it is affecting the traditional media?
Social media is forming an increasingly central part of how we all communicate. Its online communities carry a strong and influential voice, and there is much to be gained from engaging directly with people through these channels – whether that be to reach journal readers, to network with colleagues, or even just to keep up to date with friends and family.
With most social media channels only having been in existence for less than ten years, can any of us claim to be an expert? How can we best navigate all that social media has to offer in such a fast-paced and evolving digital climate? Is it really worth all the time and resource to set up and manage an active social media account?
Taylor & Francis sought to address some of these questions by conducting research into how the library community is currently using and applying social media. Libraries have been particularly prevalent in their uptake of social media, and use it as a key medium for engaging with their users. As such, it is an issue close to the heart of how libraries are evolving and Taylor & Francis wanted to help benchmark current use and provide best-practice recommendations to help navigate what the future may bring.
How it is affecting the traditional media?
- One-third of journalists said social media posts are not a reliable source of information. Despite this, half of journalists said social media were their main source of information.
- Remarkably, half of journalists said they consider consumer opinion to be more reliable than a statement by an organisation. Journalists use social media to find out what people are talking about and when writing articles, but do not always check whether public opinion is based on facts.
- Fact-checking has become less thorough; ‘publish first, correct if necessary’ is the motto these days. Only 20% of journalists always check their facts before publishing. Almost half of journalists said they published most of their stories as quickly as possible to correct later if necessary. PR professionals also noted that since the arrival of social media journalists are getting in contact less frequently to check facts.
- Journalists (60%) said they feel less bound by journalistic rules on social media than with traditional media such as a newspaper article. They act differently on social media than in traditional media, sharing their personal opinion more openly on social media, despite the fact that journalists are seen as being objective and reporters of news facts relating to events of general importance.
- Dutch PR professionals are lagging behind compared to their international counterparts. In the Netherlands the focus lies on sending out news, while internationally more attention is devoted to dialogue and direct contact with journalists and consumers via social media.
The 5 main expectations for the future
- Journalists expect less fact-checking to be done in the future. Conversely the role of crowd-checking, whereby the public’s opinion is used and accepted as being true, will grow in importance.
- User-generated content, such as tweets and pictures or videos from bystanders, is already widely used in news and is expected to grow further.
- Dutch PR professionals will stage a catch-up as they reduce their focus on sending out releases and concentrate more on engaging in dialogue and building relations.
- Journalists expect journalism to be driven by clicks and views more than by content.
- PR professionals expect their contact with consumers to intensify with increasingly less involvement of journalists, now that they have the ability to approach the target group directly and engage in dialogue with them.
- How social media affecting its users and society as a whole?
social media has both positive and negative impacts on society.let me list some;
- meeting people you may not have met outside the social media forums
2.sharing ideas beyond the geographical boundaries-like am doing now.
- reducing travelling costs , costs of buying books and other references especially if you need a page or two in the whole book and other costs
4.expansion of democratic space.with some gonerments imposing serious mass media ban,social media can offer some outlet
- you can persuade your pals to maintain peace in your societ throgh the social media
- if you combine social media and other media ,you can reach more people for purposes of business,education ,health etc.
social media can be abused by its users too. for example by invading on peoples privacy.Its not fair for people to discuss anyone on social media platforms without consent.Then there is impersonification . you may not know whether the image i use is my real one-this may encourage the society to be falseful.Social ties like family ones can also weaken as people spend more time connecting to new people.As long as the basic human need to connect is met online,offline friends may not be regarded.
- What is the future of social media? How it will affect media industry?
Imagine that the internet is a lake. Its levels continue to rise as it grows bigger and bigger. Each social internet giant (Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, Kickstarter, etc.) is a speedboat in this lake creating constant waves. Watching the yearly statistics of social media is like watching these waves chaotically spread throughout the entire lake generating incredible change and dissipating just before they reach the edges.
The number of global internet-users has a 7.6-percent year on year growth rate. This lake gets bigger and bigger, there´s constant movement in the water, almost nothing stays stagnant and the trends of the web spread far and wide. Anybody that uses internet on a daily basis is effected by what takes place, and we are all forced to adapt to the changes it brings to our social culture if we are not the ones creating the change ourselves. Let´s look at the stats:
From the past year (August 2014 - August 2015) from We Are Social:
- Facebook is dominating this global landscape of social media with nearly 1.5 billon active monthly users worldwide. In just over a decade they´ve brought on just under half of the 3.1 billion active Internet users and just short of 75-percent of the 2.2 billion active social media users. Facebook is the biggest speedboat in the lake right now.
- QQ - a messaging platform in China is not far behind Facebook with 832 million monthly active users.
- What´s App got a boost in the last year growing 60% and gaining 300 million users.
- There are roughly 3.7 billion Mobile users, more than there are active Internet users.
- Roughly 1.9 billion of those users are actively on mobile social media platforms.
As CEO of a social mobile app platform, Shout The Good, these trends are fascinating to watch. The current trends of its use lead me to believe that the future of social media and this growing lake of users will force all of us to a higher ground that´s focused around the psychology of human behavior.
If social media was polarized on a scale of sentiment - positive or negative - where would the majority of its users fall? On one end we have internet trollers, hacking thieves, and cyber-bullying. On the other, we have uplifting campaigns built for humanity and social good, or we could look at the continually growing self-help movement. How does this effect us?
Social media is not so new to our livelihoods. Messaging platforms powered by the latest available technology have existed since the start of the Internet. Though, its rapid growth has changed human behavior in ways we´ve never seen before.
Everyday individuals can jump on a soapbox and have the potential to reach millions in just minutes.
These numbers are from a website that shows the internet in real time. This is the data of a 2-minute time period on a Tuesday morning.
- Twitter had 1,430 accounts created and 741,000 tweets went out.
- 15 million posts were distributed on Facebook.
- 94,000 photos were uploaded to Instagram.
- WhatsApp had 1,632 accounts created and 30 million messages were sent.
At Shout The Good, we wonder and attempt to find out how much of this distributed content is positive.
Research finds that t hese latest "social good" trends are leading to a kinder, gentler generation of users. New tech is now almost expected to be making a "social impact" for good.
The Millennial generation has honed in on finding ways to use