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Title Name Amity Solved Assignment BBA Retail for Store Performance Management
University AMITY
Service Type Assignment
Course BBA-(Retail-Management)
Semister Semester-V Cource: BBA-(Retail-Management)
Short Name or Subject Code Store Performance Management
Commerce line item Type Semester-V Cource: BBA-(Retail-Management)
Product Assignment of BBA-(Retail-Management) Semester-V (AMITY)

Solved Assignment


  Questions :-

                                                                                                                    Store Performance Management

 Assignment A

  1. What is Manpower Planning?
  1. Discuss the regulation to the retail industry in India.

     6. Which Organizations are related to Retail Law? 

 

 

 

Assignment B

CASE STUDY:

EMERGENCE OF ORGANISED RETAILING

It was Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) that saw the emergence of organized retailing in India way back in the 19th century itself. The Hogg Market, popularly and better known as New Market is one of Kolkata’s earliest shopping centers. Designed by an East Indian Railway Company architect, R.R, Bayne, it was opened in 1874 and named after the then municipal commissioner of Calcutta, Sir Stuart Hogg. Earlier the Hogg Market even had a garden with a beautiful fountain adding to its ambience and benches too for tired shoppers. Today, the New Market continues to be a premier shopping area in Kolkata despite a part of it being incinerated in late 1985. Its red-brick Gothic clock-tower today bears testimony to the past grandeur of this first shopping centre of India. Today from linen to cakes and fruits to fishes everything is available at the New Market at a reasonable price and this has made the New Market sustain its popularity among the metro customers of Kolkata. The tenant mix of this first shopping centre is unique as it has a large number of 2000 stalls, which are organized in an order of merchandize. There are rows of stalls dealing with one particular line of goods. A retail researcher by name Christine Furedy in the 70s has observed in her article in the Capital on 24th December 1979 tracing the emergence of the New Market, thus: “Until the late 19th century New Market sold only produce. Its primary purpose was to supply wholesome food under clean conditions at reasonable prices. It is true, too, that it was designed for the Europeans but the municipality strove to have it accepted as a market for all Calcuttans. Changes began to occur: fancy goods dealers and cloth merchants could afford to pay higher rents for their shops than the food vendors and more and more they appeared in the market proper. Eventually the market was reorganized and food vendors were placed in the section they still occupy. Another difference in the 19th century was that no ads or encroachments were allowed. The facade of the market was unencumbered, showing its fine lines and good brickwork. Within the market stallholders had to keep their produce within their stalls and were not allowed to obstruct the corridors and paths. There was a garden and a fountain where shoppers gathered to chat. Begging and pestering were forbidden. On the other hand, it was strictly “caveat emptor”. Two English women who were sold inferior cloth and complained to the Markets Committee in 1894 found they had no redress. The system of licensing coolies was introduced in 1885 after customers had complained of being disturbed by ‘importunate coolies’. Only registered coolies were permitted inside: the registration fee was five annas and each coolie had to wear a simple uniform and a number badge, a requirement which is still in force today. Next time you go to New Market take a few minutes off from your shopping to look around. Compare the facade and clock tower today with its original unencumbered lines; look for the old original shops made of fine mahogany and teak. It is a great pity, in my opinion, that this historic building is under threat of revamping. At the very least its facade and some of the original shops should be preserved to remind us that the New Market became an example for the whole of Asia of an efficient and fascinating municipal market.” Furedy also mentions about the opposition that came up for building this municipal market. She says, “It is hard to imagine now how controversial the concept was. There was strong opposition from influential citizens, both European and Indian. Some Europeans were opposed to the idea of ‘municipal trading* seeing this as the thin edge of a wedge which would dislodge the principles of private property and free enterprise. Others argued that the undertaking was not within the purposes of the Municipal Act and would be too great a burden upon the municipal coffers. This, indeed, was part of the objections of the Indian municipal commissioners who pointed out also that it was only the Europeans who were dissatisfied with the conditions of the markets and that they proposed to use municipal funds, derived largely from taxes upon Indian householders, to finance a market designed for the patronage of the European population only. Indian rate payers argued that already the better part of the municipal funds were put to improving the European sections of the town to the neglect of the areas inhabited by Indians. If once one municipal market was approved, there would be no end to the number of public markets which might be built at great municipal extravagance.” Against all these odds the then Hogg Market evolved and it soon became a popular destination for shopping in Calcutta. Furedy goes on to speak about the emergence of modern retailing in India. She mentions, ‘The most complex retail business of late nineteenth-century Calcutta, establishments which were to dominate the modern retail sector, were the department stores. Although everyone has closed its doors, many Calcutta’s still remember the names or recognize their converted, subdivided buildings: Francis, Harrison and Hathaway; Hall and Anderson; the Army and Navy Stores; White away, Laidlaw and Co. In their scope and outreach these shops rivaled those to be found in cities of the same size in Britain, Europe or the United States. The city’s leading hotels, while they provided many services and housed a number of businesses, did not always own and run all of these. Their retail areas were perhaps more like arcades than department stores. The shops from which department stores rather literally evolved were the drapers’ and mercers’ shops. We know from trade directories that shops like Francis, Harrison, Hathaway and Co., which was described as “first class drapers” in 1864, had a large staff of 11 European assistants in 1880. (By the end of the century there were at least 40), This was the first shop to adopt a ‘departmental’ organization, which was formalized in the 1890s and repeated at the branch shops in Shimla, Lahore, Darjeeling and Allahabad. Incidentally, in 1880 one of the leading assistants in Hathaway’s was Mr. E. White away who ten years later was the partner of White away, Laidlaw, occupying numbers 5 and 6 Chowringhee and employing 38 assistants. Two other employees of Hathaway’s were to become equally famous in Calcutta’s retail trade. In the early 1890s P.N. Hall and William Anderson set up together in a modest partnership selling suiting’s at bargain prices from a small shop on the Esplanade.” It is indeed amazing to know about the first phase of the evolution of modern retailing in India from Furedy’s research. India is now witnessing its second phase of organized retailing!

 Question No.

  1. What are the lessons of retail evolution do we learn from the New Market in Kolkata? 
  2. Comment on researcher Christine Furedy’s observations on the emergence of the New Market as an organized shopping Centre in India 

 

 

 

Assignment C

Question No.  1          Marks - 10

What is merchandising?      

Options                      

  1. A critical retail function
  2. A critical online function
  3. A critical management function
  4. A critical logistics function

 

Question No.  2          Marks - 10

What is the chief aim of any store merchandising activity?         

Options                      

  1. Meeting manager requirements
  2. Meeting retail requirements
  3. Meeting customer requirements
  4. Meeting monetary requirements

 

Question No.  3          Marks - 10

Suppliers are critical for?    

Options          

  1. Customer satisfaction
  2. Supply chain
  3. Warehouses
  4. Storage

 

Question No.  4          Marks – 10

What is at the core of retail management?

Options                      

  1. Merchandising
  2. Supply chain
  3. Customer loyalty
  4. Window display

 

Question No.  5          Marks - 10

Which of these is a crucial part of merchandise management?   

Options          

  1. Merchandise display
  2. Merchandise storage
  3. Investment
  4. Merchandise quality

 

Question No.  6          Marks - 10

As ………… is sold, new stocks need to be purchased, displayed and sold.       

Options                      

  1. Inventory
  2. Merchandise
  3. Apparel
  4. SKUs

 

Question No.  7          Marks - 10

……………… function enables the retailer to carefully sort and select the merchandise and for subsequently making the purchase.

Options          

  1. Buying
  2. Scanning
  3. Looking
  4. Cataloguing

 

Question No.  8          Marks - 10

The importance of quality in every walk of life cannot be overemphasized in this global …………...

Options                      

  1. World
  2. Economy
  3. Scenario
  4. Environment

 

 

Question No.  9          Marks - 10

………… is an integral part of merchandising.     

Options                      

  1. Money
  2. Sales Promotion
  3. Storage
  4. Strategizing

 

 

Question No.  10        Marks - 10

A ………… job was to act as a link between stores and the buyer.        

Options                      

  1. Customer’s
  2. Mediator’s
  3. Expert’s
  4. Planner’s

 

 

Question No.  11        Marks - 10

The family into which one is born is called the:    

Options                      

  1. extended family`
  2. nuclear family
  3. family of procreation
  4. family of orientation

 

 

Question No.  12        Marks - 10

The family into which one marries is called the:   

Options                      

  1. extended family
  2. nuclear family
  3. family of procreation
  4. family of orientation

 

 

Question No.  13        Marks - 10

Which of the following terms can be used by marketers to study families as a unit of analysis?

Options                      

  1. Households
  2. Consumer unit
  3. Minimal household unit
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  14        Marks - 10

The term CU refers to:        

Options                      

  1. consumer unit
  2. customer unit
  3. competitive unit
  4. None of the above

 

 

Question No.  15        Marks - 10

The term MHU stands for: 

Options                      

  1. maximum household unit
  2. minimal household unit
  3. maximal household unit
  4. None of the above

 

 

Question No.  16        Marks - 10

Structural variables affecting households and families include:  

Options                      

  1. marital status
  2. employment status
  3. presence of children
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  17        Marks - 10

Which of the following is not one of the sociological variables used to explain how families function?           

Options                      

  1. Cohesion
  2. Adaptability
  3. Communication
  4. Structure

 

 

Question No.  18        Marks - 10

____ is the emotional bonding between family members. 

Options                      

  1. Affect
  2. Cohesion
  3. Unity
  4. Commitment

 

 

Question No.  19        Marks - 10

Adaptability measures the ability of a family to change its:         

Options                      

  1. power structure
  2. role relationships
  3. income
  4. A and B

 

 

Question No.  20        Marks - 10

A/an ____, also known as functional roles, involves financial performance and other functions performed by group members.       

Options                      

  1. instrumental role
  2. expressive role
  3. family role
  4. supportive role

 

 

Question No.  21        Marks - 10

A/an ____ involves supporting other family members in the decision-making process and expressing the family´s aesthetic or emotional needs, including upholding family norms.         

Options          

  1. instrumental role
  2. expressive role
  3. family role
  4. supportive role

 

 

Question No.  22        Marks - 10

Which of following is not one of the individual roles in family decision making?          

Options                      

  1. User
  2. Decider
  3. Influencer
  4. Transmitter

 

 

Question No.  23        Marks - 10

Which of the following is not one of the categories used for representing the relative influence of spouses in family buying decisions? 

Options                      

  1. Joint
  2. Wife dominant
  3. Husband dominant
  4. Child dominant

 

 

Question No.  24        Marks - 10

What does the term FLC mean?    

Options                      

  1. Forever Lifetime Customers
  2. Family Life Cycle
  3. Family Lifestyle Consumption
  4. Family Lessons Continue

 

 

Question No.  25        Marks - 10

What does CLC stand for? 

Options                      

  1. Continuous Lifetime Customers
  2. Consumer Life Cycle
  3. Consumers Love Competition
  4. Competition Learns Continuously

 

 

Question No.  26        Marks – 10

Which of the following terms can be used to describe the series of stages a family passes through over time?  

Options          

  1. Family life cycle
  2. Household life cycle
  3. Consumer life cycle
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  27        Marks - 10

At which stage of the family life cycle is the family most satisfied with its financial position?  

Options                      

  1. Newly married couples
  2. Full nest I
  3. Full nest III
  4. Empty nest I

 

 

Question No.  28        Marks - 10

Which of the following changes related to marriage and family have not been occurring in American society over the past three decades?           

Options                      

  1. Higher rates of divorce
  2. Delays in second marriages
  3. Non-marital cohabitation
  4. The ratio of married and single households are almost equal

 

 

Question No.  29        Marks - 10

The basic structure of families and households is changing in which of the following?

Options                      

  1. United States
  2. Canada
  3. Europe
  4. B and C

 

 

Question No.  30        Marks - 10

________________________________________

Over the past three decades, the average household size in the United States has ____.           

Options                      

  1. increased
  2. decreased
  3. remained the same
  4. None of the above

 

 

Question No.  31        Marks - 10

In terms of their career orientation, working women can be classified as:         

Options                      

  1. Hard workers versus lazy workers.
  2. Get the job done workers versus career workers.
  3. Just-a-job workers versus career workers.
  4. Part-time workers versus full-time workers.

 

 

Question No.  32        Marks - 10

Discusses how Leo She has divided mothers into different groups. Which of the following is not one of these groups?

Options                      

  1. Miracle Mothers
  2. Tug of War Moms
  3. Strong Shoulders
  4. Mothers of Invention

 

 

Question No.  33        Marks - 10

Which of the following stores do children like to shop at?           

Options                      

  1. Convenience stores
  2. Mass merchandisers
  3. Specialty stores
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  34        Marks - 10

Children average just over ____ store visits per year, either alone or with parents.     

Options                      

  1. 200
  2. 500
  3. 300
  4. 400

 

 

Question No.  35        Marks - 10

Most children make their first independent purchase at:

Options                      

  1. Convenience stores
  2. Grocery stores
  3. Electronics stores
  4. Music stores

 

 

Question No.  36        Marks - 10

On which of the following do children aged 4-12 spend the most money?         

Options                      

  1. Apparel
  2. Entertainment
  3. Food and Beverages
  4. Electronics

 

 

Question No.  37        Marks - 10

Cohabitating couples made up ____ percent of the population in 1970 compared to ____ percent in 2000.           

Options                      

  1. 04; 7.0
  2. 3; 5.6
  3. 7; 3.4
  4. 0; 5.0

 

 

Question No.  38        Marks - 10

Which of the following is capable of exerting reference group influence?         

Options                      

  1. Sports teams
  2. Families
  3. Famous or admired individuals
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  39        Marks - 10

Which of the following is not a type of reference group?

Options                      

  1. Primary
  2. Aspirational
  3. Transient
  4. Formal

 

 

Question No.  40        Marks - 10

____ groups usually exert the greatest reference group influence.          

Options                      

  1. Primary
  2. Aspirational
  3. Secondary
  4. Formal

 

 

  Answers :-

                                                                                                                    Store Performance Management

 Assignment A

  1. What is Manpower Planning?

Answer:-

Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people, right kind of people at the right place, right time, doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization. Human Resource Planning has got an important place in the arena of industrialization. Human Resource Planning has to be a systems approach and is carried out in a set procedure. The procedure is as follows:

  1. Analyzing the current manpower inventory-Before a manager makes forecast of future manpower, the current manpower status has to be analyzed. For this the following things have to be noted-
    • Type of organization
    • Number of departments
    • Number and quantity of such departments
    • Employees in these work units

Once these factors are registered by a manager, he goes for the future forecasting

  1. Making future manpower forecasts-Once the factors affecting the future manpower forecasts are known, planning can be done for the future manpower requirements in several work units.

The Manpower forecasting techniques commonly employed by the organizations are as follows:

    1. Expert Forecasts: This includes informal decisions, formal expert surveys and Delphi technique.
    2. Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be projected through extrapolation (projecting past trends), indexation (using base year as basis), and statistical analysis (central tendency measure).
    3. Work Load Analysis: It is dependent upon the nature of work load in a department, in a branch or in a division.
    4. Work Force Analysis: Whenever production and time period has to be analyzed, due allowances have to be made for getting net manpower requirements.
    5. Other methods: Several Mathematical models, with the aid of computers are used to forecast manpower needs, like budget and planning analysis, regression, and new venture analysis.
  1. Developing employment programs-Once the current inventory is compared with future forecasts, the employment programs can be framed and developed accordingly, which will include recruitment, selection procedures and placement plans.
  2. Design training programs-These will be based upon extent of diversification, expansion plans, development programs, etc. Training programs depend upon the extent of improvement in technology and advancement to take place. It is also done to improve upon the skills, capabilities, knowledge of the workers.

 

 

  1. Discuss the regulation to the retail industry in India.

Answer:-

The Indian retail industry has emerged as one of the most dynamic and fast-paced industries due to the entry of several new players. It accounts for over 10 per cent of the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and around 8 per cent of the employment. India is the world’s fifth-largest global destination in the retail space.

Indian government policy with regard to development of retail industry has been liberal and motivating. The Indian traders/ retailers register their outlets/shops with concerned authorities in various states and by honoring sales tax and other obligations of the state concerned, they can run their retail business. As such, there is no constraint on the entry of any domestic business house into retail sector. Therefore India has more than 12 million ‘kirana’ stores making India a hub of retail shops. With the rising disposable income of Indian middle class and 8-10 % annual GDP growth has attracted global players to enter and explore the opportunities in Indian untapped retail market.

FDI in retailing:

As allotment of land is a subject matter for states, central government is concerned with FDI approvals in the sector. Due to political compulsion and the opposition from Left parties, the government has banned FDI in retailing since 1997. At present, foreign investors can only enter the retailing sector through franchising agreements.

Till January 2006, the retailers entered the market through the franchisee route, but in January 2006, the Indian government decided to have up to 51% stake in local (domestic) subsidiary. Currently, multiple brands are not allowed but the government has proposed 49% FDI in multi-brand segment.

India´s government seems to be on a gradual but definite path toward allowing foreign retailers into the country....” suggests the A.T. Kearney´s Retail Development Index 2006. It is a common knowledge that the Union government has to face a number of hurdles both from its opponents as well as its allies before it could announce the final verdict. There have been demands from all corners regarding framing of rules to safeguard interests of the so-called small traders. Simultaneously economists have the consensus that industrialization is imperative for the growth of the economy and foreign investment has to play an inevitable role in it. With Lok Sabha elections to come in 2009, the Union government too seems a bit confused regarding decision in who´s favor can provide it a political edge. So in this study let us compare the views for and against liberalization as is held by Indian Bureaucrats

 

 

 

  1. Which Organizations are related to Retail Law?

Ans:

Organization that are related to Retail Law.

Advertising laws and regulations exist at both the federal and state levels. In the retail industry, advertising rules dictate the messages companies may convey when attempting to sway consumers to purchase products and services. Violations of these regulations can lead to stiff financial penalties that far exceed any actual monetary damages consumers may suffer.

Truth in Advertising Laws

It´s a violation of federal and state law for any company, including retail businesses, to make false or deceptive claims with advertising regarding products and services. The Federal Trade Commission enforces false advertising laws at the federal level, and similar agencies have jurisdiction at state level. In light of these regulations, business marketing departments devise advertising campaigns to emphasize only truthful features or benefits of company products. For example, a retail tire company can´t legally market its tires as lasting over 30,000 miles when the company knows the products last only up to 20,000 miles.

Consumer Protection Laws

Each state across the country has consumer protection laws in place, with the goal of preventing businesses from using misleading marketing campaigns as a means to drive sales numbers. For example, according legal information website Nolo, consumers may be able to sue a business that advertises services that the company can´t actually perform. Consumers may also be able to sue companies that advertise discounted prices for products and services but refuse to honor the advertised lower sale amounts. The liability risk these lawsuits represent encourages businesses to act responsibly in using marketing techniques to increase sales revenue.

Misleading Discount Prices

While it´s illegal for businesses to refuse to honor advertised pricing discounts, it´s also illegal for companies to deceive consumers into thinking a discount exists where it actually doesn´t. For example, a retail clothing store´s promotion of the regular $55 price of a pair of jeans as a $20 discount when the jeans have never been sold for $75 might represent a violation of consumer protection laws. The regular price of merchandise may not be advertised as a sale price.

Seeking Punitive Damages

Consumer protection laws allow customers wronged through deceptive advertising practices to seek punitive damages from the offending business. A consumer seeking punitive damages may receive a much higher settlement amount from a business than in a lawsuit through which the consumer may recoup only actual losses. Punitive damages in the case of false/misleading advertising are penalties assessed by the court to punish the company´s illegal behavior and discourage other businesses from attempting similar practices.

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Assignment B

CASE STUDY:

EMERGENCE OF ORGANISED RETAILING

It was Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) that saw the emergence of organized retailing in India way back in the 19th century itself. The Hogg Market, popularly and better known as New Market is one of Kolkata’s earliest shopping centers. Designed by an East Indian Railway Company architect, R.R, Bayne, it was opened in 1874 and named after the then municipal commissioner of Calcutta, Sir Stuart Hogg. Earlier the Hogg Market even had a garden with a beautiful fountain adding to its ambience and benches too for tired shoppers. Today, the New Market continues to be a premier shopping area in Kolkata despite a part of it being incinerated in late 1985. Its red-brick Gothic clock-tower today bears testimony to the past grandeur of this first shopping centre of India. Today from linen to cakes and fruits to fishes everything is available at the New Market at a reasonable price and this has made the New Market sustain its popularity among the metro customers of Kolkata. The tenant mix of this first shopping centre is unique as it has a large number of 2000 stalls, which are organized in an order of merchandize. There are rows of stalls dealing with one particular line of goods. A retail researcher by name Christine Furedy in the 70s has observed in her article in the Capital on 24th December 1979 tracing the emergence of the New Market, thus: “Until the late 19th century New Market sold only produce. Its primary purpose was to supply wholesome food under clean conditions at reasonable prices. It is true, too, that it was designed for the Europeans but the municipality strove to have it accepted as a market for all Calcuttans. Changes began to occur: fancy goods dealers and cloth merchants could afford to pay higher rents for their shops than the food vendors and more and more they appeared in the market proper. Eventually the market was reorganized and food vendors were placed in the section they still occupy. Another difference in the 19th century was that no ads or encroachments were allowed. The facade of the market was unencumbered, showing its fine lines and good brickwork. Within the market stallholders had to keep their produce within their stalls and were not allowed to obstruct the corridors and paths. There was a garden and a fountain where shoppers gathered to chat. Begging and pestering were forbidden. On the other hand, it was strictly “caveat emptor”. Two English women who were sold inferior cloth and complained to the Markets Committee in 1894 found they had no redress. The system of licensing coolies was introduced in 1885 after customers had complained of being disturbed by ‘importunate coolies’. Only registered coolies were permitted inside: the registration fee was five annas and each coolie had to wear a simple uniform and a number badge, a requirement which is still in force today. Next time you go to New Market take a few minutes off from your shopping to look around. Compare the facade and clock tower today with its original unencumbered lines; look for the old original shops made of fine mahogany and teak. It is a great pity, in my opinion, that this historic building is under threat of revamping. At the very least its facade and some of the original shops should be preserved to remind us that the New Market became an example for the whole of Asia of an efficient and fascinating municipal market.” Furedy also mentions about the opposition that came up for building this municipal market. She says, “It is hard to imagine now how controversial the concept was. There was strong opposition from influential citizens, both European and Indian. Some Europeans were opposed to the idea of ‘municipal trading* seeing this as the thin edge of a wedge which would dislodge the principles of private property and free enterprise. Others argued that the undertaking was not within the purposes of the Municipal Act and would be too great a burden upon the municipal coffers. This, indeed, was part of the objections of the Indian municipal commissioners who pointed out also that it was only the Europeans who were dissatisfied with the conditions of the markets and that they proposed to use municipal funds, derived largely from taxes upon Indian householders, to finance a market designed for the patronage of the European population only. Indian rate payers argued that already the better part of the municipal funds were put to improving the European sections of the town to the neglect of the areas inhabited by Indians. If once one municipal market was approved, there would be no end to the number of public markets which might be built at great municipal extravagance.” Against all these odds the then Hogg Market evolved and it soon became a popular destination for shopping in Calcutta. Furedy goes on to speak about the emergence of modern retailing in India. She mentions, ‘The most complex retail business of late nineteenth-century Calcutta, establishments which were to dominate the modern retail sector, were the department stores. Although everyone has closed its doors, many Calcutta’s still remember the names or recognize their converted, subdivided buildings: Francis, Harrison and Hathaway; Hall and Anderson; the Army and Navy Stores; White away, Laidlaw and Co. In their scope and outreach these shops rivaled those to be found in cities of the same size in Britain, Europe or the United States. The city’s leading hotels, while they provided many services and housed a number of businesses, did not always own and run all of these. Their retail areas were perhaps more like arcades than department stores. The shops from which department stores rather literally evolved were the drapers’ and mercers’ shops. We know from trade directories that shops like Francis, Harrison, Hathaway and Co., which was described as “first class drapers” in 1864, had a large staff of 11 European assistants in 1880. (By the end of the century there were at least 40), This was the first shop to adopt a ‘departmental’ organization, which was formalized in the 1890s and repeated at the branch shops in Shimla, Lahore, Darjeeling and Allahabad. Incidentally, in 1880 one of the leading assistants in Hathaway’s was Mr. E. White away who ten years later was the partner of White away, Laidlaw, occupying numbers 5 and 6 Chowringhee and employing 38 assistants. Two other employees of Hathaway’s were to become equally famous in Calcutta’s retail trade. In the early 1890s P.N. Hall and William Anderson set up together in a modest partnership selling suiting’s at bargain prices from a small shop on the Esplanade.” It is indeed amazing to know about the first phase of the evolution of modern retailing in India from Furedy’s research. India is now witnessing its second phase of organized retailing!

 

 

  1. What are the lessons of retail evolution do we learn from the New Market in Kolkata? 

Answer:-

New Market is one of Kolkata’s earliest shopping centers. Designed by an East Indian Railway Company architect, R.R, Bayne, it was opened in 1874 and named after the then municipal commissioner of Calcutta, Sir Stuart Hogg. Earlier the Hogg Market even had a garden with a beautiful fountain adding to its ambience and benches too for tired shoppers. Today, the New Market continues to be a premier shopping area in Kolkata despite a part of it being incinerated in late 1985. Its red-brick Gothic clock-tower today bears testimony to the past grandeur of this first shopping centre of India. Today from linen to cakes and fruits to fishes everything is available at the New Market at a reasonable price and this has made the New Market sustain its popularity among the metro customers of Kolkata. The tenant mix of this first shopping centre is unique as it has a large number of 2000 stalls, which are organized in an order of merchandize. There are rows of stalls dealing with one particular line of goods. Its primary purpose was to supply wholesome food under clean conditions at reasonable prices. It is true, too, that it was designed for the Europeans but the municipality strove to have it accepted as a market for all Calcutta’s. Changes began to occur: fancy goods dealers and cloth merchants could afford to pay higher rents for their shops than the food vendors and more and more they appeared in the market proper. Eventually the market was reorganized and food vendors were placed in the section they still occupy. Another difference in the 19th century was that no ads or encroachments were allowed. The facade of the market was unencumbered, showing its fine lines and good brickwork. Within the market stallholders had to keep their produce within their stalls and were not allowed to obstruct the corridors and paths. There was a garden and a fountain where shoppers gathered to chat. The system of licensing coolies was introduced in 1885 after customers had complained of being disturbed by ‘importunate coolies’. Next time you go to New Market take a few minutes off from your shopping to look around. Compare the facade and clock tower today with its original unencumbered lines; look for the old original shops made of fine mahogany and teak. It is a great pity, in my opinion, that this historic building is under threat of revamping. At the very least its facade and some of the original shops should be preserved to remind us that the New Market became an example for the whole of Asia of an efficient and fascinating municipal market.” There was strong opposition from influential citizens, both European and Indian. Some Europeans were opposed to the idea of ‘municipal trading seeing this as the thin edge of a wedge which would dislodge the principles of private property and free enterprise. Others argued that the undertaking was not within the purposes of the Municipal Act and would be too great a burden upon the municipal coffers. This, indeed, was part of the objections of the Indian municipal commissioners who pointed out also that it was only the Europeans who were dissatisfied with the conditions of the markets and that they proposed to use municipal funds, derived largely from taxes upon Indian householders, to finance a market designed for the patronage of the European population only.

 

 

  1. Comment on researcher Christine Furedy’s observations on the emergence of the New Market as an organized shopping Centre in India.

Answer:-

New Market opened its doors to the British in Kolkata on January 1, 1875. It was conceptualized as a “White man’s market” as the English here at that time no longer wanted to rub shoulders with the locals in the marketplace. It was initially called the Municipal New Market. In 1903, the name was changed to SS Hogg Market after Sir Stuart Hogg, the chairman of the Calcutta Corporation and the Commissioner of Police. The market building, barring the clock tower, is reminiscent of the Marylebone Station in London. On December 11, 1985 a major fire destroyed a large part of the northern section. It was later rebuilt and opened again in the early 1990s. Furedy goes on to speak about the emergence of modern retailing in India. She mentions, ‘The most complex retail business of late nineteenth-century Calcutta, establishments which were to dominate the modern retail sector, were the department stores. Although everyone has closed its doors, many Calcutta’s still remember the names or recognize their converted, subdivided buildings: Francis, Harrison and Hathaway; Hall and Anderson; the Army and Navy Stores; White away, Laidlaw and Co. In their scope and outreach these shops rivaled those to be found in cities of the same size in Britain, Europe or the United States. The city’s leading hotels, while they provided many services and housed a number of businesses, did not always own and run all of these. Their retail areas were perhaps more like arcades than department stores. The shops from which department stores rather literally evolved were the drapers’ and mercers’ shops. We know from trade directories that shops like Francis, Harrison, Hathaway and Co., which was described as “first class drapers” in 1864, had a large staff of 11 European assistants in 1880. (By the end of the century there were at least 40), This was the first shop to adopt a ‘departmental’ organization, which was formalized in the 1890s and repeated at the branch shops in Shimla, Lahore, Darjeeling and Allahabad. Incidentally, in 1880 one of the leading assistants in Hathaway’s was Mr. E. White away who ten years later was the partner of White away, Laidlaw, occupying numbers 5 and 6 Chowringhee and employing 38 assistants.

 

 

 

 

Assignment C

Question No.  1          Marks - 10

What is merchandising?      

Options                      

  1. A critical retail function
  2. A critical online function
  3. A critical management function
  4. A critical logistics function

 

Question No.  2          Marks - 10

What is the chief aim of any store merchandising activity?         

Options                      

  1. Meeting manager requirements
  2. Meeting retail requirements
  3. Meeting customer requirements
  4. Meeting monetary requirements

 

Question No.  3          Marks - 10

Suppliers are critical for?    

Options          

  1. Customer satisfaction
  2. Supply chain
  3. Warehouses
  4. Storage

 

Question No.  4          Marks – 10

What is at the core of retail management?

Options                      

  1. Merchandising
  2. Supply chain
  3. Customer loyalty
  4. Window display

 

Question No.  5          Marks - 10

Which of these is a crucial part of merchandise management?   

Options          

  1. Merchandise display
  2. Merchandise storage
  3. Investment
  4. Merchandise quality

 

Question No.  6          Marks - 10

As ………… is sold, new stocks need to be purchased, displayed and sold.       

Options                      

  1. Inventory
  2. Merchandise
  3. Apparel
  4. SKUs

 

Question No.  7          Marks - 10

……………… function enables the retailer to carefully sort and select the merchandise and for subsequently making the purchase.

Options          

  1. Buying
  2. Scanning
  3. Looking
  4. Cataloguing

 

Question No.  8          Marks - 10

The importance of quality in every walk of life cannot be overemphasized in this global …………...

Options                      

  1. World
  2. Economy
  3. Scenario
  4. Environment

 

 

Question No.  9          Marks - 10

………… is an integral part of merchandising.     

Options                      

  1. Money
  2. Sales Promotion
  3. Storage
  4. Strategizing

 

 

Question No.  10        Marks - 10

A ………… job was to act as a link between stores and the buyer.        

Options                      

  1. Customer’s
  2. Mediator’s
  3. Expert’s
  4. Planner’s

 

 

Question No.  11        Marks - 10

The family into which one is born is called the:    

Options                      

  1. extended family`
  2. nuclear family
  3. family of procreation
  4. family of orientation

 

 

Question No.  12        Marks - 10

The family into which one marries is called the:   

Options                      

  1. extended family
  2. nuclear family
  3. family of procreation
  4. family of orientation

 

 

Question No.  13        Marks - 10

Which of the following terms can be used by marketers to study families as a unit of analysis?

Options                      

  1. Households
  2. Consumer unit
  3. Minimal household unit
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  14        Marks - 10

The term CU refers to:        

Options                      

  1. consumer unit
  2. customer unit
  3. competitive unit
  4. None of the above

 

 

Question No.  15        Marks - 10

The term MHU stands for: 

Options                      

  1. maximum household unit
  2. minimal household unit
  3. maximal household unit
  4. None of the above

 

 

Question No.  16        Marks - 10

Structural variables affecting households and families include:  

Options                      

  1. marital status
  2. employment status
  3. presence of children
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  17        Marks - 10

Which of the following is not one of the sociological variables used to explain how families function?           

Options                      

  1. Cohesion
  2. Adaptability
  3. Communication
  4. Structure

 

 

Question No.  18        Marks - 10

____ is the emotional bonding between family members. 

Options                      

  1. Affect
  2. Cohesion
  3. Unity
  4. Commitment

 

 

Question No.  19        Marks - 10

Adaptability measures the ability of a family to change its:         

Options                      

  1. power structure
  2. role relationships
  3. income
  4. A and B

 

 

Question No.  20        Marks - 10

A/an ____, also known as functional roles, involves financial performance and other functions performed by group members.       

Options                      

  1. instrumental role
  2. expressive role
  3. family role
  4. supportive role

 

 

Question No.  21        Marks - 10

A/an ____ involves supporting other family members in the decision-making process and expressing the family´s aesthetic or emotional needs, including upholding family norms.         

Options          

  1. instrumental role
  2. expressive role
  3. family role
  4. supportive role

 

 

Question No.  22        Marks - 10

Which of following is not one of the individual roles in family decision making?          

Options                      

  1. User
  2. Decider
  3. Influencer
  4. Transmitter

 

 

Question No.  23        Marks - 10

Which of the following is not one of the categories used for representing the relative influence of spouses in family buying decisions? 

Options                      

  1. Joint
  2. Wife dominant
  3. Husband dominant
  4. Child dominant

 

 

Question No.  24        Marks - 10

What does the term FLC mean?    

Options                      

  1. Forever Lifetime Customers
  2. Family Life Cycle
  3. Family Lifestyle Consumption
  4. Family Lessons Continue

 

 

Question No.  25        Marks - 10

What does CLC stand for? 

Options                      

  1. Continuous Lifetime Customers
  2. Consumer Life Cycle
  3. Consumers Love Competition
  4. Competition Learns Continuously

 

 

Question No.  26        Marks – 10

Which of the following terms can be used to describe the series of stages a family passes through over time?  

Options          

  1. Family life cycle
  2. Household life cycle
  3. Consumer life cycle
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  27        Marks - 10

At which stage of the family life cycle is the family most satisfied with its financial position?  

Options                      

  1. Newly married couples
  2. Full nest I
  3. Full nest III
  4. Empty nest I

 

 

Question No.  28        Marks - 10

Which of the following changes related to marriage and family have not been occurring in American society over the past three decades?           

Options                      

  1. Higher rates of divorce
  2. Delays in second marriages
  3. Non-marital cohabitation
  4. The ratio of married and single households are almost equal

 

 

Question No.  29        Marks - 10

The basic structure of families and households is changing in which of the following?

Options                      

  1. United States
  2. Canada
  3. Europe
  4. B and C

 

 

Question No.  30        Marks - 10

________________________________________

Over the past three decades, the average household size in the United States has ____.           

Options                      

  1. increased
  2. decreased
  3. remained the same
  4. None of the above

 

 

Question No.  31        Marks - 10

In terms of their career orientation, working women can be classified as:         

Options                      

  1. Hard workers versus lazy workers.
  2. Get the job done workers versus career workers.
  3. Just-a-job workers versus career workers.
  4. Part-time workers versus full-time workers.

 

 

Question No.  32        Marks - 10

Discusses how Leo She has divided mothers into different groups. Which of the following is not one of these groups?

Options                      

  1. Miracle Mothers
  2. Tug of War Moms
  3. Strong Shoulders
  4. Mothers of Invention

 

 

Question No.  33        Marks - 10

Which of the following stores do children like to shop at?           

Options                      

  1. Convenience stores
  2. Mass merchandisers
  3. Specialty stores
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  34        Marks - 10

Children average just over ____ store visits per year, either alone or with parents.     

Options                      

  1. 200
  2. 500
  3. 300
  4. 400

 

 

Question No.  35        Marks - 10

Most children make their first independent purchase at:

Options                      

  1. Convenience stores
  2. Grocery stores
  3. Electronics stores
  4. Music stores

 

 

Question No.  36        Marks - 10

On which of the following do children aged 4-12 spend the most money?         

Options                      

  1. Apparel
  2. Entertainment
  3. Food and Beverages
  4. Electronics

 

 

Question No.  37        Marks - 10

Cohabitating couples made up ____ percent of the population in 1970 compared to ____ percent in 2000.           

Options                      

  1. 04; 7.0
  2. 3; 5.6
  3. 7; 3.4
  4. 0; 5.0

 

 

Question No.  38        Marks - 10

Which of the following is capable of exerting reference group influence?         

Options                      

  1. Sports teams
  2. Families
  3. Famous or admired individuals
  4. All of the above

 

 

Question No.  39        Marks - 10

Which of the following is not a type of reference group?

Options                      

  1. Primary
  2. Aspirational
  3. Transient
  4. Formal

 

 

Question No.  40        Marks - 10

____ groups usually exert the greatest reference group influence.          

Options                      

  1. Primary
  2. Aspirational
  3. Secondary
  4. Formal

 

 

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