PRINT DESIGN ND LAYOUT
- Describe the brief history of printing in the world.
In about 1400, more than six centuries after its invention in the east, the technique of printing from wood blocks is introduced in Europe. As in the east, the images are printed by the simple method of laying a piece of paper on a carved and inked block and then rubbing its back to transfer the ink. And as in the east, the main market is holy images for sale to pilgrims. Playing cards are another early part of the western trade.
Later in the 15th century, technical advances are made in Germany which rapidly transform printing from a cottage industry to a cornerstone of western civilization.
Gutenberg and western printing: 1439 - 1457
The name of Gutenberg first appears, in connection with printing, in a law case in Strasbourg in 1439. He is being sued by two of his business partners. Witnesses, asked about Gutenberg´s stock, describe a press and a supply of metal type. It sounds as though he is already capable of printing small items of text from movable type, and it seems likely that he must have done so in Strasbourg. But nothing from this period survives.
By the time he is next heard of in connection with printing, he is in Mainz. He borrows 800 guilders in 1450 from Johann Fust with his printing equipment as security. The resulting story of Gutenberg and Fust is a saga in itself.
Gutenberg´s great achievement in the story of printing has several components. One is his development of the printing press, capable of applying a rapid but steady downward pressure. The concept of the press is not new. But existing presses (for wine, oil or paper) exert slow pressure - uneconomical in printing.
More significant are Gutenberg´s skills with metal (his original trade is that of a goldsmith). These enable him to master the complex stages in the manufacture of individual pieces of type, which involve creating a master copy of each letter, devising the moulds in which multiple versions can be cast, and developing a suitable alloy (type metal) in which to cast them.
All this skilful technology precedes the basic work of printing - that of arranging the individual letters, aligned and well-spaced, in a forme which will hold them firm and level to transfer the ink evenly to the paper.
The printing process involves complex problems at every stage, and the brilliance of the first known products from Gutenberg´s press suggest that earlier efforts must have been lost. If not, the decision to make his first publication a full-length Bible in Latin (the Vulgate), printed to the standards of the best black-letter manuscripts, is a bold one inde
No date appears in the Gutenberg Bible (known technically as the 42-line Bible), which was printed simultaneously on six presses during the mid-1450s. But at least one copy is known to have been completed, with its initial letters coloured red by hand, by 24 August 1456. The first dated book from these same presses, in 1457, is even more impressive. Known as the Mainz psalter, it achieves outstanding colour printing in its two-colour initial letters.
These first two publications from Germany´s presses are of an extraordinary standard, caused no doubt by the commercial need to compete with manuscripts. The new technology, so brilliantly launched, spreads rapidly.
The spread of printing: 1457-1500
An invention as useful as printing, in a Europe of increasing prosperity, readily finds new customers.
The first Italian press is founded in 1464, at the Benedictine town of Subiaco in the Papal States. Switzerland has a press in the following year. Printing begins in Venice, Paris and Utrecht in 1470, in Spain and Hungary in 1473, in Bruges in 1474 (on a press owned by Caxton, who moves it to London in 1476), in Sweden in 1483. By the end of the century the craft is well established in every European kingdom except Russia.
During the early decades, German printing predominates. More books are published in Germany than anywhere else (by 1500 there are printers in some sixty German towns); German printers carry the craft secrets abroad; and foreign printers come to Germany to study as apprentices.
The earliest typography is therefore in the Black-letter style of contemporary German manuscripts. But by the end of the century the most fashionable and influential printing is being done in Italy, with a corresponding change in appearance.
From the 1470s, when Nicolas Jenson establishes a press there, Venice becomes a city known for the quality of its printing. Its preeminence in the field is firmly established by the end of the century through the publications of Aldus Manutius.
These Venetian printers develop type faces more open and elegant than the German black-letter tradition, deriving them from the scripts of the Italian humanists. In doing so, they provide the book trade with two of its most lasting typographical conventions - Roman and italic.
The illustrated book: 15th - 16th century
In the early years of European printing some illustrated books are produced by the laborious method of eastern printing, in which the shapes of the letters and the lines of the illustrations are carved alike in the surface of a wood block. Printed on one side only, these sheets are in effect individual prints which are then folded and bound into the form of a book. Known as block books, usually telling simple versions of biblical stories, they are sold at fairs. They are particularly popular in Germany and the Netherlands.
At the same period genuine illustrated books, with conventionally printed text, are also beginning to be published.
Books printed by Gutenberg´s method are ideal for combining text and illustration on the same page. Movable type can be set in any shape round a wood block. The raised surfaces of both type and image will receive the ink together and can transfer it to the paper at a single impression.
The pioneer in this field is Albrecht Pfister, a printer in Bamberg, who publishes several illustrated books beginning with Der Ackermann aus Böhmen (The Farmer of Bohemia) in about 1461. By the end of the 15thcentury ambitious publications such as the Nuremberg Chronicle (a 1493 history of the world) have page layouts as elaborate as any modern magazine.
The technical brilliance of early European woodcuts is astonishing (and in the hands of masters such as Dürer, the craft becomes great art), but the cutting away of all the white parts of an image is a laborious and perverse way of proceeding.
Within the first century of printing two more congenial methods become available - engraving and etching. Both are described as intaglio (´cut in´ in Italian) because they excavate grooves in the surface of a copper plate. In engraving, slivers of metal are gouged out with a sharp tool (the burin). In etching, acid is used to eat away the copper along lines drawn through a coating of wax (which protects the rest of the metal surface).
A copper plate created by either of these methods will produce a finer and more delicate print than a wood block. The disadvantage is that intaglio prints require a different kind of press, where the inked copper plate and a sheet of paper are together passed between two rollers, like a great mangle. Intense pressure forces the paper into the grooves of the metal to pick out the ink.
Images of this kind from copper plates are separate from the text. They have to be bound into the finished book, acquiring the name of ´plates´. From the late 16th century a volume with plates becomes the standard form of illustrated book.
From incunabula to mass communication: 1457 - 1525
In the first half-century of European printing the book rapidly displaces the the manuscript of earlier generations, providing equal elegance at less cost. Printed books of the 15th century are known as incunabula (Latin for the ´cradle´ of printing). Though very rare now, incunabula were surprisingly numerous then; 1700 presses in some 300 towns are estimated to have produced about 15 million volumes by 1500.
Even in their own time these incunabula are special and expensive objects. But printing has another trick up its sleeve - in the long run one which is much more significant.
The profusion of presses in Europe by the early 16th century means that the machinery is in place for a different and entirely new form of production - the rapid printing of pamphlets, or even single sheets, which can be used in a war of propaganda.
This potential lies dormant until an unexpected opportunity arises. It comes through an intellectual controversy of unprecedented violence - the Reformation. After Luther´s challenge to the Roman Catholic Church, the printing presses feed and fan the flames. Pamphlets fly in all directions. The printed page finds a new role as an arena of almost instant debate. The ´press´ acquires a new and significant meaning.
The first artists´ prints: 15th - 16th century
When the first European prints are published, in the early 15th century, they are the work of craftsmen supplying a demand for cheap holy images or for playing cards. Artists only become interested in the possibilities of the medium from the 1450s. They are first attracted by the newest technique at that time, intaglio engraving in copper.
The pioneer in the field is extremely prolific, creating more 300 engraved plates, but he is known only as Master ES from the two initials with which he sometimes signs his plates. The first two known artists to specialize in engraving begin work at the same period, the 1460s, but in different places - Mantegna in Mantua and Schongauer in Colmar.
The greatest printmaker among Renaissance artists is, like Schongauer, a German. But unlike his predecessors, he excels in woodcut and etching as well as engraving.
Albrecht Dürer, familiar with metal from his early training as a goldsmith, begins engraving copper plates in his twenties and rapidly develops a mastery of the technique. He is more unusual in tackling at the same period, the 1490s, the much more mechanical craft of the woodcut (where each area of white in the image has to be scooped from the block of wood). But Dürer´s large and completely assured woodcuts immediately demonstrate that this too can be an artist´s medium.
The third form of printing in which Dürer shows his originality is etching. This is a technique invented during his lifetime (the first etchings are printed, probably in Augsburg in about 1500, from iron plates at this stage rather than copper). Dürer first tries the new medium in 1515. He only etches six plates. But he is the first to demonstrate the informality of etching, which can give the artist almost the same freedom as sketching in pencil.
From the end of the 16th century etching is virtually the only form of printing to attract the artist until the arrival of aquatint and lithography. Later masters, such as Rembrandt, develop the potential first shown by Dürer.
Mezzotint: 17th - 18th century
The first printing process to achieve a fully tonal effect is pioneered in the late 1650s by prince Rupert of the Rhine (living at the time in Germany after the defeat of the royalist side in the English Civil War). It is immediately given a name reflecting its ability to print halftones - Mezzo Tinto (Italian for ´half tinted´), or the mezzotint.
Hard work is involved in creating a mezzotint. A copper plate is roughened all over by rocking across it a curved metal blade with sharp teeth. The resulting rough metal surface holds the printer´s ink in all its recesses, and if inked all over will print a velvety black tone.
This blackness can be modified in any part of the print, through every tone of grey to pure white, by rubbing the plate´s pitted surface to differing degrees of smoothness (any area rubbed completely smooth will hold no ink and thus will print as a white patch).
With this technology the printers of the 17th and 18th centuries can reproduce every subtle shade of tone in an oil painting. For the first time entirely convincing portraits are reproduced in fairly large numbers - at a cost which remains high, but which is much less than the previous custom of having oil copies made. A good mezzotint is like the very best black-and-white photograph.
- Discuss the printing from the period of Manuscripts to the modern printing.
Numerous eras throughout history have been defined through the use of print culture. The American Revolution was a major historical conflict fought after print culture brought the rise of literacy. Furthermore, print culture´s ability to shape and guide society was a critical component before, during, and after the Revolution.
Many different printed documents influenced the beginning of the revolution. The Magna Carta was originally a scribal document of 1215, recording an oral transaction restricting the power of English kings and defining rights of subjects. It was revitalized by being printed in the 16th century and widely read by the increasingly literate English and colonial population thereafter. The Magna Carta was used as a basis for the development of English liberties by Sir Edward Coke and became a basis for writing the Declaration of Independence.
Additionally, during the 18th century, the production of printed newspapers in the colonies greatly increased. In 1775, more copies of newspapers were issued in Worcester, Massachusetts than were printed in all of New England in 1754, showing that the existence of the conflict developed a need for print culture. This onslaught of printed text was brought about by the anonymous writings of men such as Benjamin Franklin, who was noted for his many contributions to the newspapers, including the Pennsylvania Gazette. This increase was primarily due to the easing of the government´s tight control of the press, and without the existence of a relatively free press, the American Revolution may have never taken place. The production of so many newspapers can mostly be attributed to the fact that newspapers had a huge demand; printing presses were writing the newspapers to complain about the policies of the British government, and how the British government was taking advantage of the colonists.
In 1775, Thomas Paine wrote the pamphlet "Common Sense," a pamphlet that introduced many ideas of freedom to the Colonial citizens. Allegedly, half a million copies were produced during the pre-revolution era. This number of pamphlets produced is significant as there were only a few million freed men in the colonies. However, "Common Sense" was not the only manuscript that influenced people and the tide of the revolution. Among the most influential were James Otis´ "Rights of the British Colonies" and John Dickinson´s "Farmer´s Letters". Both of these played a key role in persuading the people and igniting the revolution.
During the Revolution
Newspapers were printed during the revolution covering battle reports and propaganda. These reports were usually falsified by Washington in order to keep morale up among American citizens and troops. Washington was not the only one to falsify these reports, as other generals (on both sides) used this technique as well. The newspapers also covered some of the battles in great detail, especially the ones that the American forces won, in order to gain support from other countries in hopes that they would join the American forces in the fight against the British.
Before the Revolution, the British placed multiple acts upon the colonies, such as the stamp act. Many newspaper companies worried that the British would punish them for printing papers without a British seal, so they were forced to temporarily discontinue their work or simply change the title of their paper. However, some patriotic publishers, particularly those in Boston, continued their papers without any alteration of their title.
The Declaration of Independence is a very important written document that was drafted by the original thirteen colonies, as a form of print culture that would declare their independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained the justifications for doing so. While it was explicitly documented on July 4, 1776, it was not recognized by Great Britain until September 3, 1783, by the Treaty of Paris.
After the signing of the Treaty of Paris, a cluster of free states in need of a government was created. The basis for this government was known as the Articles of Confederation, which were put to effect in 1778 and formed the first governing document of the United States of America. This document, however, was found to be unsuitable to outline the structure of the government, and thus showed an ineffectual use of print culture, and since printed texts were the most respected documents of the time, this called for an alteration in the document used to govern the confederation.
It was the job of the Constitutional Convention to reform the document, but they soon discovered that an entirely new text was needed in its place. The result was the United States Constitution. In the form of written word, the new document was used to grant more power to the central government, by expanding into branches. After it was ratified by all of the states in the union, the Constitution served as a redefinition of the modern government
Thomas Jefferson was noted as saying, “The basis of our government being the opinion of the people, the very first object should be to keep that right; and were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers, or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate for a moment to prefer the latter.” This serves as an excellent example of how newspapers were highly regarded by the colonial people. In fact, much like other forms of 18th century print culture, newspapers played a very important role in the government following the Revolutionary War. Not only were they one of the few methods in the 18th century to voice the opinion of the people, they also allowed for the ideas to be disseminated to a wide audience, a primary goal of printed text. A famous example of the newspaper being used as a medium to convey ideas were the Federalist Papers. These were first published in New York City newspapers in 1788 and pushed for people to accept the idea of the United States Constitution by enumerating 85 different articles that justified its presence, adding to a series of texts designed to reinforce each other, and ultimately serving as a redefinition of the 18th century.
The state of print today
Today, print has matured to a state where the majority of modern society has come to have certain expectations regarding the printed book:
The knowledge contained by printed books is believed to be accurate.
The cited author of a printed book does indeed exist and is actually the person who wrote it.
Every copy of a printed book is identical (at least in the important aspects) to every other copy, no matter how far apart the locations are in which they are sold.
Copyright laws help to protect these standards. However, a few regions do exist in the world where literary piracy has become a standard commercial practice. In such regions, the preceding expectations are not the norm. (Johns 61)
Currently, there are still approximately 2.3 billion books still sold each year worldwide. However, this number is steadily decreasing due to the ever-growing popularity of the Internet and other forms of digital media.
Transition to the digital era
As David J. Gunkel states in his article "What´s the Matter with Books?", society is currently in the late age of the text; the moment of transition from print to electronic culture where it is too late for printed books and yet too early for electronic texts. Jay David Bolter, author of Writing Space, also discusses our culture in what he calls "the late age of print." The current debate going on in the literary world is whether or not the computer will replace the printed book as the repository and definition of human knowledge. There is still a very large audience committed to printed texts, who are not interested in moving to a digital representation of the repository for human knowledge. Bolter, in his own scholarship and also along with Richard Grusin in Remediation, explains that despite current fears about the end of print, the format will never be erased but only remediated. New forms of technology (new media) will be created which utilize features of old media, thus preventing old media´s (aka print´s) erasure. At the same time, there are also concerns over whether obsolescence and deterioration make digital media unsuitable for long-term archival purposes. Much of the early paper used for print is highly acidic, and will ultimately destroy itself.
The way that information is transferred has also changed with this new age of digital text and the shift towards electronic media. Gunkel states that information now takes the form of immaterial bits of digital data that are circulated at the speed of light. Consequently, what the printed book states about the exciting new culture and economy of bits is abraded by the fact that this information has been delivered in the slow and outdated form of physical paper.
In the article, "The First Amendment, Print Culture, and the Electronic Environment", the author notes that expectations will change as information becomes less tied to specific locations, and as machines become networked and linked to other machines. This means that in the future certain goods will not be associated with their origins.
The article "The First Amendment, Print Culture, and the Electronic Environment" also mentions how the new electronic age will make print better. Placing information into electronic form not only liberates the information from its pages but removes the need for specialized spaces to hold particular kinds of information. People have become increasingly accustomed to acquiring information from our homes that used to be only accessible from an office or library. Once computers are all networked, all information should, at least in theory, be accessible from all places. Print itself contained a set of invisible and inherent censors, which electronic media is helping to remove from the creation of text. Points of control that are present in print space are no longer present as distribution channels multiply, as copying becomes faster and cheaper, as more information is produced, as economic incentives for working with information increase, and as barriers and boundaries that inhibited working with information are crossed.
Changes in technology and its effect on print culture
There are more online publications, journals, newspapers, magazines, and businesses than ever before. While this brings society closer, and makes publications more convenient and accessible, ordering a product online reduces contact with others. Many online articles are anonymous, making the ´death of the author´ even more apparent. Anyone can post articles and journals online anonymously. In effect, the individual becomes separated from the rest of society.
The advances of technology in print culture can be separated into three shifts:
- spoken language to the written word,
- the written word to Printing press,
- the printing press to the computer/internet.
The written word has made history recordable and accurate. The printing press, some may argue, is not a part of print culture, but had a substantial impact upon the development of print culture through the times. The printing press brought uniform copies and efficiency in print. It allowed a person to make a living from writing. Most importantly, it spread print throughout society.
The advances made by technology in print also impact anyone using cell phones, laptops, and personal digital organizers. From novels being delivered via a cell phone, the ability to text message and send letters via e-mail clients, to having entire libraries stored on PDAs, print is being influenced by devices.
Non-textual forms of print culture
Symbols, logos and printed images are forms of printed media that do not rely on text. They are ubiquitous in modern urban life. Analyzing these cultural products is an important part of the field of cultural studies. Print has given rise to a wider distribution of pictures in society in conjunction with the printed word. Incorporation of printed pictures in magazines, newspapers, and books gave printed material a wider mass appeal through the ease of visual communication.
Text and Print
There is a common miscommunication that occurs when discussing that which is print and that which text is. In the literary world, notable scholars such as Walter Ong and D.F. McKenzie have disagreed on the meaning of text. The point of the discussion at hand is to have a word that encompasses all forms of communication - that which is printed, that which is online media, even a building or notches on a stick. According to Walter Ong text did not come about until the development of the first alphabet, well after humanity existed. According to Mckenzie primitive humans did have a form of text they used to communicate with their cave drawings.
- Describe the Incunabula´s Layout Design of printing and their features.
Incunabula is the plural of the Latin word incunabulum, a cradle. Evolving from its original meaning, incunabulum came to mean "place of birth" or "beginning." In the world of books, the word incunabula refers to books that were printed using metal type up to the year 1500. The year 1500 is more a cutoff date of convenience, marking the transition from one century to the next, rather than signifying a definitive change in the appearance of books from 1501 onwards. It was actually around 1530 that a transformation in the appearance of books is said to have begun to take place. The person to whom the invention of printing technology using metal type is attributed is Johann Gutenberg (c.1400 - 1468). The bicentennial anniversary of the invention of printing technology was celebrated in 1640 and it was at this time that the word incunabula first came into use.
A scribe in his scriptorium
The first actual book that Gutenberg printed was the Bible. Books in Europe in the Middle Ages were copied by hand ("manuscripts"), and the vast majority of these were Christian religious works. The word for Bible in Latin is biblia, originally a Greek word meaning "books." Manuscripts were created for religious purposes and they were meant not only to be read but also had beautiful decorative features. The "42-line Bible" that Gutenberg printed is not in fact a wholly-printed work. It was so designed that decorative lettering known as illumination could be applied by hand after completion of the printing process. Even though early printed books were produced in exactly the same style as manuscripts, the process enabled the work to be done more than eight times faster. At the same time, it also resulted in a dramatic reduction in the price of books.
Once the printing of books became established, their production increased. The number of publications (titles) in Europe for the one year period in 1480 exceeded 1,000. At the beginning of the 17th century, the number had risen to 3,000, and at the beginning of the 19th century, it had reached over 5,000. The increase in the production of books was the result of a number of changes and innovations in the design of books including a reduction in size, standardization of typefaces, the addition of title pages and pagination. The book industry also underwent such organizational changes as a division of labor with specialist printing type manufacturers, printers, publishers, and book merchants. Nevertheless, until printing presses with steam engines were introduced in the first half of the 19th century, printing was basically a manual process, precluding the kind of mass production of books that is possible today.
Let us now take a look at the characteristics of the incunabula that underwent the transition in design from manuscripts to printed books. Incunabula were first printed in exactly the same style as manuscripts. Therefore, all of the characteristics that appeared in manuscripts were maintained in incunabula. These included the use of diverse typefaces according to genre and region, the use of contractions and abbreviations in sentences, frequent use of columns and marginal notes, and rubrication at the beginning of the chapter. The title page that is standard in all books today began to appear only in the 1480s. Until that time, the text in books began immediately after the title, which was referred to as the incipit. Descriptions of the printer, the year of printing and the place of printing were found in the colophon, a section at the end of the book, or were not shown at all. A look at examples of incunabula shows that there are very few where the place of printing, the name of printer, and the year of printing are all indicated in the book.
Without the indication in a book of its year of publication, it was difficult to judge whether a work was an incunabulum or not. Indeed, a very important theme in the history of incunabula studies has been their identification; that is, determining when, by whom and where they were printed. In fact, Gutenberg´s name does not appear in any of the books said to have been printed by him. UP to now, about 1,100 printers of incunabula have been identified, but among these, the names of printers of about 150 cannot be determined or inferred. In such cases, the printer is simply referred to as "the printer of" followed by the name of the work. In this way, printers have been identified and a complete picture of incunabula has been clarified by confirming or inferring when and where the works were printed.
An attempt on a world scale to determine what kind of incunabula were printed and where they are presently housed began in Germany in 1904. It was not until 1925, however, with the publication of the first volume of Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke (GW), that a detailed catalog of incunabula was published. This catalog is a massive work of 27 volumes, with the names of the authors appearing in alphabetical order. So far, however, only 11 volumes have been published. Research has been completed and the GW database, including the record cards, has been placed in the public domain on the Internet by the Berlin State Library-Prussian Cultural Foundation (Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin-Preussischer Kulturbesitz). The GW is an excellent catalog containing all the data that identify incunabula but, because it is taking such an enormous amount of time to publish, the British Library commenced a compilation of a online union catalog, Incunabula Short Title Catalogue (ISTC) in 1980, modeled on the simple catalog entries of the Incunabula in American Libraries (abbreviation: Goff). In 1997, the British Library published a CD-ROM (IISTC) listing about 26,000 incunabula. The ISTC database contains information on the ownership of incunabula around the world. The table below is based on the second edition of the IISTC published in 1998, which shows what kind of incunabula were printed and where they are currently housed.
- Reduced Costs
Lower labor and operational costs are achieved due to a shorter project timeline, efficient use of material, and a smaller field crew
For multi-unit projects, higher capitol efficiency is achieved by designing once and building duplicates
Off-site module construction does not interrupt or shut-down pre-existing operations
- Safety Benefits
Safety risks are reduced for modular process plant personnel with fewer onsite OSHA exposure hours and smaller crew sizes
Ideal construction conditions provided by an enclosed fabrication facility further reduce safety risk for fabricators
Full modular process system testing and checkout prior to shipment identifies and corrects any potential problems before the system is delivered on-site
- Less Resource Requirements
Production style assembly and perfect construction conditions reduce material waste. Components are simplified as much as possible to reduce overall construction costs and part maintenance complexities.
Smaller field crews are required on the construction site because modules are not assembled there. Also, the need to find process system assembly and fabrication technicians is eliminated because they are already employed by the modular fabrication shop.
Less on-site space requirements because systems are assembled in pre-existing shops and modular designs aim to best utilize space layout and existing plant conditions to plan for the implementation of a new system. For example, stacking modular skids may save space where a traditional layout would not be able to support such a vertical layout.
- Explain the Canonical Structures of classical design from the period of early 19th centaury and their Fibonacci´s Golden proportions of printing design.
Despite sequence diversity, five out of six hypervariable loops in antibodies assume a limited number of conformations called canonical structures. Their correct identification is essential for successful prediction of antibody structure. This in turn requires regular updates of the classification of canonical structures to match the expanding experimental database. Antibodies with the eight-residue CDR-L3 represent the second most common type of antibodies after those with the nine-residue CDR-L3. We have analyzed all crystal structures of Fab and Fv with the eight-residue CDR-L3 and identified three major canonical structures covering 82% of a nonredundant set. In most cases, the canonical structure is defined by the absence or presence and position of a proline residue within the CDR. Proteins 2014; 82:1668–1673. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Keywords: crystal structure, canonical structure, cis-isomer, CDR conformation, structure prediction
The antigen-binding sites of antibodies are formed by six loops, three each from the variable domains of the light chain (VL) and of the heavy chain (VH). These “complementarity-determining regions” or CDRs1 are hypervariable in sequence, however, five of them assume a limited number of main-chain conformations, called “canonical structures.”2 These conformations are determined by the CDR length and by the presence of key amino acid residues at specific positions either within the CDRs or in the framework regions. The specific pattern of residues that determines each canonical structure forms a “signature” whereby a canonical structure can be recognized in the sequence of an immunoglobulin of unknown structure and can, therefore, be predicted from sequence alone.
CDR-L3 connects two C-terminal β-strands of the VL domain and forms a wide loop anchored at positions 90 and 97, which are part of the β-scaffold [Fig. 1(A)]. CDR-L3 typically contains nine residues between the invariant residues Cys88 and Phe98 with a cis-proline occupying position 95. Due to junctional diversity in V-J recombination, a significant fraction of antibodies contains only eight residues in CDR-L3. Structurally, the deletion occurs at position 95 resulting in the sequences either without Pro, or with a Pro at positions 94 or 96.
Canonical structures for CDR-L3. A: The most typical nine-residue canonical structure L3–9-cis7 (yellow) superimposed on L3-8-NP (blue). B: L3-8-NP (blue) and L3-8-P7 (orange). C: L3-8-NP (blue) and L3-8-P6 (green). D: L3-8-NP (blue) and L3-8-NP-sub ...
The 8-residue CDR-L3 canonical structures were systematically classified in 2009,4 when 14 crystal structures were assigned to four types: 3A, 3B, 6, and 7. Two types, 3A and 7, contained only two members each and could hardly be called “canonical,” but the new structures determined since then proved it to be correct.
In the most recent and comprehensive classification, 5 19 no redundant structures with the 8-residue CDR-L3 were grouped into three clusters on the basis of the backbone dihedral angles φ and ψ. Two clusters, L3-8-1 and L3-8-cis6, were clearly defined with an average φ/ψ deviation from the median structure of only 10°. However, the third cluster, L3-8-2, was loosely defined by four structures with an average φ/ψ deviation of 41° and apparently included all structures of Types 3A and 3B.
In our analysis of the eight-residue CDR-L3, we expanded the database by including all Fab and Fv crystal structures available to date, the number of which nearly tripled over the last 3 years. This allowed us to identify two main canonical structures that cover 70% of all observed conformations. The remaining structures were grouped into three categories, one of which is new. Inspection of electron density maps reveals several cases where the canonical type was previously assigned incorrectly because of errors in modeling CDR-L3.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Antibody structures (Fab and Fv) with the 8-residue CDR-L3 were selected from the Protein Data Bank6 using the IMGT server.7 In total, 132 structures determined by X-ray crystallography (121 Fab and 11 Fv) were identified. All of them have kappa light chains. Taking into account sequence identity, this set was reduced to 66 nonredundant structures. For each unique sequence, the structure determined at the highest resolution was selected. Out of these, five low-resolution structures (>3 Å) were excluded. Electron density was manually inspected to ensure that the CDR-L3 conformation was defined unambiguously. Two structures (1tzh and 3dgg) were removed from the set because of poor electron density for CDR-L3. Three more structures (1eo8, 1fn4, 1kcr) were removed because of poor quality as indicated by a large number of outliers in the Ramachandran plot including CDR-L3 residues. Electron density for these three structures was not available because structure factors were not deposited in the PDB. Application of all filters resulted in a set of 56 structures.
The Chothia antibody numbering scheme2,8 is used throughout the paper. The CDR-L3 definition according to both Kabat1 and Chothia2,8 includes residues between Cys88 and Phe98. In the eight-residue CDR-L3, residue at position 95 is absent.
The CDR conformations were described in terms of the backbone dihedral angles φ and ψ. For visual convenience, the CDR sequences were mapped onto the Ramachandran plot divided into six regions (Fig. 2) following North et al.5 Canonical structures were assigned manually on the basis of φ/ψ patterns only. Spatial orientation with respect to other CDRs was not taken into account. All crystallographic calculations were performed with the CCP4 suite of programs.9 Protein structures were inspected using Coot.10 Figures were created with PyMOL, version 0.98 (DeLano Scientific, LLC).
Regions of the Ramachanran plot according to North et al.5 A for α-helix, B for β-sheet, P for polyproline II, L for the left-handed helix, D for the δ-region, G for the γ-region.
Although less frequent than the nine-residue CDR-L3, the eight-residue version is the second most common among the PDB structures. The conformations of CDR-L3 observed in the crystal structures available to date cluster into two large groups covering altogether 35 out of 46 nonredundant structures. The two conformations exhibit a common wide loop encompassing residues 91–96 (without 95) and differ at positions 94–96, which fall either in the “GB” or in the “PP” region of the Ramachandran plot. The former group, with the “GB” conformation, contains no Pro residues and shows a strong preference for Leu at position 94 and for Arg or an aromatic residue at position 96. The group includes 25 structures, which is nearly half of the reference dataset. This canonical structure was identified as the main cluster L3-8-1 by North et al.5 and was known before as Type 6.4 As the group is characterized by the lack of proline residues, we labeled it L3-8-NP, i.e., “No-Pro” .
Canonical Structures for the 8-Residue CDR-L3
Relationship between Classifications of Canonical Structures for the 8-Residue CDR-L3
In the “PP” group, residues 94–96 adopt a polypro line conformation. Residue 96 is almost always (with two exceptions) a proline in the trans-configuration. The group includes 13 structures and corresponds to Type 3B,4 although it was not identified as a separate cluster by North et al.5 We label it L3-8-P7 to indicate Pro at position 96 (position 7 within the CDR) as a characteristic feature of the group.
Two members of the group, 1t4k11 and 2xtj,12 were assigned to L3-8-P7 after certain corrections in the models. Both structures deposited in the PDB show peptide 93–94 flipped with respect to the canonical structure resulting in the “LP” conformation for residues 94–96. However, inspection of the electron density maps indicates that both models should be corrected. In addition to the peptide flip, Gly93 in 2xtj should be modeled in the trans rather than cis configuration. This and other examples emphasize the need of a curated structural database free of errors that could be used for structure classifications and as a template source for antibody modeling.
Electron density (2Fo-Fc omit map contoured at 1.2 RMSD) for CDR-L3 with the correct conformation shown in green. A: 1t4k.11 B: 2xtj.12
The third group has canonical structure L3-8-cis6-1 as described by North et al., 5 which corresponds to Type 7.4 It includes three structures and is characterized by cis-Pro at position 94, which is the 6-th position within the CDR. Importantly, all reference structures with Pro94 have it in the cis-configuration and all have the same CDR-L3 canonical structure, which we label L3-8-P6.
Although the majority of antibodies adopt one of the three canonical structures, there are examples of certain deviations from the canonical patterns. There are 12 structures with minor deviations that can be put together in the corresponding sub-groups labeled as L3-8-NP-sub and L3-8-P7-sub. L3-8-NP-sub includes four structures that are characterized by a flip of peptide 93–94 with respect to canonical structure L3-8-NP. None of the structures contains Pro residues.
Members of the L3-8-P7-sub group have residues 94–96 in a polyproline conformation “PP” or “BP”. The differences to L3-8-P7 occur at positions 92 and 93 where the peptide bond flip changes the conformation of residue 92 from α-helical in L3-8-P7 to β-sheet in L3-8-P7-sub. There are eight structures assigned to L3-8-P7-sub, six of which have trans-Pro96 typical for L3-8-P7.
Two structures, 3phq13 and 3mcl, 14 remain unclassified. Both were determined at high resolution, and the electron density for CDR-L3 is very clear. Similarly to the L3-8-NP group, 3phq has no prolines in CDR-L3 and has a characteristic Leu at position 94. However it deviates significantly from the canonical structure. On the other hand, the CDR-L3 conformation in 3phq is quite similar to L3-8-P6 despite the fact that there is no proline at the sixth position. For comparison, the backbone root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) from 1q9k13 (L3-8-NP) and 1e6o15 (L3-8-P6) is 2.1 Å and 1.0 Å, respectively.
The second unassigned structure, 3mcl, differs from all other structures in that Pro96 is in the cis-conformation. It is also the only example with Asn at position 90, which is usually Gln or His. Whether the two structures represent new canonical conformations remains to be seen.
- Prepare a detailed note on the printing press and page layout in the 19th century.
The history of printing goes back to the duplication of images by means of stamps in very early times. The use of round seals for rolling an impression into clay tablets goes back to early Mesopotamian civilization before 3000 BCE, where they are the most common works of art to survive, and feature complex and beautiful images. In both China and Egypt, the use of small stamps for seals preceded the use of larger blocks. In China, India and Europe, the printing of cloth certainly preceded the printing of paper or papyrus. The process is essentially the same - in Europe special presentation impressions of prints were often printed on silk until the seventeenth century. The development of printing has made it possible for books, newspapers, magazines, and other reading materials to be produced in great numbers, and it plays an important role in promoting literacy among the masses.
Yuan Dynasty woodblocks edition of a Chinese play
Block printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia both as a method of printing on textiles and later, under the influence of Buddhism, on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to about 220. Ukiyo-e is the best known type of Japanese woodblock art print. Most European uses of the technique on paper are covered by the term woodcut (see below), except for the block-books produced mainly in the fifteenth century.
The world´s earliest printer printed fragments to survive are from China and are of silk printed with flowers in three colours from the Han Dynasty (before AD 220) The technology of printing on cloth in China was adapted to paper under the influence of Buddhism which mandated the circulation of standard translations over a wide area, as well as the production of multiple copies of key texts for religious reasons. It reached Europe, via the Islamic world, and by around 1400 was being used on paper for old master prints and playing cards. The third oldest wood-block printed book ever found after Mugujeonggwang great Dharani sutra and Hyakumantō Darani is the Diamond Sutra. It carries a date of the 13th day of the fourth moon of the ninth year of the Xiantong era (i.e. 11 May 868). A number of printed dhāraṇīs, however, predate the Diamond Sūtra by about two hundred years (see Tang Dynasty).
In Buddhism, great merit is thought to accrue from copying and preserving texts. The fourth-century master listed the copying of scripture as the first of ten essential religious practices. The importance of perpetuating texts is set out with special force in the longer Sukhāvatīvyūha Sūtra which not only urges the devout to hear, learn, remember and study the text but to obtain a good copy and to preserve it. This ‘cult of the book’ led to techniques for reproducing texts in great numbers, especially the short prayers or charms known as dhāraṇīs. Stamps were carved for printing these prayers on clay tablets from at least the seventh century, the date of the oldest surviving examples. Especially popular was the Pratītyasamutpāda Gāthā, a short verse text summing up Nāgārjuna´s philosophy of causal genesis or dependent origination. Nagarjuna lived in the early centuries of the current era and the Buddhist Creed, as the Gāthā is frequently called, was printed on clay tablets in huge numbers from the sixth century. This tradition was transmitted to China and Tibet with Buddhism. Printing text from woodblocks does not, however, seem to have been developed in India.
Page layouts control the layout and organization of buttons, fields, s-controls, Visualforce, custom links, and related lists on object record pages. They also help determine which fields are visible, read only, and required. Use page layouts to customize the content of record pages for your users.
Page layouts can include s-controls and Visualforce pages that are rendered within a field section when the page displays. You can control the size of the s-controls and Visualforce pages, and determine whether or not a label and scroll bars display.
Salesforce has two drag-and-drop tools for editing page layouts: the original page layout editor and an enhanced page layout editor. The enhanced page layout editor is enabled by default, and provides all the functionality of the original editor, as well as additional functionality and an easier-to-use WYSIWYG interface.
You can enable the original page layout editor in the User Interface settings. Your Salesforce org can use only one page layout editor at a time.
From within a page layout, you can access a mini page layout. The mini page layout defines the hover details that display when you mouse over a field on an object’s detail page in the Agent console or in the Recent Items section of the sidebar in Salesforce Classic.
For Personal, Contact Manager, Group, and Professional Edition orgs, every user views the same layout. Professional, Enterprise, Unlimited, Performance, and Developer Edition orgs can create different page layouts for use by different profiles and record types and set field-level security settings to further restrict users’ access to specific fields.
In Professional, Enterprise, Performance, Unlimited, and Developer Editions, you can set the mini page layouts and related objects that appear in the Console tab.
- Edit Page Layouts for Standard Objects
Change the look and feel of page layouts for standard Salesforce objects.
- Edit Page Layouts for Custom and External Objects
Change the look and feel of page layouts for custom and external objects.
- Customize Page Layouts with the Enhanced Page Layout Editor
The enhanced page layout editor is a WYSIWYG tool that allows you to customize your organization’s page layouts for detail and edit pages in Salesforce, the Self-Service Portal, and the Salesforce Customer Portal. The enhanced page layout editor has all the functionality of the original page layout editor, but has more features and an easier-to-use interface.
- Customizing Home Tab Page Layouts
- Set Page Layouts and Field-Level Security
- Assigning Page Layouts
- Assign Page Layouts from a Customize Page Layout or Record Type Page
- Edit Multi-Line Layouts for Opportunity Products
- Build Page Layouts for Custom Objects
- How Page Layouts Work in Salesforce1
Use the enhanced page layout editor to customize the layout of an object’s record detail pages, configure actions, and adjust which fields and related lists appear in Salesforce1.
- Page Layouts in Lightning Experience
When you customize your object record pages in Salesforce Classic, those changes can affect the content of object record pages in Lightning Experience. However, in Lightning Experience, the page elements display differently, and some aren’t supported.
- Tips for Optimizing Page Layouts for Salesforce1
Here are some tips and tricks for making your existing page layouts more mobile-friendly.
- Manage Mobile Cards in the Enhanced Page Layout Editor
Add expanded lookups, components, and Visualforce pages to the Mobile Cards section of your page layout to have them show up as mobile cards in Salesforce1.
- Customize Related Lists
You can customize the buttons, columns displayed, column order, and record sort order of related lists on record detail pages in Salesforce and the Salesforce Customer Portal.
- Customize Detail Page Buttons
- Customize Page Layouts with the Original Page Layout Editor
- Prepare an explanatory note on the layout design in 20th century.
The preparation and use of explanatory notes is an important part of the legislative process. Explanatory notes need to be clear, precise and informative as they are used to:
- inform Cabinet decision making;
- contribute to informed debate in Parliament;
- ensure effective Parliamentary scrutiny of bills and subordinate legislation;
- assist in the interpretation of legislation, including by practitioners, lawyers and courts;
- make legislation more accessible by assisting people to understand the effect on their rights and obligations imposed by legislation; and
- inform public discussion about legislation, including whether the legislation has sufficient regard to rights and liberties of individuals and democratic principles.
Explanatory notes are required at key times in the development of legislation and are prepared for the purposes of accompanying:
- the Authority to Introduce a Bill submission to Cabinet;
- the Bill on its introduction into Parliament (as required under section 22 of the
Legislative Standards Act 1992 (the LSA);
- any amendments during consideration in detail of the Bill;
- an Authority to Forward Significant Subordinate Legislation submission to Cabinet; and
- all subordinate legislation that is tabled in Parliament (as required under section 22 of the LSA) .
Under section 93 of the Parliament of Queensland 2001, portfolio committees are responsible for examining each Bill and item of subordinate legislation in its portfolio area to consider the policy to be given effect by the legislation, the application of fundamental legislative principles and the lawfulness of subordinate legislation. In addition, the responsibilities of portfolio committees include monitoring the operation of explanatory notes. Clearly drafted and informative explanatory notes should also assist portfolio committees in carrying out their functions.
In addition, section 22 of the LSA requires that when subordinate legislation is tabled in Parliament, it must be accompanied by an explanatory note prepared under the authority of the responsible Minister.
The former SLC has recommended that explanatory notes should be drafted in ‗plain English‘ style, should not use archaic or anachronistic language and that, saying too much is preferred to saying too little if it is not possible to adequately address an issue in brief.1
These guidelines provide further detail on the preparation of explanatory notes.
Content of explanatory notes
The LSA sets out the requirements for what to include in explanatory notes for Bills (section 23) and for subordinate legislation (section 24). Sections 23 and 24 of the LSA provide the framework for explanatory notes and are set out as headings in the following templates:
- Template 1 - Explanatory notes for Bills; and
- Template 2 - Explanatory notes for subordinate legislation.
Agency officers should adopt these templates for explanatory notes and be guided by the notes and examples under each heading. Note that Template 2 should be used for both significant subordinate legislation and other types of subordinate legislation. Footnotes to the relevant resources are also included for assistance. Please note that the brief examples only provide a starting point for preparing the document. Agency officers should also refer to recent explanatory notes on the Office of the Queensland Parliamentary Counsel website (http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au) for examples of how to approach particular parts of the document. As sections 23 and 24 of the LSA provide for similar requirements in some