- The adviser to a student-published newspaper copies several articles from national magazines to show student reporters examples of excellent journalism. According to copyright law, the adviser does NOT need to obtain permission to copy the articles. Give reasons why advisor need not to obtain permission?
Answer- The adviser to a student-published newspaper copies several articles from national magazines to show student reporters examples of excellent journalism. According to copyright law, the adviser does NOT need to obtain permission to copy the articles because this use of copyrighted material falls under the fair use doctrine.
The main attraction is freedom — freedom to write about issues of importance to them. The program honours their First Amendment rights. They all want to be independent and in charge of their own lives. Journalism classes give them that opportunity.
- While interviewing the school principal for a story, a student reporter operates an audiotape recorder hidden in her backpack. She does not tell the principal she is audiotaping the interview. What constituted the reporter´s actions? Is this under the ethics or not? Give reasons for your answers.
Answer- While interviewing the school principal for a story, a student reporter operates an audiotape recorder hidden in her backpack. She does not tell the principal she is audiotaping the interview. The reporter´s actions constitute invasion of privacy.
Recording a interviews legal in all of the states and the District. Federal law permits electronically recording a conversation with the consent of only one person involved in the conversation. This "one-party" rule requires the consent of at least one person in the conversation. The law deals primarily with wiretapping and law enforcement –- recording conversations to which the recorder is not a party. But for journalists, this means that only the reporter herself is required to know that the conversation is being recorded.
- A student reporter has been assigned to write a story about a new science teacher at the school. The reporter has created a list of questions to ask the teacher during the interview. Midway through the interview, the teacher mentions an interesting and unusual job she once had as a scientist on an Arctic expedition. What would be the reporter´s best response to this disclosure of information by teacher?
Answer- A student reporter has been assigned to write a story about a new science teacher at the school. The reporter has created a list of questions to ask the teacher during the interview. Midway through the interview, the teacher mentions an interesting and unusual job she once had as a scientist on an Arctic expedition. The reporter´s best response would be to incorporate into the interview several questions aimed at eliciting more information about the teacher´s work in the Arctic.
interesting, quotable, clear
- In August, the blogosphere went wild over an image in a Microsoft Corp. ad that had been edited to change a man´s race from black to white. In a photo featured on the company´s U.S. Web site, three colleagues -- one white, one black and one Asian -- sit around a conference room table. But in the same photo on the company´s Polish site, the face of the black man had been replaced with the face of a white man. The gaffe sparked quite the discussion online, as bloggers and commenters wondered if the change was racially motivated, the result of poor judgement or both. Some people suspected that the computer technology giant changed the Polish image so that it matched the country´s own racial composition. Is this right to polish the image? What principle of photography is not followed in the case?
Answer- In August, the blogosphere went wild over an image in a Microsoft Corp. ad that had been edited to change a man’s race from black to white. In a photo featured on the company’s U.S. Web site, three colleagues – one white, one black and one Asian – sit around a conference room table. But in the same photo on the company’s Polish site, the face of the black man had been replaced with the face of a white man. The gaffe sparked quite the discussion online, as bloggers and commenters wondered if the change was racially motivated, the result of poor judgment or both. Some people suspected that the computer technology giant changed the Polish image so that it matched the country’s own racial composition.
It even inspired the popular tech blog TechCrunch to launch a contest to see who can manipulate the funniest head onto the Microsoft ad.
“So get Photoshop fired up and make your funniest (and yet not in any way offensive) version of the Polish Microsoft head replacement. No rules. Replace all the heads you want to. Add costumes and props. Add text bubbles,” it said on its site.
- A devoted photographer—an aspiring professional or passionate artist— always carries a camera at the ready. The photographer happens to witness a horrific catastrophe, and is the only person to capture the event on film. A media company, eager to acquire the images for broadcast, offers the photographer Rs. 500,000 for the images and copyrights. Is it ethically wrong for the photographer to accept the large sum, because it would mean profiting from awful misfortune?
Answer- The appearance of benefiting from tragedy often gives rise to controversy. In the case of a photographer receiving payment for recording calamity, opposing viewpoints appear related to perspectives on profit.
Profit as Legitimate Reward
People who see profit as a fair return for providing a valued service, at least in principle, would tend to argue the photographer is not profiting from a tragedy, but is providing a valued service in communicating the event. And that the photographer should not feel guilty about receiving the money, even a large sum that can be said to reflect its information value. A plausible line of reasoning is that the photographer, having devoted much of their life to the craft, can be seen as receiving a lump-sum payoff for having been out with their camera and “ready” to record history when it happened (and presumably in a high-quality, technically proficient manner.) A secondary consideration is that a large part of any extraordinary one-time payment would be paid out in taxes, benefiting society as a whole.
Profit as Excess
On the other hand, people who are innately suspicious of profit or its substantial temptations of human weakness, and concerned about its magnitude or broader questions of social justice, may disparage a substantial payment to the photographer. From this perspective, as a matter of equity, the victims or their families should have priority entitlement to any flow of funds resulting from the tragedy. Another objection could be that the photographer should not be so amply rewarded for the quirk of being at a certain place at a certain time in connection with a tragedy.
The answer may be further blurred by the circumstances of the photographer. The argument is strongest for compensation if the photographer is a monetarily poor, struggling artist, having worked full-time at the craft with only marginal return.
In my judgment, a solution would be to share a proportion of any after-tax windfall with those affected by a tragedy that I would chance to photograph.
- In an actual case, a renowned, talented landscape photographer was arrested and fined after fires he had set as a backdrop for night photography grew out of control and caused damage to natural formations at Arches National Park in Utah. Nobody disputes the photographer was wrong to have started fires when it was clearly against park rules, and contrary to good sense. But what if fires were allowed, and could be safely controlled? Is it ethical for photographers to add “props” to a scene to make it appear more dramatic or photogenic, when in fact the scene never really looks that way?
Answer- Searing tongues of flame as a backdrop would make even as dull a space as my front lawn look spectacular. Yet such an image would be a total dramatization. As a rule, photography for any purpose that purports to represent how a place looks should not have props, because it is deceptive: not the reality of its normal appearance. On the other hand, props are acceptable for purposes of abstract art (which as a rule excludes landscape photography) or when it is otherwise clear to the majority of viewers that the scene has likely been spiced up with special effects.
- At a gallery show, you come upon a highly intriguing image of a building taken from a particularly artistic perspective. You imagine doing the same, possibly under different lighting conditions, and using different equipment, but essentially an identical composition. From the title, you research the subject, find the location, and take your version of the scene. In a moment of reflection, you admit to yourself that even had you been aware of that building, you probably would not have imagined taking it from the particular perspective you are emulating. Still, reasoning that the building is there for anyone to photograph, you enter the image in a photography competition, and it easily wins. Is it plagiarism to copy the artistic perspective of the original photographer?
Answer- The building, indeed, is there for all to see and photograph. Yet in this situation, a photographer copied the exact perspective that was creatively devised by another photographer. By exhibiting the photo without crediting the original photographer, the second photographer gets credit for the originality of the first. Whether or not the second photographer has ‘improved’ the image, the conscious replication of the original perspective is tantamount to plagiarism, in my view, if the image is publicly displayed and the original photographer not given credit. Moreover, selling the image would be wrong, in my view, because it would be profiting from the creativity of another.
- An architectural photographer is employed to take pictures of model homes for publication in advertising. The images are of actual housing, but the photographer is asked to make extensive digital modifications to add non-existent features such as garages and porches, with the understanding that the extras would be available to home buyers at additional cost. Is it wrong to include fictional features in such an image for marketing and sales purposes?
Answer- The house is understood to be a model with optional features; therefore, any photo is but a possibility, and a salesperson would normally explain available options. Still, an airtight ethical solution would add a footnote with the advertising to indicate the pictured house was digitally enhanced to include optional features.
Taste in Photojournalism: A Question of Ethics or Aesthetics?
Photographer Garry Bryant, in his essay “Ten-Fifty P.I.: Emotion and the Photographer’s Role,’’ (1987) says his reaction over the years to a ten-fifty p.i. call—an accident with personal injury—had changed from one of thrill to one of wariness. He attributes the change to the drama he has witnessed at countless tragedies and the resulting hassles with crowds, police, and the reading public in obtaining and printing the photos.
Undoubtedly, John Harte of the Bakersfield Californian knows the feeling well. So does his editor, who after receiving the brunt of the public reaction to printing the photo that follows, says he has rethought his position on publishing photos of personal tragedy.
Photographer Harte took the photo after he responded to a call on the police scanner. He arrived at a lake northeast of Bakersfield, California, while divers were still searching for a drowning victim. After a few minutes, divers brought the lifeless body of five-year-old Edward Romero to the shore, where the boy’s distraught family was gathered. By this time, television crews had arrived on the scene. As the family members, in public view at the edge of the lake, began to grieve, all of the photojournalists and videographers had to decide whether and how they would shoot the story. The television crews opted out; they decided not to film the moment. Harte edged around the sheriff and, using a 24 mm lens and a motor drive, shot eight frames. Managing editor Robert Bentley was called into the offices of the Bakersfield Californian that
Sunday evening to decide whether one of Harte’s gripping photos should run. He was persuaded that the photo would serve as a potential warning and help stem the high number of drowning’s in the county. The publication of the photo, which was also distributed by the Associated Press, generated more than five hundred protest letters and calls from throughout the nation but primarily from Bakersfield residents.
The paper also lost about forty subscribers over its decision, most of whom returned (Stein 1986). A week later, Bentley explained his decision in an editorial column. “Some claimed the Californian showed callous disrespect of the victim. Others felt the photograph had forced their visual intrusion on what should have been a family’s private time of shock and grief. Most combined the dual protests’’ (Bentley 1986). Bentley eventually decided that the photo should never have been published. He has said that by publishing the photo, he learned that journalists are seriously out of touch with their readers’ sensibilities. “The reaction was too intense and widespread to just shrug it off and say we’re just doing our job’’ (Stein 1986).
The picture was nominated for, but did not win, the Pulitzer prize. Editorial judgments about photographs ordinarily hinge on two kinds of standards, moral standards and standards of taste. The most commonly recognized moral standards are those concerning privacy and those about inflicting additional harm on victims. These were the moral basis of response to Harte’s picture. Standards of taste are more difficult to identify and describe. No photographer or photo editor to my knowledge has identified what exactly we mean by “in bad taste.” The closest they come is to note that people do not want bloody pictures (mangled bodies, or the uncovered dead, for example) at the breakfast table. Some find such pictures offensive at any time of day.
So what can we say about the ethics of taking and publishing aesthetically offensive photos?
First, we are more likely to agree on what is good (ethics) than on what is beautiful (aesthetics). The philosophers have long known that. Philosophers, whose function is inquiry into the good (ethics), the true (epistemology), and the beautiful (aesthetics), have been far more successful and helpful in uncovering standards for the true and the good than for the beautiful. Matters of taste seem far more subjective and idiosyncratic than do matters of morality and truth. Some of us admire Wagner and eschew Elvis.
Second, ethical judgments and aesthetic judgments are often closely related. The mushroom cloud from the atomic bomb, for example, has always appeared beautiful to me ever since I saw pictures of the cloud over Hiroshima. Those pictures led to moral rejoicing that the war was about over and that my father would soon be coming home from the Navy. For others the cloud is symbolic of human evil, power, and inhumanity. We tend to like aesthetic symbols of moral good, and we dislike symbols of moral evil.
Third, the decision to take news photos (and the decision to publish them) is ultimately moral and not aesthetic. Harte clearly intruded upon the family in Bakersfield, and that was a moral choice based on his pursuit of somebody’s good. Bentley’s decision to publish was a moral one: he hoped to prevent others from drowning by running the picture as a warning. He was willing to risk aesthetic harm for moral gain.
Fourth, photo editors sometimes have a moral duty to readers to publish pictures many would regard as in bad taste. Few would object to a warning that saved a life even if the warning was aesthetically objectionable.
The occasional moral duty to be aesthetically offensive rests upon the duty of accuracy, the duty not to deceive. The logic is this: in order to function in the world readers need an accurate image of that world, not one sanitized by well-meaning but misguided journalists. Where the world is bloody it is dishonest and deceptive to hide blood from readers. Aesthetically alarming pictures of starving children in Somalia brought action precisely because they showed ugly reality.
Fifth, photo editors have a moral duty not to publish aesthetically offensive pictures except when a significant moral purpose demands publication. The reason is that pictures can plant images in our minds that genuinely harm us. They can be haunting images that we cannot escape.
Morals and taste interrelate in interesting ways. The moral standard for photojournalism also seems clear: we have a moral obligation to others not to publish aesthetically offensive pictures except when publication is reasonably likely to advance some greater public good. Perhaps you can refine and improve that standard through your own critical analysis.
- Who made the correct ethical decision at the scene, the television crews or Harte?
Answer- Editorial judgements about photos hinge on two types of standards:
Moral standards - privacy of the family & Individuals inflicting additional harm on the family
Standards of taste - difficult to distinguish, think as if the image is on the breakfast table filming the event was newsworthy, filming the deceased body and publishing it was not necessary. The news crews could have filmed it and remained tasteful. Harte reported the story in a different manner, by producing the raw story to the public. Middle Range Issue Should newspapers outside the Bakersfield area have published the photo? Newspapers outside of the Bakersfield area did not have a reason to publish the story because it is not newsworthy to their community. The awareness of drowning could have made a possible story, but the individual death of Edward Romero did not pertain to the community. A Macro Issue Do the potential prosaically benefits resulting from publishing the photo justify taking it? Running it? Does it? Did running this story save a few lives? While this story brought awareness the community about drowning in the lake, the photograph of the lifeless body of a child could have easily been avoided.
- Does the truly exceptional nature of the photo change your reasoning? Solve by www.solvezone.in contact for more details - 8882309876
Answer- When photography was first invented, its overwhelming power came from the fact that it recorded nature more realistically than any other art form had ever done before. Because of this, people trusted it and believed it portrayed "reality" and "truth".
But, just as story telling could portray the "truth" with an accurate accounting of the facts, it could just as easily become fiction. Fake and manipulated photographs - visual fiction - began circulating not long after the invention of photography.
With the invention of motion pictures, and certainly television, the public came to know that not every picture they saw was necessarily factual in its depiction of reality.
- Would an interview without a photo have been any less intrusive? Should the print journalists present have decided not to write a story?
Answer- Semi-structured interviews are conducted with a fairly open framework which allow for focused, conversational, two-way communication. They can be used both to give and receive information.
Unlike the questionnaire framework, where detailed questions are formulating ahead of time, semi structured interviewing starts with more general questions or topics. Relevant topics (such as cook stoves) are initially identified and the possible relationship between these topics and the issues such as availability, expense, effectiveness become the basis for more specific questions which do not need to be prepared in advance.
Not all questions are designed and phrased ahead of time. The majority of questions are created during the interview, allowing both the interviewer and the person being interviewed the flexibility to probe for details or discuss issues.
Semi-structured interviewing is guided only in the sense that some form of interview guide, such as the matrix described below is prepared beforehand, and provides a framework for the interview.
Question No. 1 Marks - 10
Mixing the colours blue and red in equal proportion will produce which of the following hues?
Question No. 2 Marks - 10
According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), informational safety sheets must be present in art rooms that contain which of the following safety risks?
- Bladed machinery
- Hazardous chemicals
- Loud noises
- Heat-producing tools
Question No. 3 Marks - 10
An advertising policy for a publication should include identification of
- Quality standards for photographs.
- The managing editor´s role in decision making.
- Personnel who will occupy key positions of leadership.
- Standards of acceptability for copy.
Question No. 4 Marks - 10
Which of the following departments in a private corporation would offer career opportunities that best match the qualifications of a journalism major who has experience in both print and broadcast media?
- Public relations
- Research and development
- Human resources
Question No. 5 Marks - 10
The most relevant factor to consider when formulating an editorial policy is the
- Reaction of the publication´s audience to the policy.
- Editorial staff understands of the policy´s purpose.
- Controversial nature of the policy.
- Number of staff members who will be governed by the policy.
Question No. 6 Marks - 10
____________ Photography is one of the most lucrative forms of photography
Question No. 7 Marks - 10
A great variety of cameras, lights, _________ are used in commercial photography.
Question No. 8 Marks - 10
Photojournalists combine an ability to find and ___________ dramatic action with photographic talent.
Question No. 9 Marks - 10
_____________, like artists, have a wide variety of choices as far as subjects are concerned.
Question No. 10 Marks - 10
Photography is a unique and _____________ medium of self-expression.
Question No. 11 Marks - 10
A good _______________ should present the facts without fear or favour and not seek out praise or shy away from criticism.
Question No. 12 Marks - 10
Media and _____________ will always have close ties.
- Social Problems
Question No. 13 Marks - 10
Reporters have no choice but to cover the people chosen to lead _____________________.
Question No. 14 Marks - 10
______________photographers work for food manufacturers, hotels and restaurants, exporters, dairy and ice-cream companies.
Question No. 15 Marks - 10
______________ Photographers photograph workers on the job, machinery, industrial layout, prominent places in the industry etc.
Question No. 16 Marks - 10
Wildlife photographers have to wait for___________ to catch the animals in the right mood and pose.
Question No. 17 Marks - 10
Photojournalism emerged as a distinctive form of photography in the late ___________ and early 1930s.
Question No. 18 Marks - 10
The main difference between photojournalism and photography deals with how the ________________ is treated by the photographer.
Question No. 19 Marks - 10
Photojournalists carry the burden of journalistic ____________.
Question No. 20 Marks - 10
In colour photography, light-sensitive chemicals or electronic sensors record ______________ information at the time of exposure.
Question No. 21 Marks - 10
Creating colours by _____________ together collared lights (usually red, green and blue) in various proportions is the additive method of colour reproduction.
Question No. 22 Marks - 10
When the three dye images are superimposed they form a ______________ colour image.
Question No. 23 Marks - 10
Chemical toning could be used to convert ______________ black-and-white silver images into cyan, magenta and yellow images which were then assembled.
Question No. 24 Marks - 10
The ________________ of photographic three-color prints on paper was pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron.
Question No. 25 Marks - 10
In _____________ German chemist Hermann Wilhelm Vogel discovered that the addition of small amounts of certain aniline dyes to a photographic emulsion could add sensitivity to colours which the dyes absorbed.
Question No. 26 Marks - 10
Light fading occurs when materials are exposed to _____________, e.g. while on display.
Question No. 27 Marks - 10
__________________dyes will typically fade the quickest.
Question No. 28 Marks - 10
______________ telling is at the heart of good photography; accordingly, good photographers need to be able to tell stories with their cameras.
Question No. 29 Marks - 10
___________________ Photography uses an array of electronic photo detectors to capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an exposure on photographic film.
Question No. 30 Marks - 10
The first recorded attempt at building a digital camera was in ____________ by Steven Sasson, an engineer at Eastman Kodak.
Question No. 31 Marks - 10
The first true digital camera that recorded images as a computerized file was likely the Fuji DS-1P of __________.
Question No. 32 Marks - 10
The first flyby spacecraft image of __________ was taken from Mariner 4 on July 15, 1965 with a camera system designed by NASA/JPL.
Question No. 33 Marks - 10
Image _____________ read the intensity of light, and digital memory devices store the digital image information as RGB color space or as raw data.
Question No. 34 Marks - 10
Digital cameras can take pictures, and may also record __________ and video.
- Food Items
Question No. 35 Marks - 10
The quality of a digital image is a composite of various factors, many of which are similar to those of film ___________.
Question No. 36 Marks - 10
Digital Photography Review, the4:3 ratio is because "computer __________ are 4:3 ratio, old CCD´s always had a 4:3 ratio, and thus digital cameras inherited this aspect ratio."
Question No. 37 Marks - 10
The ________ count quoted by manufacturers can be misleading as it may not be the number of full-color pixels.
Question No. 38 Marks - 10
Many camera phones and most digital cameras use memory cards having flash memory to _________ image data.
- a) Read
- b) Write
- c) Store
- d) Create
Question No. 39 Marks - 10
The primary advantage of ______________-level digital cameras is the low recurring cost, as users need not purchase photographic film.
- a) Food
- b) Wildlife
- c) Producer
- d) Consumer
Question No. 40 Marks - 10
Digital photography was used in astrophotography long before its use by the general public and had almost completely displaced photographic plates by the early ____________s.
- a) 1950
- b) 1960
- c) 1980
- d) 1970