Advertising through Print, Radio & Television
1.Discuss the importance and objectives of media planning
Answer: Media planning is required because product consumers are scattered across media and one consumer may be using more than one media format. If there were just one TV channels, one newspaper, one radio station and one social media website, there would have been no need for media planning at all. However such a scenario does not exist in real world and if it did, it would lead to Ad space clutter and so the example should be taken only in academic sense. Since the closing years of 20th century the world has witnessed an explosion in Media platforms and today the job of a Media planning agency has become extremely tough.Manufacturers and other commercial entities want to advertise their product using available media in the target location. Presence of large number of media companies and media formats means high advertising costs. Very few businesses can afford to cover a large spectrum of media platforms. Therefore there is a need of Advertisement media planning professionals who specialize in understanding various media platforms in a geographical zone and who also have a grasp on consumer behavior patterns of that region. These Media planning agencies or advertising agencies use a plethora of Media planning tools to provide Media planning services to their clients.
Major Media formats for Media planning
Electronic media ( T.V., Radio)
Print media ( Newspapers, magazines, Pamphlets )
Digital media ( CDs, DVDs, Social media, Mobile phones)
Outdoor ( Banners, billboards)
Some important Media Planning terms
Reach – The number of households who are exposed to a media vehicle at least once in a given region.
Target Group – The key consumer group for a brand whom the advertiser is planning to give the advertising message.
Universe – Actual count of consumers in the target group.
Rating point – The percentage (%) of the target universe group who are actually exposed to a TV or Radio Ad at a given point of time. 1 rating point = 1% of target audience.
GRP (Gross rating point) - Total size of audience reached by a particular media vehicle.
TRP (Target rating point) – It is the GRP achieved in a special target group by a media vehicle.
Frequency – The number of times an individual is exposed to a brand’s advertisement campaign.
CPP (Cost per point) - Cost spent to buy one rating point or in other words cost of reaching 1% of the target audience.
CPT (Cost per thousand) – It stands for the cost of reaching 1000 target audience with a particular media campaign and media vehicle.
Day part Viewership - The demography of audience exposed to a media campaign during different parts of a day.
UC (User clicks) - Number of first clicks by a website visitor.
CTR (Click through rate) – It is the count of users who actually clicked at the desired link of the advertisement campaign.
PPC (Pay per click) – It is also known as “Cost per click” and is the cost a business gives to a website for each click on the business Ad link on the website.
Main objectives of Media planning/Buying
The main objective of availing Media planning services is by a Business is to achieve a desired “Reach” and “frequency”. To achieve both these parameters, the Media planning agencies and Media buying agencies make use of various Media planning tools.
Reach: Reach is the total count of households or individuals who are exposed to a media vehicle at least once in a given period. However it is not the count of people who are exposed to the actual advertisement. The “Reach” number is a crucial input of Media planning tools as it helps the media planner to create a media-mix based upon the “Reach” of various media vehicles in a given advertising region. The number of households which must be exposed to the advertising message is established and then a media-mix of all the media vehicles that may be required to achieve that number is evolved. The cheapest combination of media mix which achieves the target media-reach is communicated to the Media Buying Companies who finally make the buy after negotiating with the media companies.
Frequency: It is the number of times a household or an individual is actually exposed to the brand advertisement which is being promoted by the Media planning agency. This is equally important and crucial Media planning tool as by better reach only, an advertisement campaign’s success can not be gauged. It is only if target number of households actually get exposed to the advertisement message that the media plan is considered to be successful. To achieve better frequency or advertisement exposure, Media buying agencies buy those time slots and media vehicles which are more likely to find the target group. For this, Media buying Companies need to thoroughly research the demography of the target geographical region of the Advertisement campaign.
Social Media Planning use Media planning tools like TRP, CPP, CPT, UC, CTR and PPC etc to negotiate and buy media spaces. The Media buying agency has to be ready with its own genuine media statistics and not rely on the figures submitted by the media selling companies for achieving better negotiations. Buying strategies and tactics like bulk buying, add-ons, value add packages and e-blast etc can be used to make more effective buying. A buying rate card which mentions the quoted media rates and negotiated rates only goes on to show the media buying benefit to the advertiser. This rate card can show savings made per advertisement exposure on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. After all the main objective of Media planning and Media buying is to use minimum budget for maximum advertising impact!
2.Discuss the difference between old and new media
Answer: differences between how legacy media companies and newer entities operate.
- They measure success differently.
Today´s models of success are more complex. Media outlets are no longer relying on one or two metrics to drive their businesses, but several. For example, many new-media entities are focusing on platform-specific metrics such as social shares, how long someone watches a video, and reader dialogue. Instead of "teasing" the content on social-media platforms, aiming to drive the reader back to a publication´s main site, newer media companies like Refinery29 publish their content where their readers are already spending their time.
- New-media companies place more emphasis on community building.
If you build it, they will come, right? There are many new journalism roles that focus on community development: Growth Editor, Audience Development Manager and Distributed Content Editor are just a few. What they all have in common is that they open up opportunities for building long-term loyalty among readers. New-media companies take a lot of pride in the characteristics of their communities, especially when the general vibe is positive.
In an interview with Gawker, BuzzFeed Books Editor Isaac Fitzgerald shares his unique approach to book reviews, one that revolves around shedding light on the notable and not wasting time with pointless, negative critique. There´s an inherent optimism coming into play with new media that challenges some of the ways of the past -- at least when it comes to certain niches.
- Celebrities aren´t just in the news. Now, they´re creating it too.
Lenny, a new media site owned by Hearst Communications, is the brainchild of actress-writer-director, Lena Dunham, and Girls Producer Jenni Konner. Lenny´s content often covers leftist and feminist viewpoints, even sharing celebrity op-eds such as a piece by actress Jennifer Lawrence that explores why her male co-stars make more money than she does.
Actress-musician Zooey Deschanel co-founded Hello Giggles, a women´s lifestyle publication with an aspirational, quirky (Deschanel-like) spin. After growing in popularity, the site was acquired by publishing company Time Inc. for $30 million.
- New media sites = new revenue channels.
Actress Gwyneth Paltrow´s newsletter-turned-lifestyle site, goop, dishes out everything from parenting advice to detox recipes. The site also sells merchandising, all approved by Paltrow, via its shop section. To be fair, though, selling a product that appeals to a publication´s audience isn´t a brand new concept, but it is becoming more common and more organically woven into the reader´s experience.
POPSUGAR Must Have, a subscription gift box curated by POPSUGAR Founder and President Lisa Sugar, is another example of a new media entity putting its strong branding efforts to work in the merchandising department.
- Old media and new media view mobile-friendliness differently.
It´s the difference between considering apps a distribution channel and creating content with a mobile-first mindset. There are tons of magnificent news apps out there, from NYT Now to Quartz, but some newer companies are taking it a step further by developing content to be consumed specifically on a smartphone or tablet. This is not a "news app" by any means, but a company called Stela is developing a collection of brand new, digital comics to be consumed specifically on a smartphone or tablet. You can only get the content through the app, so there´s great potential for appeal by way of exclusivity.
But there isn´t a winner or loser in the old-media-versus-new-media debate. Think of it, rather, as an evolution driven by technology and today´s highly niched online communities. Where we consume news has shifted, how we interact with the media has changed, and the publications that embrace the new digital landscape are the ones that will be excited about the future not disheartened by it.
3.Why is media planning important in advertising?
Answer: Importance of Media Planning In the Process of Advertising a Product!
Media planning that requires knowledge of both marketing and mass communication skills is the process of determining deals with the biggest portion of the advertiser’s budget in terms of cost for buying placement of advertisement.
Media planners have two main roles of analysing the market and evaluating media channel effectiveness in order to place the advertising message before a target audience. The findings from the research influence the creative and media plans for all aspects of marketing communication including advertising.
Traditionally, media planning was essentially based on a client’s media strategy. The ad agency was responsible for developing the media plan, which was usually devised jointly by the agency’s media department, the account and creative teams, and the marketer’s brand management group. Once the plan was formed, a media buying unit, sometimes attached to the ad agency, executed it. Now, an advertising client is just as likely to outsource media planning to an agency, as it is to develop its own plan. Because of these shifts, the line between media planning and media buying has become hazy.
Some experts describe media planners as the hub or central point in the advertising wheel, where all campaign elements symbolized by the spokes of the wheel are joined. The basis of this opinion is the sheer volume of data and information that media planners must gather, sort, and analyze before media decision-making can begin. In many ad agencies, account planners collect, gather, and analyse some of this market and creative information, especially if it relates to the target audience, message design, or brand image.
4.What are the various forms of media that exist for advertising?
Answer: Nine types of advertising media available to an advertiser are:
(1) direct mail
(2) newspapers and magazines
(3) radio advertising
(4) television advertising
(5) film advertising
(6) outdoor advertising
(7) window display
(8) fairs and exhibition and
(9) specially advertising!
(1) Direct Mail:
This is one of the oldest types of advertising media. Under this method message is sent to the prospective buyers by post. A mailing list is prepared for this purpose. Circular letters, folders, calendars, booklets and catalogues are sent under this type of advertising. In the sales letter an appeal is made to the buyers separately.
It contains detailed information with regard to the product. The main aim of these letters is to create the reader’s interest in the product. The letter should be attractive, interesting and convincing. Booklets and catalogues contain information regarding detailed description and prices of different varieties of products.
This method is very effective as it establishes direct contact with the consumer and also maintains secrecy in advertising. Detailed information with regard to the product can be sent to the buyers. The letters and circulars contain personal appeals which are greatly helpful in arousing their interest in the products. This method can be effectively undertaken in case the manufacturers are selling directly to the consumers.
Direct mail advertising suffers from certain drawbacks also. It has limited access i.e. a small number of buyers can be covered. There are practical difficulties in preparing and maintaining up-to-date mailing list. This is also not suitable for every type of product.
(2) Newspapers and Magazines:
These are the important forms of press advertising, newspapers are the most effective and powerful medium of advertising. Newspapers contain valuable information with regard to different current events. It may be referred to as ‘a store house of information’. There are daily, bi-weekly and weekly newspapers. Newspapers have widest circulation and read by many people. The newspapers may be local, provincial or national.
There is a separate advertisement department in every newspaper which classifies and designs different advertisements in the paper. Before selecting a newspaper the advertiser should take into consideration various factors viz., coverage of the newspaper, the class of customers and the cost of advertising etc.
The newspapers offer widest circulation and have universal appeal. The cost of advertising is lesser as compared to other media. The newspapers have more repetitive value and are very helpful in introducing a new product. These are suitable for all types of goods having wider markets.
A high degree of flexibility is ensured by newspapers i.e., the advertisement campaign can be undertaken and stopped quickly. Advertisements are the main source of revenue to the publishers. The most important benefit derived from the newspapers is that the advertiser’s message can be conveyed to the readers quickly.
Besides newspapers suffer from certain drawbacks also. They have shorter life and are not suitable for illiterate people. Most of the people read the papers casually especially in the morning hours when they are in a hurry to join their respective jobs.
Secrecy cannot be maintained in this type of advertising. Another drawback of newspaper advertising is that they are in black and white prints. Coloured advertisements are not covered, which are more appealing and attractive.
Magazines or periodicals are other important media of communication. Magazines may be released weekly, monthly, quarterly, bi-annual or annual. These are read with more interest by the readers as compared to newspapers. Advertisements given in magazines are more descriptive and attractive. They are usually in coloured form which depicts the product nicely and gives lasting impression to the reader.
There are magazines or journals meant for general public and special class of people. There are exclusive magazines relating to industry, trade, finance and economics etc. There are also special magazines for men, women and children. The magazines have longer life and are very suitable for advertising specific goods.
Magazines have lesser flexibility as compared to newspapers. Last minute changes cannot be introduced in the advertisement as they are sent to the press many days before the publication. There is lesser repetitive value and no secrecy can be maintained.
Cost of advertising is higher as compared to newspapers. Their circulations are small and are suitable for educated readers only. In the introduction of a new product, magazines are not much suitable on account of lesser continuity.
(3) Radio Advertising:
Radio advertising is very popular these days. The advertisements are broadcasted from different stations of All India Radio. Radio advertising can be explained as “word of mouth advertising on a wholesale scale”. The advertising messages can be in different regional languages.
The most important advantage derived from radio advertising is that it covers every type of listener whether illiterate or educated. It is a very effective medium for popularising on mass scale various consumer articles. The coverage of this medium is wider extending to a large number of listeners. It ensures quicker repetition.
Radio advertising suffers from shorter life, limited memory and short messages. Cost of advertising is higher. The message may not be listened properly by the listener. There is no secrecy. This is useful for those who possess radio sets. There is lesser flexibility and lack of personal touch.
(4) Television Advertising:
This is the latest and the fast developing medium of advertising and is getting increased popularity these days. It is more effective as compared to radio as it has the advantages of sound and sight. On account of pictorial presentation, it is more effective and impressive and leaves ever lasting impression on the mind of the viewer.
It is a very costly medium which can be employed by big concerns only; it has a shorter life span and limited coverage. Back reference to the advertisement cannot be made after its presentation. The duration of the advertisement is very limited.
Despite of the above mentioned drawbacks, this method of advertising is gaining rapid coverage and immense popularity among the masses.
(5) Film Advertising:
This is also known as cinema advertising. This also provides sight and hearing facilities like television. Short advertisement films are not prepared by big business houses which are sent to different cinema houses to be shown to the audience before the regular shows or during the intermission. It has more repetitive value but not to the same viewers. Its coverage is limited which benefits the local population only.
It is a very costly medium involving higher distribution and film making costs. Only big organisations can afford to produce advertisement films. It ensures more flexibility at larger costs. Its effectiveness cannot be measured properly. Film making is a time consuming process.
(6) Outdoor Advertising:
This type of advertising include different media like posters, placards, electric displays or neon signs, sandwichmen, sky writing, bus, train and tram advertising. This is also known as ‘Mural advertising’. The main aim of outdoor advertising is to catch the attention of passerby within twinkling of an eye.
This is the most effective medium of advertising. This is very suitable in the case of consumable and household articles like soaps, medicines, fans, shoes and pens etc.
Posters and placards are usually fixed on the walls near the road sides, railway station and bus stands. These posters are made of thick paper or metal plate or wood and carry the advertising message which can be easily read and seen from a distance.
The posters also pasted on the back of buses, trains and trams which are greatly helpful in carrying the message throughout and outside the city. Painted displays are prepared by expert painters which carry attractive multi-coloured pictures also to impress upon the people.
Electric displays or neon signs are also used in order to impress the passerby. These carry a very short message. This is a very costly device.
Sandwich-men move from street to street carrying the posters and peculiarly. They shout and sing praising the concern and the product. Sky writing is also known as air advertising.
The pilots of the aeroplanes through whom this is carried write the advertiser’s message in the form of smoke or illumination. The message is quite visible even from a long distance. Balloons fitted with the message and pictures of the product are also flown in the sky.
This type of advertising has a wider coverage and leaves effective impression on the people. It is very suitable for making the product popular and creating proper brand image. It has greater flexibility and can be designed by keeping in view the peculiarities of a particular locality. It requires lesser time and effort on the part of the advertiser to undertake this medium. This is more durable and economical form of advertising medium.
It has been referred as reminder or residuary publicity which is used by the advertiser after all the other advertising media.
Sticking of bills and posters destroys the walls of different building and adversely affects the cleanliness and beautification of a particular area.
Various media like skywriting, sandwichmen, balloons and electric displays are very costly. They are beyond the means of a small trader.
(7) Window Display:
It is a common method which is usually undertaken by retailers who display their products in the shop windows in order to attract the customers. This is also known as exterior display.
It is the most effective and direct method of influencing the people. Window display has direct appeal to the onlookers. It is instrumental in arousing the desire to purchase in the prospective customers. It acts as a silent salesman.
In order to operate this method successfully, goods should be arranged properly and systematically in the show windows. The articles in the windows should be regularly- changed. The advertiser should not forget that the window is the index of his shop. Utmost care should be undertaken to display the products in windows.
(8) Fairs and Exhibition:
A trade exhibition or a fair is organised on extensive scale which is attended by different manufacturers and traders along with their products to be sold to the large number of people who visit the exhibition. The exhibition may be either organised on local, provincial or international basis. The examples of some of the international exhibitions are EXPO 70 of JAPAN, ASIA 72 and recent trade fair at Delhi every year.
Different stalls or pavilions “are allotted to various traders who display their goods in these pavilions. The manufacturers also distribute the sales literature and sometimes free samples of goods to the people. Facilities of practical demonstration are also provided to the customers. The customers clearly understand the method of operation and use of the product.
In the case of international exhibitions, traders of different countries assemble at one place; they can conveniently share the experiences of their respective countries with each other which are really informative and useful for all of them. It provides ample opportunity for learning. The huge gathering of people in the exhibition provides a larger market for sale.
(9) Specially Advertising:
Most of the business houses in order to increase their sales, advertise their products, give free gifts like diaries, purses, paper weights and calendars to the customers. The name of the firm or the dealer is inscribed on the articles presented.
5.Describe the scope, need and importance of account planning
Answer: Accounting is very much connected with our personal lives in so far as it is in respect of every business. We all with intent or unknowingly generate accounting ideas in a way when we plan what we will do with money. We need to plan how much money will be spent whilst how much of it will be kept back.
It is dynamic at the present time and meets the growing demands of trade, commerce and industry. It is appropriate to mention here that the advent of industrial revolution and technological advancements have given rise to widen more business prospects at the same time as bringing about change in the domain of accounting by which it has now begun to be known as a tool of management for planning and controlling process. Thus, it can be rightly said, in the present day and age, no economic activity can be carried out successfully with no thought of accounting.
According to American accounting association, accounting has been defined as, “The process of identifying, measuring, and communicating information to permit judgment and decision by the users.” Yet another definition of American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) is that “Accounting is the art of recording, classifying and summarizing in a significant manner and in terms of money, transactions and events which are, in part at least, of financial character and interpreting the results thereof.”
Accounting entails recording, classifying and summarizing of business transactions. It is a process of identification, measurement and communication of economic information involving four interconnected phases. They are outlined herein: At the outset, the first phase is meant to record the economic events or transactions -depending upon their occurrences, chronologically in the books of accounts - called journals. This process is known as journalizing. Next comes the phase of ledger-posting: It is the process by which all the transactions are synthesized account-wise so that the accumulated balance of each of those accounts can be determined. The process of ledger posting is vitally important as it helps in ascertaining the net effect of various transactions during a given period. The subsequent stage is preparing the trial balance which involves the arrangement of all ledger accounts having been aggregated into debit and credit balances. This activity enables to check and confirm whether the total of debits is equal to that of credits. Finally, comes the phase of preparing financial statements. This phase is meant for finalization of accounts by measuring profit & loss account and preparing Balance Sheet- at the end of accounting period.
Management accounting is related with management of accounting information in resourceful way for the administration. Its scope is immense and includes all aspects of business operations. The following areas can accurately be recognized as falling within the compass of management accounting.
Financial Accounting: Management accounting is strongly associated with the rescheduling of the information provided by financial accounting. Therefore, management cannot get full control and synchronization of operations without a correctly designed financial accounting system. Cost Accounting: Standard costing, marginal costing, opportunity cost analysis, differential costing and other cost methods play a constructive role in operation and control of the business undertaking.
Revaluation Accounting: This is related with fact that capital is maintained together in actual terms and profit is calculated with this fact in mind.
Budgetary Control: This includes framing of budgets, comparison of actual performance with the budgeted performance, computation of variances, finding of their causes.
Inventory Control: It consists of control over inventory from the time it is acquired till its final disposal.
Statistical Methods: These procedures include Graphs, charts, pictorial presentation, index numbers and other statistical methods make the information more inspiring and understandable.
Interim Reporting: This includes groundwork of monthly, quarterly, half-yearly income statements and the related reports, cash flow and funds flow statements, scrap reports.
Taxation: This comprises of computation of income according to the tax laws, filing of returns and making tax payments.
Office Services: This includes upholding of appropriate data processing and other office management services, reporting on best use of mechanical and electronic devices.
Internal Audit: This includes development of a suitable internal audit system for internal control.
6.Discuss the chief principles that showcase the collective wisdom of clients and the agencies and help in betterment of their relations.
Answer: Internal Assuredness and Attractiveness
These leaders are confident but humble and their being—who they are—is attractive to others in the sense that they have a natural presence that engages with others and appeals to others at a deeper emotional level. “This is built on a real understanding and acceptance of one’s uniqueness—personality, motivations, strengths and weaknesses—and a confidence that means ‘I do not need to pretend to be someone I am not.’”
This is also demonstrated in consistent behavior. “A clear and established values and belief system also helps to smooth out irrational swings of behavior.” “Modern leaders need to be wiser than simply being caught up in the moment.”
Adaptability and Learning Orientation
We must be comfortable with not knowing and living with paradoxes. This means we must have a willingness to listen and learn—even from the mostly unlikely sources. Once we “know” something we tend to want to hear only from people like us—people who filter the world through the same eyes we do. And when we do, we miss a lot. “We become judgmental and evaluative rather than inquisitive.”
We also need to be confident and humble. When an inner confidence “is not balance with sober self-assessment or mature emotional intelligence, it becomes skewed and egocentric.”
This is more than intellectual learning, this is behavioral learning. We need to be able to connect what we (and others) are experiencing and connect it to what we know. When it doesn’t connect we need to dig deeper and learn from it. Unfortunately, “individuals may deny that the situation is any different and fail to notice that their normal patterns are proving unhelpful. They may succumb to a personal blindspot and fail to learn.”
Thinking and Operating Relationally
This is a major shift for most leaders. We tend to grow up thinking of leaders as independent of instead of interdependent with other people. More autocratic than co-creators. Responsible leaders view themselves in relation to others. “Those whose perspective of success relies on others’ success are becoming a stronger force than perhaps many realize.”
Purpose and Focus
Responsible leaders have a guiding purpose that enables them to focus their energy and activity. “Leaders with a strong driving purpose—that answers the ‘why am I doing this?’ question—need commensurate levels of focus to ensure that their dreams and visions do not remain out of reach. The question is: “Where do I need to focus my attention and my energy and therefore what are distractions to be avoided?”
Responsible leadership requires an “other” focus, humility and awareness. “To be a responsible leader is to step forward into the space and the moment with an ‘I can and I will’ mindset to impact situations and systems for the greater good.”
7.Discuss the importance and types of advertising brief
Answer: Too many ads have no chance of being effective because the brief is poor. Here’s one technique to deliver your ad agency a clear objective.
There are many ingredients that go into making a good ad: a clear objective, the right agency, understanding the audience, the execution, ad placement — the list goes on. The brief is also important.
The ads I’ve looked at recently all have fundamental flaws. Appealing to rational thought; too many ideas; failing to apologise. But where did they go wrong? Bad idea from the agency? Poor brief from the client? Bit of both?
Ads need a clear objective and that comes from the client. Without one there’s no need for an ad. But a clear objective is nothing if it’s not backed up with a good brief.
Different types of brief
- Contractual Brief Definition: A contractual brief is a legal document, which is created between an employee and a client. It outlines the duties that will be required by the company, and how the company organises their work. It is a document which states the expectations of the client, the prices they agree on, as well as the payment terms.
Advantages: An advantage is that it gives the company an idea of what the client wants them to achieve, whilst also initiating a stable price range, where the client and the employer will agree on a set income with the employer through the contractual brief.
Disadvantages: A disadvantage is that the client may require a heavy workload from the employer, which will put a strain upon them, and with advertising, a lot of creativity is required, and this is likely to be hindered if the client desires to receive written work, as opposed to graphical designs.
- Formal Brief Definition: A formal written brief is a document that includes detailed information about what the client wants the company to achieve. It is usually a straightforward document, which refrains from including any unwanted information. The brief itself may not always be classified as a legal document.
Advantages: An advantage is that as the document itself is clear, as well as concise, as it lacks in any form of complexity, refraining from including extended legal terms within its theses. Also, as it is not always a legal-binding document, the company can express their opinions, as well as having the ability to work around the contract.
Disadvantages: A disadvantage is that the contract is very general, as opposed to the haphazard structure of a regular contract, which is explained in a lot more detail. The employer as well as the client, may disagree on the terms of each others decisions, and opinions which are listed in the contract.
- Informal Brief Definition: A informal brief is less professional than that of a traditional brief, where it outlines the project verbally, as this particular type of brief does not require any means of a written document. There is a discussion conducted between the client and the employer, where they will come to a general agreement over the details of the contract.
Advantages: A advantage is that there is no real guideline to the brief, it is very free, and the employer will be allowed to manoeuvre and influence their own opinions into the document, before the client finalises it.
Disadvantages: A disadvantage would be that the expectations proclaimed by the client may interfere with the ethos of the employer, who may not want to perform a task that involves a heavy workload, which may disinterest the client into giving them work, and they may look elsewhere for an individual to complete their project.
- Co-Operative Brief Definition: This is where two or several production companies are employed to operate upon a set brief, which they complete in unison on a team basis. The project has to be completed before a certain deadline, otherwise the client will be extremely dissatisfied, and will not employ the selected companies in the future.
Advantages: An advantage of working as a team is that it helps to build a sense of community within the workplace, whilst adding a social side to it as well, which inevitably means that a good form of communication will be featured between the team members. Also, having several people work on a project means that a variety of different ideas will be circulated, which will be beneficial in completing the project.
Disadvantages: A disadvantage could be that the individuals who are working in the team may disagree with other which will inevitably cause the downfall of the project, whilst hindering the growth of it significantly, due to the conflicting views of the individuals involved over the brief.
- Negotiated Brief Definition: This is where the client and the employer will come to a specified agreement upon the brief of the project, which will include the final ideas of both the employer, as well as the client. It is important that the client and employer/company agree on the brief, or it will cause inevitable problems in the future.
Advantages: An advantage to this type of brief is that it brings the ideas of the client and employer together, and merges them into one, creating a brief that is suitable for both the employer, as well as the client, which means that they are less likely to quarrel in the future over the terms of the legal agreement.
Disadvantages: A disadvantage is that when the client and the employer ‘negotiate’ their brief, they may come to a disagreement, that may result in the employer losing the potential work, as they may deny the requirements stated by the client, which means that the client may siphon their project out to another employer or company.
- Commission Brief Definition: A ‘commission brief’ is where a large corporation, such as The Daily Mail, employ an independent company to create their product/project for them. It is notable that this type of brief is negotiated between two media companies, as opposed to an external client, who may receive the product once it has been established.
Advantages: An advantage is that the independent production company will be paid for creating the specific product, and may receive a fraction of the profit that is generated by the product once it has been distributed to the intended consumer, also known as the target audience of the product.
Disadvantages: A disadvantage for this might be that when the product has been launched, the large company may develop a sense of corporate greed, not giving the independent institution enough credit for their contribution, or paying them a sufficient amount of money for their hard work. This creates an unfair advantage, which may lead the independent business to complain to the large company, and will prevent them from working for the giant corporation in the future.
- Tender Brief Definition: A client will produce an advertisement stating that they require a media product to be created. A potential employer, such as a production company, initiates a brief, a budget, as well as a proposal, which is then pitched to the client in order to secure their chance of obtaining the work that was previously advertised by the employer. The client decides upon the most impressive proposal featured from their group of candidates.
Advantages: An advantage could be that as there is a lot of competition, the employer will be more determined and motivated to produce a high-quality proposal, that will secure them the work from the client, therefore, making them more productive as a company, as they will be thinking of the income in which they will receive upon the completion of the project/product.
Disadvantages: A disadvantage for this type of brief is that because of the competition, an employer is likely to be disheartened over losing the work set by the client, to another company. It can be difficult for an employer to gain work, due to the other employers, who also want to get the job. A company has to expect failure, so that they can then look for temporary employment elsewhere.
- Competition Brief Definition: A brief which is created in order to be accessible to all of the production companies which are participating in creating a project/product. It is notable that each corporation completes their own brief, outlining their ethos. All of the finished projects created by these companies are judged, and the most impressive one is crowned winner, and is taken into publication by the client.
Advantages: An advantage may be that because of the heavy competition, the employer will strive to pitch themselves to the client in the most sufficient way, behaving in a professional manner, which is likely to impress the client, and may, in turn, provide the employer with work.
Disadvantages: Even though this type of brief is generally free to join, the winner of the competition may have to pay a fee for being crowned victorious, as opposed to the runner-up. There is a slight possibility that the winner may be unhappy with siphoning out some of their income to the client. However, this is a part of the job, and they will have to learn to accept it if they want to pursue a career within this specific field of work.
8.How can a client servicing executive perform better?
Answer: lient Service Executive: As the name explains, you will act as the bridge between the client and the agency. You will speak to the client to get a brief understanding of what he/she wants. In addition you will also study the market for the product or service for which the advertisement is being made, analyse market dynamics, target customers, their needs and behavioural patterns, the competing product, buying patterns of customers and various other market related factors.
After going through the entire process the Client Service Executive then prepares the brief which will be used by the creative, account planning, and media planning department of the agency. Over cups and cups of coffee you´ll brainstorm about the product features, the target market and customers, strategy - what the ad will speak, how it will speak and other relevant details to decide the right concept for the advertisement.
It will then be taken over by the creative people, visualisers and the media-planning department who will prepare a presentation for the client. It is only after the client´s approval that the ad lands at the production table. Client servicing executives are also called Account Executives.
As a trainee in this department you will report to the Vice President – Accounts or an Accounts Director. The top boss plans business expansion (bringing in more clients by approaching various companies), implements the plans with the help of Account Executives; and controls all the activities. His basic duty is to coordinate all the activities relating to development and implementation of advertising campaigns.
Just under the Vice President/Director - Accounts are senior and junior Account Executives. In big agencies there may be a few Account Supervisors who look after big corporate accounts.
Ranking wise Account Supervisors are directly below the Vice President/ Director - Accounts. A number of Account Executives report to the Account Supervisors. You´ll interact daily with existing as well as new clients.
Some big agencies also have a different department called Account Planning department headed by Senior Manager/Manager - Account Planning. Senior Account Executives get to work here.
CASE STUDY: BOOTS NO.7 - INTELLIGENT MEDIA PLANNING
How adding direct mail to the media plan helped Boots launch a new cosmetic
Boots had developed a totally revolutionary new foundation product for inclusion in the No7 range, Intelligent Colour Foundation. Boots No7 is the second largest brand in the colour cosmetics sector of the market, and as such is a major contributor not just to Boots´ business, but also to their image and perceived positioning. So launching the new product effectively really mattered.
The key proposition for the product launch was: One colour for all skin types. The new foundation adjusts to the colour of an individual´s skin so that all the woman has to do is choose between the 3 shades of light, medium and dark and the foundation would then blend with the skin tones to give a soft and natural effect.
Boots felt that the revolutionary and highly desirable nature of the product made it an ideal catalyst for enhancing Boots No7´s contemporary, fashionable image at the same time as being a major success in its own right. In order to optimize the launch, Boots decided to evaluate the potential benefits that could accrue to the business if they were able to adopt a genuinely media neutral approach to their brand planning.
The results not only surprised Boots, but provide powerful evidence for Open Planning, the new thinking and practice recommended by the Media Neutral Planning Best Practice Group. The case particularly focuses on the benefit of adding mail versus further TV investment.
Open Planning method makes a number of important recommendations, including use of a mixed skill group for planning, an open and unbiased approach to media and discipline selection and mix, a clear, open process that involves all parties, and an open results approach that assesses across all channels using a common currency.
Open Planning endorses the argument that a well-planned mix of media and marcoms disciplines is more likely to optimize effectiveness and efficiency of communications spend.
Planning the Launch
Boots formed a cross-disciplinary team to enhance the interaction between departments and optimize planning. The MNP team consisted of representatives of the brand, consumer insight, direct and relationship marketing (through the Advantage Card), PR, and communication channel planning, with Chris Ladd, media manager, providing leadership in media selection. The team was formed and put in place in time for the planning of the launch.
It was recognized early on that PR would have an important role to play in the launch of this exciting new product. However, Boots planning, like many FMCG/packaged goods brands, would conventionally have relied on the combination of TV and women´s magazines for its advertising communications. Following the application of the media neutral planning approach these media channels were augmented with the important addition of direct mail to the advertising mix, using the Boots Advantage Card database.
The hypothesis was that it would be more cost effective to add mail to the mix than to invest further in other media, particularly TV.
The media neutral team sought to ensure that the impact of the PR, as well as the combined and individual effects of the other three media, were properly understood and measured in order to aid future media neutral planning activity. The major impact of media neutrality on this campaign was the inclusion of mail within the launch mix.
Therefore, a key requirement was to assess the impact that this change had on the launch of the brand. The MNP team recognised that it was vital to have the right measurement tools in place, not only to help them understand how the campaign worked but also to enable better future planning.
There was a genuine desire to avoid the self-fulfilling prophecy that TV advertising alone is capable of shifting awareness. There was a legitimate concern that conventional awareness tracking methodologies would not be sensitive enough to measure the impact of non-TV media (because of the bias in consumer memories). It was also seen as important to adopt metrics that would provide genuine evaluation of business results.
To achieve this, extra effort would need to be applied to pre and post-campaign evaluation to isolate the specific effects of the channels used. Too often planners are over reliant on relatively crude measures of sales and awareness that are unable to isolate the effects of individual media and tend to overstate the impact of the most ´obvious´ medium, TV. In order to guard against this potentially misleading effect, Boots put into place two key measurement tools:
- A store-based model that could identify sales effect on a store-by-store basis thereby enabling the identification of stores by campaign area, e.g. with/without TV, with/without mail, with/without in-store promotions etc.
- A tracking study that would not rely on respondents´ sometimes inaccurate recall of where they saw advertising, but would instead identify actual exposure to different media by means of a combination of viewing/reading questions together with the establishment of 2 matched samples to enable real comparisons of mailed versus non-mailed respondents. The tracking study measured awareness, product understanding, interest and image.
The test does have some skew factors that need to be recognized:
- The mailing was targeted within the database of Boots Advantage Card customers just as the TV and print schedules were targeted within media; obviously more precise targeting is available in a database.
- Furthermore, the Advantage Card customers can reasonably be assumed to be more loyal and receptive to Boots communication, a proven advertising effect, and this could have skewed results for their receptivity compared with TV’s less selective audience. On the other hand, it was important to Boots to reach this important audience: brand loyal customers are critical to the maintenance of brand market share. Therefore it is valid to compare the cost of reaching these by ‘mass media advertising’ versus one to one advertising (efficiency), as well as the effectiveness of the different media.
- The budget for TV media was considerably larger and provided wear out is not achieved by excessive media use (which was not the case here), then there may have been some gain for TV from critical mass effects.
- Neither the cost of creative development nor the cost of the database is included in the assessment below. The trial (by itself) is not intended as a business case for building a database (although it could contribute to one), but rather for better use of resources. It therefore seems reasonable to exclude the capital cost of developing the database. The exclusion of the creative costs is perhaps more problematic. After all, the creative for the TV cost considerably more than for the mailing and this weighting is not taken into account. This is a common phenomenon: comparisons of the ‘creative potential’ of different media and methods are routinely skewed by differential budget allocation, arguably generating self-fulfilling prophecies.
Clearly, detailed findings are confidential, and the relative contribution of the different media and methods, including PR and TV is not available for publication. Nevertheless,
Boots have released important information for marketers from this project, with analytics by ATG MindShare. The use of matched samples enabled Boots to achieve a real measure of this impact and this was considerable. Indeed, the results from the tracking study provide powerful evidence of the value of integrated communications (IMC), media neutrality and Open Planning. The brand image measures used by Boots show the following effects:
On virtually every dimension the mailed sample performed significantly better than did their non-mailed equivalents:
- Routinely it is expected that there will be a TV bias amongst respondents: it will either be more memorable or preferred choice as the initial source of ‘awareness‘. However, although the mailing took place over a month after the TV and magazine advertising started, almost half of those mailed claimed that they first heard about the brand from a ´leaflet through the post´, with this increasing to two-thirds when looking at all sources of awareness. Both these figures were far higher than those achieved by any other media, with the next highest being around a quarter of those in the mailed and a third of those in the non-mailed samples mentioning TV as their initial source of awareness.
- Recipients of the mailing also had significantly higher levels of awareness of the new product - nearly three-quarters were aware of No7 Intelligent Colour Foundation compared to less than half in the non-mailed sample. In fact, the additional exposure to DM amongst the sample also seeing Press and TV resulted in an uplift in brand awareness for No7 ICF of + 27% spontaneous and + 25% prompted.
- Furthermore, indexed on the cost of TV reaching all the Advantage Card No7 users (a critical objective as noted above) the mail media activity generated the additional spontaneous awareness at 64% of the cost of more TV.
- To be aware of a product is less valuable than to know what its advantage or brand promise is. Almost twice as many of those mailed had a better understanding of the brand´s main proposition: One colour for all skin types.
- This translated into a greater number of consumers expressing a desire to try the new foundation - over half of those receiving the mailing compared to only a third of those who did not.
- In addition to increased awareness of the new product amongst recipients of the mailing, No7 overall benefited from its inclusion in the mix with both spontaneous and prompted awareness of the No7 brand as a whole being higher among the mailed sample, although as suggested above this would be expected of this sample anyway, and this needs further comparison with a random (control) cardholder of the period to draw firm conclusions.
- Recipients of the mailing also expressed more positive perceptions of the No7 brand across all key dimensions, potentially meaning that the mailing was a more effective brand development tool. Again, comparison with a random (control) cardholder would be helpful.
The addition of targeted advertising by mail into the mix produced a significant uplift in awareness at a lower incremental communication cost per awareness point. Adding mail added value. The Boots test therefore supports the argument for integrated communications and a media neutral approach.
As a result Boots are now actively reviewing their internal processes and procedures to ensure that these promote the implementation of media neutrality on future planning activity. According to Chris Ladd, "The learning from this project have confirmed that changes we are making to our brand planning process are the correct way forward. We now pull expertise from across Boots and our agencies to deliver a truly media neutral approach to our communications plans." Another important conclusion derives from the ability of mail to create awareness.
Awareness, and especially ad awareness, is of limited value as a measure. Indeed the Centre for Integrated Marketing and the MNP Best Practice Group amongst others argue that it is an overused and generally flabby objective and measure. Nevertheless, ad and brand awareness are still the most commonly used measures of communication effectiveness in the FMCG categories.
Generally speaking TV, radio and print, as the mass media, are preferred as awareness generating tools, while mail is widely discounted by both academics (in their classifications) and practitioners (in optimisation tools and selection processes) as an awareness-generating m