Advertising & Sales Management
- What discourages clients from hiring their own specialized experts instead of employing of full-service agency?
Answer: - People often think of advertising agencies as managing large, expensive ad campaigns for big brands. But most advertising agencies make their money by running small ad campaigns and placing advertising in local media. Advertising agencies can benefit any size business, as long as you keep in mind the best way to use the agency, and to use advertising, for your particular business.
Many businesses turn to advertising agencies for their expertise and specialized knowledge. Small businesses, in particular, may not have their own marketing department, and so may need the depth of expertise an agency can provide. Agencies will usually have access to researchers, media buyers, artists, film makers and other experts who can provide advertising know-how that small businesses cannot afford to hire for themselves. Small advertising agencies may specialize in one particular area of expertise, such as online advertising, so it is important that you know what type of advertising you are interested in before choosing an agency.
Using an advertising agency can save a business valuable time. Hiring an advertising agency means that you and your staff do not need to spend time developing an advertising campaign. This is especially important if you do not have staff that are dedicated to advertising work. Hiring an agency will free your staff to do what they have been trained for. Most small business owners are busy enough running their business to give the creation of an ad campaign the time and energy it needs. So, hiring an agency can also free you to spend more time running your business.
Although it may seem as though hiring an advertising agency will be expensive, you need to consider that an agency can save you a lot of money on ad placement. Most agencies are given discounts by publishers, and radio and TV stations, so they can get cheaper rates than someone dealing directly. Agencies can also easily redesign ads to be more effective while taking up a smaller amount of space, saving your business more money.
Even for experienced businesses, developing a brand can be a complex undertaking. Advertising agencies can help this process by developing logos and advertising that will develop brand awareness. They can also provide you with research that will allow you to target the most effective market. Agencies can also help design your ads for individual media so that you can get the most effective advertising in each market.
2.While adhering to the Prime Direction, what is the false assumption behind "targeted" advertising agencies only working on advertising for their demographic groups?
Answer: -Advertising is one of the most important decisions a marketer makes, and media purchasing is the largest element of advertising spending. Ensuring that media is bought effectively and not directed toward the “wrong people” has always been a challenge for marketers.1
Traditionally, the objective in media planning was to minimize wasted advertising by reducing the quantity of advertising sent to consumers who are not active in the category. However, firms can now do much better than reduce advertising to nonusers.
Demographics in Advertising
At the beginning of any good advertising campaign, there is a strategy meeting. At this meeting, there will be discussions on the product or service being advertised, the budget, the timing, the tone of voice, research findings, and of course, target audience. This is where demographics comes in.
A target audience in a creative brief is essential for any campaign. The creative advertising agency MUST know who the product or serviced is going to be marketed to. There are usually three ways that this is approached:
A Specific Person is Created - BEST WAY
Using data from the research, information from the client, and an analysis of the product or service, a specific target audience character is developed. For instance, when selling a certain type of beer, a target audience may be created focusing on a man called Jack, who is: 36 years old, has a beard, works at a car plant, has a wife and two kids, drives a truck, loves barbecues, listens to country music, and plays pool in his spare time. This is someone the creative department can very easily picture, and create a campaign to appeal to this man. The hope is then that by appealing to this man, you appeal to a certain segment of the population.
General Target Audience Information is Used - ACCEPTABLE WAY
This is not as good as creating a specific target audience, because it is hard to have a conversation about the product or service with a broad spectrum of the population. For instance, men aged 28-45, with a full-time job, a car or truck, into sports and music. This opens up the conversation to way too many people, and as such, the campaign can suffer from being too generic.
Almost everyone is the Target - AWFUL WAY
Sadly, this is not something you ever want to see on a creative brief. But, that doesn’t stop it from making an appearance. Very few account directors would dare write "everyone" under the target audience heading, but they will find ways to include almost everyone. It can go like this:
Primary Target Audience: Men and women who do grocery shopping, between the ages of 18 and 49. Low to middle income.
Secondary Target Audience: Anyone else who shops in grocery stores, between the ages of 8 to 80. Any income level.
That may sound far-fetched, but that is lifted from an actual brief that was written for a well-known frozen food chain in the UK. That helps no-one. Ideally, you want to be able to sit and think of the exact person you´re advertising to, right down to how they dress, what they smell like, and whether they take sugar in their tea. Generalization helps no-one.
Utilizing demographics in the preceding two ways can highly impact the success, or failure, of an advertising campaign. If the research is incorrect, or the assumptions a little off, the demographic information can actually cause a campaign to crash and burn.
For instance, research may suggest the product should be aimed at older white males who own their own homes and are happily married. But, in actuality, the testing of the product or service produces significantly different results, showing that the actual users of this product are younger, single, and race is no issue. By targeting the wrong demographics, the campaign funds can be depleted quickly and the advertising can call on deaf ears.
For this reason, it is often wise to test the product early on different demographics, and use this information to dictate the target audience of the campaign being created.
However, it should be noted that although focus groups can help determine the kind of people who will use the product, or what they would do to improve it, focus groups can play havoc with actual advertising campaign creative. Often, they are too small a segment of the chosen demographic to give an adequate response, and may often be swayed by a poor focus group host, or an overly-aggressive member of the group.
- The communications model states that there must be an overlap in experiences between a communicator and audience. Yet "affluent, well paid, college educated, white collar job holding, largest cities living, relatively young people," the description of the typical mass communications managers, is not a description of the typical advertising audience members. If targeted agencies are unnecessary attempts to create overlap between communicators and audiences, how does being different from an audience not foreclose a person´s ability to communicate with those people?
Answer: - The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. The technologies through which this communication takes place include a variety of outlets.
Broadcast media transmit information electronically, via such media as film, radio, recorded music, or television. Digital media comprises both Internet and mobile mass communication. Internet media comprise such services as email, social media sites, websites, and Internet-based radio and television.
Many other mass media outlets have an additional presence on the web, by such means as linking to or running TV ads online, or distributing QR Codes in outdoor or print media to direct mobile users to a website.
In this way, they can utilise the easy accessibility and outreach capabilities the Internet affords, as thereby easily broadcast information throughout many different regions of the world simultaneously and cost-efficiently.
Outdoor media transmit information via such media as AR advertising; billboards; blimps; flying billboards (signs in tow of airplanes); placards or kiosks placed inside and outside of buses, commercial buildings, shops, sports stadiums, subway cars, or trains; signs; or skywriting
 Print media transmit information via physical objects, such as books, comics, magazines, newspapers, or pamphlets.
 Event organizing and public speaking can also be considered forms of mass media.
The organizations that control these technologies, such as movie studios, publishing companies, and radio and television stations, are also known as the mass media
- What does an advertising/promotional planner sees as the primary purpose of the mass media?
Answer: - The two basic tasks of marketing communications are message creation and message dissemination. Media planning supports message dissemination.
Media planning helps you determine which media to use--be it television programs, newspapers, bus-stop posters, in-store displays, banner ads on the Web, or a flyer on Facebook.
It also tells you when and where to use media in order to reach your desired audience. Simply put, media planning refers to the process of selecting media time and space to disseminate advertising messages in order to accomplish marketing objectives.
When advertisers run commercials during the Super Bowl game at more than $2.5 million per thirty-second spot, for example, media planners are involved in the negotiation and placement.
Media planners often see their role from a brand contact perspective. Instead of focusing solely on what medium is used for message dissemination, media planners also pay attention to how to create and manage brand contact.
Television commercials, radio ads, and product sampling are planned forms of brand contact. Word of mouth is an unplanned brand contact -- advertisers normally do not plan for word of mouth. From the consumer´s perspective, however, unplanned forms of brand contact may be more influential because they are less suspicious compared to advertising.
Second, media planners are making more use of product placements now, in lieu of advertising insertions. Advertising insertions, like print ads or television commercials, are made separately from the content and are inserted into it.
The ads are distinct from the articles or TV programs, not a part of them. As a result, the ads seem intrusive. In contrast, product placement (also called brand placement or branded entertainment) blends product information with the content itself.
Whether content is a television program, movie, video game or other form of entertainment, product placement puts the brand message into the entertainment content. For example, in the movie E.T., the extra-terrestrial eats Reese´s Pieces candy.
The candy was authentically integrated into the movie ?and sales of Reese´s Pieces soared 80% after the movie, catapulting the new product to mainstream status. On the other hand, inappropriate or excessive product placements may do more harm than good to the brand
Finally, the role of media planners has expanded as media planners have moved beyond planned messages to take advantage of unplanned messages as well.
Whereas planned messages are what advertisers initiate -- like an ad, press release or sales promotion -- unplanned messages are often initiated by people and organizations other than advertisers themselves.
Word of mouth, both online and offline, is one form of unplanned message. Although advertisers have little direct control over the flow of unplanned messages, they can facilitate such a flow.
For example, advertising agency Crispin Porter + Bogusky (CP+B) created a viral marketing mascot, the Subservient Chicken, for Burger King to illustrate its slogan "Have It Your Way."
Visitors to the www.subservientchicken.com site can ask the chicken to make a move, such as jump, dance or lay an egg. In the first two weeks after the site´s launch, the Subservient Chicken story appeared on 63 broadcast segments, including five separate segments in television shows unplanned success.
For example, Rock Bottom brew pub chain, reported a 76% jump in 2003 revenues after hired gun Bzz-Agent launched a 13-week word of mouth campaign employing 1,073 of its "agents" to get the word out.
- Media Objectives
Media planning is a four-step process which consists of
1) Setting media objectives in light of marketing and advertising objectives,
2) Developing a media strategy for implementing media objectives,
3) Designing media tactics for realizing media strategy, and 4) proposing procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of the media plan.
- Message strategy and tactics is known as the "creative function." Does this mean that successful and creative movie makers be given free rein to plan message strategy and write/ produce the resulting television commercials? Why or why not?
Answer: -Advertising Objectives
The function of advertising is to persuade an audience to buy whatever you sell. Advertising can help to accomplish one of two objectives or both: acquire new customers or retain existing customers. Customer acquisition can fall into two sub-groups
Which of the preceding customer groups to target with your advertising, identify the group that is worth targeting as the first step, and the appropriate advertising message that produces the desired effect. This requires upfront analysis by demographic and psychographic traits and current usage of your brand. Demographics include age, gender, income and other characteristics that may be relevant, such as boaters if you sell boats. Psychographic defines the subjective characteristics, such as lifestyles, aspirations, personalities and interests.
The advertising strategy is different from your creative or copy strategy. Your ad strategy communicates the message that will move your target audience´s current beliefs and usage of your brand to a desired position of beliefs and usage. The advertising strategy includes a description of your target audience and the message you want that audience to receive. Your target audience will be one or more of the customer groups previously discussed, any of which might be narrowed further through your audience research. Your advertising message will evolve out of knowledge gained about usage and attitudes toward your business or brand. Strategy is where audience analysis and message content precede your advertising objective. You need to know the consumers you are targeting and the message that resonates before discussing your objective for that audience in terms of response to your message.
Your advertising tactics, sometimes called the "tactical plan," make up the specifics of "how" your advertising strategy will be executed. The two primary components of your tactical plan are your creative or copy strategy and your media strategy. Advertising tactics are normally the exclusive domain of the advertising agency. The creative strategy translates the target audience and messaging guidance from your advertising strategy into specific guidelines for agency art directors and copywriters to create the actual advertising product. The media strategy specifies the media vehicles that will be used to effectively and efficiently reach the target audience. Advertising is a specialized field.
6.What is meant by the distinction between sales promotions moving the product toward the consumer while advertising moves the consumer toward the product and how does this distinction help guide determining the "value" of a planned sales promotions effort?
Answer: - A push strategy places the product in front of the customer to make sure the consumer is aware of the existence of the product. This can work well when manufacturers have an established relationship with customers or when the product is an impulse purchase-type item.
Push strategies include trade shows, showrooms, getting retailers to stock a product, and creating a supply chain to facilitate distribution.
A pull strategy motivates customers to actively seek out a specific product and it best for new products or in the case when a manufacturer has a strong and visible brand.
Pull strategies include mass media advertising, referrals, customer relationship management, and sales promotions. Companies usually use a combination of push and pull strategies in a marketing mix.
Communication demanded by the buyer
Communication not demanded by the buyer
Customer relationship management
Customer Relations Management (CRM) is concerned with (among other things) the conversion rate: percentage of customers who "try and buy" the product.
Push and Pull Strategies
Push and pull strategies are promotional strategies used to get the product to its target market.
A push strategy places the product in front of the customer, via a form of advertisement, to make sure the consumer is aware of the existence of the product. This type of strategy works well for low value items and impulse buy items. The different ways a company can use a push strategy to increase awareness of a product include?
At trade shows and showrooms, businesses can demonstrate the product´s features to potential customers.
Companies can encourage retailers to stock a product. Sometimes a company has to negotiate with a retailer to stock a specific item because retailers have limited store space and need to stock items they know will sell.
Companies can create a supply chain so that retailers can obtain the product in sufficient quantities. Push strategies work best for merchants that already have an established relationship with users.
For example, cell phone providers proactively send (i.e. push) advertisements via text or MMS messages to mobile customers regarding promotions and upgrades. This permission-based marketing can be effective if personalized for the user based on personalized preferences, usage and buying behavior. However, push strategies are also effective for building demand for high-priced services (e.g., enterprise software) that are targeted to specific markets.
A pull strategy stimulates demand and motivates customers to actively seek out a specific product. It is aimed primarily at the end users. A strong and visible brand is needed to ensure the success of a pull strategy. The different ways a company can use a pull strategy to promote a brand include:
- Advertising strategies that include mass media promotion of a product
- Customer relationship management that makes existing customers aware of new products that will fill a specific need
- Sales promotions and discounts
- How does a publicist measure his or her effectiveness in the job and how is this comparable to advertising time or space buyers´ reach estimates?
Answer: - A publicist, also known as a public relations specialist, is someone who generates media coverage for their client in order to promote them to the public. Clients can be from the film industry, the music industry or even be a company or private business that needs to improve its image in the public eye. A publicist serves as a bridge between their client and the public, by the use of media outlets. The day-to-day duties depend on who the client is, but promotion is always the focal point.
Public relations is the art of influencing public perception by using strategic communication, and this is exactly what a publicist does.
There are several ways a publicist can do this:
- Draft press releases
- Put together an EPK (an electronic press kit)
- Pitch their client to the media
- Schedule interviews
- Oversee their client´s image (work with a fashion stylist if needed)
- Scan the media for any mentions, both positive and negative
- Manage any social media activity
- Set up photo or video shoots
- Help write speeches, media alerts, biographies, newsletters, blogs etc.,
- Plan events
- Plan press junkets
- Make sure all branding is cohesive
- Manage any crisis
- Manage media training
There are several types of publicists:
- Work with social networks, newspapers, TV and radio to build relationships with these providers in order to ensure that clients have access to all opportunities
Special Publicity Consultants
- promote or create an intended public image for individuals, groups, or organizations. They work with companies of all sizes in various industries, and market a product or service
- organize media kits, send out press releases, and arrange media visits during the production phase of making a film or other work of art
Press Representatives (or Press Agents)
- work in public relations (PR) and represents a client through a marketing campaign or publicity tour
Public Relations Publicists
- maintain a positive image of the client by creating an advertising campaign for them. They will craft a story and make sure it gets a lot of publicity and good coverage.
- What determines if communications strategy can make use of publicity as an effective sales tool? Explain.
Answer: - Advertising is defined as any form of paid communication or promotion for product, service and idea. Advertisement is not only used by companies but in many cases by museum, government and charitable organizations. However, the treatment meted out to advertisement defers from an organization to an organization
Advertising development involves a decision across five Ms Mission, Money, Message, Media and Measurement.
Mission looks at setting objectives for advertising. The objectives could be to inform, persuade, remind or reinforce. Objective has to follow the marketing strategy set by the company.
Money or budget decision for advertising should look at stage of product life cycle, market share and consumer base, competition, advertising frequency and product substitutability.
Message’s development further is divided into four steps, message generation, message evaluation and selection, message execution, and social responsibility review.
Once the message is decided the next step is finalizing the media for delivering the message. The choice of depends on reach of media, frequency of transmission and potential impact on customer. Based on this choice of media types are made from newspaper, television, direct mail, radio, magazine and the internet. After which timing of broadcast of the message is essential as to grab attention of the target audience.
Checking on the effectiveness of communication is essential to company’s strategy. There are two types of research communication effect research and sales effect research.
Promotion is an incentive tool used to drive up short term sales. Promotion can be launched directed at consumer or trade. The focus of advertising to create reason for purchase the focus of promotion is to create an incentive to buy. Consumer incentives could be samples, coupons, free trial and demonstration. Trade incentive could be price off, free goods and allowances. Sales force incentive could be convention, trade shows, competition among sales people.
Sales promotion activity can have many objectives, for example, to grab attention of new customer, reward the existing customer, and increase consumption of occasional users. Sales promotion is usually targeted at the fence sitters and brand switchers.
Sales promotional activity for the product is selected looking at the overall marketing objective of the company. The final selection of the consumer promotional tools needs to consider target audience, budget, competitive response and each tool’s purpose.
Sales promotion activity should under-go pretest before implementation. Once the activity is launched it should be controlled as to remain within the budget. Evaluation program is a must after implementation of the promotional scheme.
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Clutter has become synonymous with the advertising industry in recent times and this extends to all realms of marketing, offline and online. There is an increasing trend of being greeted with an explosive assortment of ads when one logs onto a website. These ads transcend genres of -commerce, consumer goods, tourism, hospitality, and more. While views on these ads may be relatively high, the recall seems to be questionable in many cases. In this scenario, tracing the consumer’s preferences for brand advertisements becomes extremely difficult.
Herein, we aim to address the simple question of how a brand must aspire to break clutter and switch to view ability of the content rather than served impressions, which has been the conventional way of running ads within the industry.
To transform the way ads have been programmed so far, one will need to pay close attention to the existing metrics and re-evaluate different brand strategies. The traditional route for marketers adopting online ads has been banners, images, audio, and video. The measurement was based on served impressions, i.e., the countable times that an advertisement gets fetched from the source, irrespective of whether it was clicked or not.
Viewable impressions, on the other hand, are measurable to a more accurate degree. For an impression to be counted as viewable, at least 50 percent of it must be visible to the user for a minimum of one second. This provides for ‘some versus no’ value, but does it justify the money spent behind it? According to a study conducted by ComScore, 54 percent of the display ads that are up on the website are actually not seen and this is despite the fact that some of them cost a lot.
It is implicit that advertisers would be interested in posts which guarantee a decidedly higher view ability, so publishers offering such inventory will be at an advantage too. There’s another bonus to this because measurable data of this sort will make it easier for rate comparison of different brands among multiple publishers. While served impressions have been working well towards adding higher numbers to charts and creating a presumption over the total awareness created through it, there are three primary concerns: If the targeted user leaves the page before it loads completely, he/she will miss the ad.
A lot of search and display ads are placed at the bottom of the webpage, so if the user does not scroll all the way down, it’s a lost cause for the advertiser.
If a proxy server, crawler or spider opens the page, there is no certain way to ascertain the measures. In order to ensure visibility and derive the right returns on your investments, you must plan your advertisements with the right placement and communication.
With advertisement forms rapidly evolving, your strategy is incomplete without researching what works for your target audience and delivering a customised plan of action. To break away for the clutter of advertisements and to ensure you receive eyeballs and recall, the right amount of innovation and creativity must be put in to produce content that goes a long way in giving you the right bang for your buck.
- How would you use advertising to break the clutter? What impact does clutter-free advertising play in increasing brand acceptance?
Answer: - It has become increasingly difficult for advertisements to break through the clutter of competing ads in order to gain consumers’ attention, and to build memory for the advertised brands. Commercial time on television and radio has soured. In many consumer magazines half or more of the pages carry advertisements. As an extreme case in point, the Fall-2000 issue of Vogue contained 512 pages of ads, 77 percent of the publication, which is a 34 percent increase since 1993. At the same time, media costs are rising, which enhances media inflation even further. The cost of a one-page four-color ad placement in that Fall-2000 Vogue issue was almost $70,000, which is a 21 percent increase since 1997
This challenges advertisers and ad agencies to maximize attention and memory for their brands under highly competitive conditions (Batra, Aaker and Myers 1996; Gorn, Chattopadhyay, Yi and Dahl 1997; Rossiter and Percy 1997). To achieve their goal, advertisers and ad agencies need to understand which factors influence consumers’ attention to advertising and how attention to advertising drives memory for the advertised brands. One strategy of breaking through the clutter is to outspend the competition (Rossiter and Percy
1997) by running more and larger ads than other brands. For example, one firm ran a 12-page ad in the previously cited Vogue issue. This manuscript focuses on another strategy:
Outsmarting the competition by running more original ads.
Impact clutter-free advertising play in increasing brand acceptance
- The right placements: Avoid the footer unless you have something absolutely gripping that would take away the attention from the content of the website onto your ad.
- Invest in the masthead: If money can buy you space, it’s the masthead that will draw all the attention. However, ensure you have something captivating to showcase as most readers are used to ad placements and know which areas to turn a blind spot on.
- 3. Beat the system: Advertisements placed in between the content are another form of ensuring they get seen, especially on websites that load in parts. This is a tactic being used by major players in the market currently due to the views it generates.
- Gain insights on websites: Not all websites operate the same way towards delivering views or clicks. Ensure you’re able to gain insights on what works on a website and customise your strategy to deliver a different delivery system for each portal.
- Content is king: The way you creatively package your content will go a long way in grabbing eyeballs. One size does not fit all, so don’t replicate your other marketing activities directly onto digital, but create something that breaks away from the clutter and not only drives interactions but also recall.
- Keep a mobile mind-set: Most people are consuming content on-the-move these days, hence a mobile optimised strategy is the need of the hour. Mobile optimised sites will guarantee a good experience regardless of the device that is being used. By ensuring the use of responsive and mobile-friendly templates that resize ads according to the devices where it is being viewed, the viewable measures of the ad can be enhanced.
- Keep experimenting: While banner ads and takeovers have been there for ages, there are new forms of providing viewable impressions that go a long way. Native advertising has given rise to a more organic and acceptable form of content absorption and brand recall. Being non-intrusive and telling a story like an advertorial would help towards higher views and recall value. Similarly, rich media content provides for higher levels of engagement and share ability for a brand, with marketers revelling in the return on investment it delivers, if done well.
- What does the author mean by "To transform the way ads have been programmed so far, one will need to pay close attention to the existing metrics and re-evaluate different brand strategies"?
Answer: -Marketers have always had to juggle two seemingly contradictory goals: making their brands distinctive and making them central in their category. Central brands, such as Coca-Cola in soft drinks and McDonald’s in fast food, are those that are most representative of their type. They’re the first ones to come to mind, and they serve as reference points for comparison. These brands shape category dynamics, including consumer preferences, pricing, and the pace and direction of innovation. Distinctive brands, such as Tesla in cars and Dos Equips in beer, stand out from the crowd and avoid direct competition with widely popular central brands.
Striking the right balance between centrality and distinctiveness is critical, because a company’s choices influence not just how the brand will be perceived, but how much of it will be sold and at what price—and, ultimately, how profitable it will be. And yet, marketers have lacked the tools needed to get this balance right. Traditionally, companies have analysed brand positioning and business performance separately: To locate gaps in the market and gauge how people feel about their brands, marketers have used perceptual positioning maps, which typically represent consumers’ perceptions of brands or products on opposing dimensions, such as budget versus premium or spicy versus mild. To assess performance, they have used a different set of strategic tools that map or measure brands on yardsticks such as market share, growth rate, and profitability.
We present a new approach called the centrality-distinctiveness (C-D) map, which to our knowledge is the first tool that allows companies to directly connect a brand’s position on a perceptual map with business outcomes such as sales and price. Using the tool, managers can determine a desired market position, make resource allocation and brand strategy decisions, track performance against competitors over time, and evaluate strategy on the basis of results. In the process, they will find that centrality and distinctiveness need not be contradictory goals; companies may choose to pursue both—and benefit substantially.
Positioning and Performance
Creating a C-D map of a brand category is a straightforward but labour-intensive process. A company begins by identifying the geographic market of interest (an entire country, a region, a single city) and the customer segments to be surveyed. As we will discuss, a brand’s position on the map can vary dramatically depending on those variables. The company then conducts a survey to collect data on consumers’ perceptions of the brand’s centrality and distinctiveness (scored on a 0–10 scale). This data yields unique coordinates for each brand’s position on a 2×2 matrix. The map also captures market performance: The “bubble” for each brand is sized proportionally to its unit sales volume, price, or other metric.
- Can you use clutter to your advantage? If yes, how? If No, why not? Support your answer with relevant examples.
Answer: - It´s true that clutter comes with a lot of baggage, both literally and figuratively. When I look at my messy closet I definitely feel some type of way. I feel stressed at the lack of organization, I feel guilty that I don´t wear half of what I own, and I feel confused as to what kind of style I´m even going after. Really, a closet shouldn´t elicit all of those emotions, but it can.
It´s good to know there is a connection between junk and other problems. We can all feel it when our desks are messy, or our kitchens out of sorts. It´s unsettling, and can hold you back from getting stuff done in life.
Question No. 1
Which of the following terms best fits the activity of marketing communications?
- Making products available
- Convenience of location
- High level of regulation
- Communication between stakeholders
Answer: - d) Communication between stakeholders
Question No. 2
The marketing communications strategy of the marketing mix deals exclusively with
- personal selling and advertising
- advertising and public relations
- advertising, publicity, and pricing
- personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, and public relations
Answer: - a) personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, and public relations
Question No. 3
Organizations plan, design, implement, and evaluate their marketing communication activities. These activities involve the delivery of messages either to or with target audiences, through various communication tools and media. This is known as
- personal selling
- public relations
Answer: - a) campaigns
Question No. 4
This is a hierarchy of effects or sequential model used to explain how advertising works
Answer: - b) AIDA
Question No. 5
Marketing communications is used to achieve one of two principal goals. The first concerns the development of brand values. What is the other goal?
- Increasing sales
- Informing about products
- Changing the behaviour of target audiences
- Channelling communication tools
Answer: - c) Changing the behaviour of target audiences
Question No. 6
This is the sharing of meaning created through the transmission of information
Answer: - Communication
Question No. 7
This is a series of economic transactions between parties, who have a long-term orientation towards, and are primarily motivated by, concern for each other:
- Partner exchanges
- Collaborative exchanges
- Co-operative transfer
- Partner exchange
Answer: - b) Collaborative exchanges
Question No. 8
The role of marketing communications is to engage audiences and there are four main tasks that it can be used to complete. Which of the following is not part of the four main tasks?
Answer: - b) Participate
Question No. 9
_____________is an important element in the communication process. It recognizes that successful communications are more likely to be achieved if the source and the receiver understand each other.
- The realm of understanding
- Personal selling
Answer: - a) The realm of understanding
Question No. 10
This is part of the communication process where receivers unpack the various components of the message, and begin to make sense and give the message meaning
Answer: - b) Decoding
Question No. 11
This is a part of the communication process where the sender selects a combination of appropriate words, pictures, symbols and music to represent a message to be transmitted
Answer: - a) Encoding
Question No. 12
This is part of the communication process and refers to the responses offered by receivers:
Answer: - d) Feedback
Question No. 13 _______________ is concerned with the development of knowledge that is specific to the parties involved and is referred to as ´learning together´
- Personal influencer
Answer: - a) Dialogue
Question No. 14
This approach has been used to convey particular information and help educate large target audiences through television and radio programmes. This approach is referred to as:
- Opinion followers
- Opinion formers
- Public relations
- Opinion leaders
Answer: - a) Opinion leaders
Question No. 15
AIDA stands for awareness, ________, desire and _________.
- interest; action
- intensity; appeal
- involvement; action
- Involvement; appeal
Answer: - a) interest; action
Question No. 16
They are not part of the same peer group as the people they influence. Their defining characteristic is that they exert personal influence because of their profession, authority, education, or status associated with the object of the communication process. This is referred to as:
- Opinion aggregators
- Opinion followers
- Opinion formers
- Opinion gatherers
Answer: - c) Opinion formers
Question No. 17
The success of marketing communication depends upon the extent to which messages engage their audiences. These audiences can be seen to fall into three main groups
- Customers, general public, and sales personnel
- Customers, channel members, and general stakeholders
- Customers, general stakeholders, and club members
- General public, club members, and general stakeholders
Answer: - b) Customers, channel members, and general stakeholders
Question No. 18
Each organization is part of a network of other organizations such as suppliers, retailers, wholesalers, value added resellers, distributors, and other retailers, who join together, often freely, to make the product or service available to end users. This is referred to as:
- Channel members
Answer: - a) Channel members
Question No. 19
Which of the following is the communication model that depicts information flowing via various media channels, to particular types of people to whom other members of the audience refer for information and guidance?
Answer: - a) Two-step
Question No. 20
Which of the following is the interpersonal communication about products or services where a receiver regards the communicator as impartial and is not attempting to sell products or services?
- Word of Mouth (WOM)
- Personal Selling (PS)
- Direct Marketing (DM)
- Customer Service (CS)
Answer: - a) Word of Mouth (WOM)
Question No. 21
Promotion technique for consumers according to which demonstrations and displays of products made at place of sale is called
- point of purchase promotion
- sales premium
- advertising specialties
Answer: - point of purchase promotion Discounts
Question No. 22
Personal selling step in which sales person asks for an order to customer is classified as
- shipper approach
- handling shipment
- follow up
Answer: - c) closing
Question No. 23
Sales force structure in which a sales representatives works to sell specific items of product line is classified as
- indirect sales force structure
- territorial sales force structure
- customer sales force structure
- product sales force structure
Answer: - d) product sales force structure
Question No. 24
Third step in personal selling process after completion of pre-approach step is to
- prospecting and qualifying
- handling objections
- presentation and demonstration
Answer: - c) approach
Question No. 25
Step in personal selling process which consists of first meeting first meeting between customer and sales person is called
- follow up
Answer: - a) approach
Question No. 26
Type of sales person who work from their offices through internet or telephone are classified as
- channel intermediaries
- nominal sales force
- inside sales force
- outside sales force
Answer: - c) inside sales force
Question No. 27
In personal selling process, step which consists of identifying potential customers is classified as
- presenting quota
- demonstrating quota
Answer: - c) prospecting
Question No. 28
Sales promotion tools used to stimulate purchase, motivate salespeople and generate business leads are classified in category of
- event promotion
- off deal promotion
- trade promotions
- business promotions
Answer: - d) business promotions
Question No. 29
Consumer promotion technique through which brand marketing event is created by company or it participates in other sponsored event is classified as
- event marketing
- sponsored marketing
- premium marketing
Answer: - a) event marketing
Question No. 30
Consumer promotion technique according to which seller sells two or three units of product at reduced price is classified as
- price packs
- advertising specialties
- Both 1 and 2
Answer: - a) Both 1 and 2
Question No. 31
´Particular communication that must be achieve within definite target audience within specific time is classified as
- message decision
- media decision
- advertising objective
- advertising evaluation
Answer: - c) advertising objective
Question No. 32
Possible objectives of advertising includes
- persuasive advertising
- reminder advertising
- Information advertising
- All of the above
Answer: - a) All of the above
Question No. 33
Approach of message execution which follows format of style, tone, words and format to execute message of advertising is classified as
- rational style
- persuasive style
- creative style
- execution style
Answer: - d) execution style
Question No. 34
Resources and dollars allocated to company´s or products promotional program are classified as
- advertising messages
- advertising budget
- advertising strategy
- advertising objective
Answer: - b) advertising budget
Question No. 35
Strategic media planning is a complex challenge because advertises must use their knowledge of
- Behavioural characteristics
- All of the above
Answer: - a) All of the above
Question No. 36
Addressable media are used
- to deliver customised marketing messages to identifiable prospects
- for two-way communication
- for social media
- none of the above
Answer: - a) to deliver customised marketing messages to identifiable prospects
Question No. 37
Media strategy is making media decisions based on
- Whims of the market
- Understanding customers’ wants and needs
- Brand awareness
- The client’s wishes
Answer; - b) Understanding customers’ wants and needs
Question No. 38
Interactive media can be best described as
- Customized Marketing Messages
- Marketing Communications Mix
- Marketing Mix
- Media that allow two-way messages between company and consumer
Answer: - d) Media that allow two-way messages between company and consumer
Question No. 39
Extensive local penetration and coverage is indicative of
- Online Advertising
- Social Media
Answer: - a) Newspapers
Question No. 40
One weakness in using out-of-home media is
- Demographic Flexibility
- Relatively Low Cost
- Delivers Excellent Reach
- Difficult to Measure and Control
Answer: - a) Difficult to Measure and Control