Introduction of Mass Communication
- Discuss the four theories of the Press? Elaborate
Four theories of the press:
- The authoritarian theory,
- The libertarian theory
- The communist theory and
- The social responsibility theory.
The state, as the highest expression of institutionalized structure, supersedes the individual and makes it possible for the individual to acquire and develop a stable and harmonious life Mass communication, then, supports the state and the government in power so that total society may advance and the state may be viable and attain its objectives.
The State (the elite that runs the state) directs the citizenry, which is not considered competent and interested enough to make critical political decisions. One man or an elite group is placed in a leadership role. As the group or person controls society generally it (or he or she) also controls the mass media since they are recognized as vital instruments of social control.
The mass media, under authoritarianism, are educators and propagandists by which the power elite exercise social control. Generally the media are privately owned, although the leader or his elite group may own units in the total communication system. A basic: assumption a person engaged in journalism is so engaged as a special privilege granted by the national leadership. He, therefore, owes an obligation to the leadership.
This press concept has formed and now forms, the basis for many media systems of the world. The mass media, under authoritarianism, have only as much freedom as the national leadership at any particular time is willing to permit.
The libertarian press concept is generally traced back to England and the American colonies of the seventeenth century. Giving rise to the libertarian press theory was the philosophy that looked upon man as a rational animal with inherent natural rights. One of these rights was the right to pursue truth, and potential interferes (kings, governors et al) would (or should) be restrained.
Exponents of this press movement during the seventeenth century, and the 200 years which followed, included Milton, Locke, Erskine, Jefferson, and John Stuart Mill. Individual liberties were stressed by these philosophers, along with a basic trust in the people to take intelligent decisions (generally) if a climate of free expression existed.
In theory, a libertarian press functions to present the truth, however splintered it may be in a pluralism of voices. It is impossible to do this if it is controlled by some authority outside itself. Through the years many new ideas were grafted on to early press libertarianism: One of these, for example, was the general acceptance of a kind of obligation to keep the public abreast of governmental activities, or being a kind of fourth branch of government supplementing the executive, legislative and judicial branches.
This was actually a rather recent concept, having been grafted on to the original libertarian theory. There flows a basic faith, shown by libertarian advocates that a free press- working in a laissez faire, unfettered situation-will naturally result in a pluralism of information and viewpoints necessary in a democratic society.
The communist theory of the press arose, along with the theory of communism itself, in the first quarter of the present century. Karl Marx was its father, drawing heavily on the ideas of his fellow German, George W. F. Hegel. The mass media in a communist society, said Marx, were to function basically to perpetuate and expand the socialist system. Transmission of social policy, not searching for the truth, was to be the main rationale for existence of a communist media system.
Mass media, under this theory, are instruments of government and integral parts of the State. They are owned and operated by the State and directed by the Communist Party or its agencies. Criticism is permitted in the media (i. e. criticism of failure to achieve goals), but criticism of basic ideology is forbidden. Communist theory, like that of authoritarianism, is based on the premise that the masses are too fickle and too ignorant and unconcerned with government to be entrusted with governmental responsibilities.
Thus, the media have no real concern with giving them much information about governmental activities or of its leaders. Mass media are to do what is best for the state and party; and what is best determined by the elite leadership of State and Party. Whatever the media do to contribute to communism and the Socialist State is moral; whatever is done to harm or hinder the growth of communism is immoral.
This concept, a product of mid-twentieth century America, is said by its proponents to have its roots in libertarian theory. But it goes beyond the libertarian theory, in that it places more emphasis on the press´s responsibility to society than on the press´s freedom. It is seen as a higher level, theoretically, than libertarianism-a kind of moral and intellectual evolutionary trip from discredited old, libertarianism to a new or perfected libertarianism where things are forced to work as they really should have worked under libertarian theory.
The explainers and defenders of this theory maintain that they are libertarians, but socially responsible libertarians, contrasted presumably with other libertarians who (if their views and actions do not agree with those of the new libertarians) are not socially responsible.
This fourth theory of the press has been drawn largely from a report published in 1947 by the Hutchins Commission. Emerging from the Commission´s publications and solidified in the literature of journalism by Four Theories of the Press, this new theory maintains that the importance of the press in modern society makes it absolutely necessary that an obligation of social responsibility be imposed on the media of mass communication.
2.Discuss the Broadcasting Policy of India in the context of the overall mass communication situation.
The importance of the role of communication for national development was underscored in India even prior to her independence. The Indian National Congress while formulating policies for National Development for Independent India set up a Sub-committee on Communication under the National Planning Committee to offer recommendations for development of communication for independent India. After independence of the country in 1947, the new Indian government announced a development-oriented agenda of governance dedicated to the amelioration of the economic, educational, and health conditions of the people. With the target of Development Communication, the new government adopted the recommendations of the erstwhile National Planning Committee as the mainstay of its communication policies. “The issue of using modern communication acquired high priority as a developmental resource during the Nehru era when the planners explored the prospects of using radio as a development agent, that is, for information and enlightening the people in the countryside and towns on developmental issue”
All India Radio had been the forerunner in the process of implementing Communication strategy being adopted by the government. The Radio Rural Forum experiment was conducted by the All India Radio at Poona during 1956. The project covered 156 villages where listening and discussion groups were organized in each of the selected villages. A programme of thirty minutes duration was broadcast on two days in a week covering agriculture and allied subjects to help promote rural development. Prof. Paul Neurath on behalf of the Tata Institute of Social Sciences conducted an evaluation study, and came out with interesting results: (1) The radio is very suitable medium to communicate with rural audience and to spread the message of development. (2) A majority of the listeners appreciated the value of the messages. The Farm and Home units were subsequently established at many AIR stations to provide wider support to the Integrated Agriculture Development Programme (IADP). The contribution of the radio is widely acknowledged by farm scientists in increasing agriculture production and achieving a green revolution. Similar attempt was taken in respect of the Family Welfare programme. Till date All India Radio has its Family welfare programmes broadcast everyday focusing on the various government schemes.
The government controlled media has been more or less toeing a centralized form of communication. AIR (All India Radio) during its initial days formulated its communication policies in Delhi and got it translated to the various languages for dissemination. The irony was that it never even looked at the regional variations of the problems. To cite an example, every year, the government observes the first week of August as “Breast Feeding week” to emphasize on the importance of Breast Feeding for the new born as well as the lactating mother. The government media goes overboard with the campaign. Whereas, in India the people of the Northeastern part needs no campaign as all mothers breast feed their babies instinctively. Hence spending so much of valuable transmission time on such campaigns for these areas could never elicit any result. However no such knowledge level is decipherable in the annual orders that are sent to all the AIR stations about such campaigns. The state controlled television, Doordarshan, which has a very wide coverage area too has its programmes designed for health and family welfare too suffer from the same affliction.
- What is the contribution of Social Science Research methods to Communication Research?
It is recognized that social scientists are not the only ones with a contribution to make to the study of communications; the focus here is on communication research that would normally be regarded as falling under the heading of social science - that is the bulk of the research that is carried out. Most researchers in the field regard their work as ´scientific´ in some shape or form, and it is the validity of this that we shall examine, paying particular attention to the appropriateness for Third World countries of research theories, models and methods derived from research experience and conceptual frameworks in Western industrialized societies.
It has been said that there are as many definitions of social science as there are social scientists but, for our purposes, we shall select a fairly simple starting point; one which hopefully encompasses all the basic elements. Social science, which will be regarded as including psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics and political science, consists of the disciplined and systematic study of society and its institutions, and of how and why people behave as they do, both as individuals and in groups within society. At a minimum it would appear that ´scientific´ entails a systematic and disciplined method of acquiring knowledge and, what is more, that knowledge must be verifiable knowledge. We need to ask if such a position is tenable in communication research.
Several perspectives (for example critical, theoretical, empirical and humanistic) may be detected in social science.1 Consequently, even amongst those who consider themselves social scientists we are likely to find many different approaches to the study of the media and communications. Some of these assert that we cannot ´objectively´ know ´the world out there´, and that objectivity is no more than inter-subjectivity. To them what matters is internal validity, not construct validity or reliability, and internal validity has its foundations in human perception, not rigorous methodology, i.e. ´mechanistic reactions to manipulative stimuli´.2 Let the researched be the researchers.
The field of mass communication is multi-disciplinary is one of the main problems, and this is exacerbated by the fact that not only are there differences between the various ´disciplines´ within the field, but that there are also differences and discontinuities within any given ´discipline´. There are even those who question whether it is appropriate to use the word ´discipline´ with regard to any of the social sciences. Consensus is certainly not the norm, so if consensus is regarded as a sign of maturity, then social science is far from being mature.
- Discuss Audience Research and various forms of Audience Measurement.
Audience research is defined as any communication research that is conducted on specific audience segments to gather information about their attitudes, knowledge, interests, preferences or behaviors with respect to prevention issues. Segments may be based on various grouping strategies, such as race and ethnicity, age, education or family income .some investigators refer to audience research as “formative” or “elicitation” research.
Audience measurement measures how many people are in an audience, usually in relation to radio listenership and television viewership, but also in relation to newspaper and magazine readership and, increasingly, web traffic on websites. Sometimes, the term is used as pertaining to practices which help broadcasters and advertisers determine who is listening rather than just how many people are listening. In some parts of the world, the resulting relative numbers are referred to as audience share, while in other places the broader term market share is used. This broader meaning is also called audience research.
The diary was one of the first methods of recording information. However, this is prone to mistakes and forgetfulness, as well as subjectivity. Data is also collected down to the level of listener opinion of individual songs, cross referenced against their age, race, and economic status in listening sessions sponsored by oldies and mix formatted stations. IBOPE was the first real-time service for audience measurement of the world, it started in São Paulo in 1942.
The audience measurement of U.S. television has relied on sampling to obtain estimated audience sizes in which advertisers determine the value of such acquisitions. According to The Television Will Be Revolutionized, Amanda D. Lotz states that during the 1960s and 1970s, Nielsen introduced the Storage Instantaneous Audimeter, a device that daily sent viewing information to the company´s computers using phone lines and made national daily ratings available by 1973. Although the audimeters did not supply sufficient information regarding demographics of the audience, it did however allow Nielsen to establish diary reports that presented some insight on the audience. According to Lotz, the Nielsen sample included approximately 1,700 audimeter homes and a rotating panel of approximately 850 diary respondents. Nielsen was the controlling factor of audience measurement for national network television.
In the mid-2000s, networks cried foul, blaming Nielsen for inaccurate rating measurements. This public attention was just the beginning, as Nielsen implemented its automated Local People Meter (LPM) technology. The LPM marked the shift from active, diary based local measurement to more passive, meter-monitored measurement of local markets. Technologically, the LPM is very similar to the original Nielsen People Meter. The key advancement was that the LPM provided accurate measurements of particular local markets. The LPM system has also allowed the industry to measure year-round, rather than the quarterly "sweeps" periods. Researchers believed that the LPM more accurately reported the full range of programming viewers watched, including that while channel-surfing. Arbitron´s Portable People Meter uses a microphone to pick up and record sub audible tones embedded in broadcasts by an encoder at each station or network. It has even been used to track in-store radio.
Because of the internet, many businesses are no longer constrained to establishing sales to just their local markets, but alternatively can serve customers across much larger territories. The arising development of markets boosts the likelihood of offering low-occurrence niche items that would go through challenges in order to encounter the ideal customers in a specific area of markets. In his Journal of Advertising Research, author Chris Anderson remarks: "for some internet-based businesses, locality no longer regulates the market." When consumers obtain access to a greater range of choices, they gravitate toward exercising those choices, awarding fewer of their "votes" to the big hits and more of their "votes" to specialized niche choices. Anderson argues that people always wanted more choices, but their desires previously were obscured by distributional bottlenecks imposed by cost or locality.
New digital technologies initially complicated in-home measurement systems. The DVR, for example, initially seemed incompatible with a Nielsen box, which was designed to register the frequency of the television signal in order to measure the channel being viewed. As a DVR always produces the same frequency, an A/P or active/passive meter could be developed to read audio tracks of a particular program rather than the frequency of the television. Another challenge to the industry was consumers´ turning to digital cable, the internet and devices other than their television sets to view entertainment content. As new ways of measurement were becoming readily available and people could easily be tracked and monitored for content and use, the industry worried that traditional sampling techniques might become obsolete. Furthermore, the increasing fragmentation of viewing across different technologies posed difficulties in reporting actual viewer numbers for a content piece. In 2010 Nielsen began rolling out its "anytime anywhere media measurement" initiative, which includes DVR views in the television figures. Dubbed “GTAM,” which stands for Global Television Audience Metering, is based on the development of new audience metering technologies aimed at dealing with all of the conceivable challenges involved in measuring the video viewing behavior of contemporary consumer households across multiple platforms (TV, Internet, mobile devices). Existing A/P meters will be replaced by so-called GTAM meters which are expected to utilize a combination of active and passive measurement technologies. However, unlike A/P meters, they will not require a physical connection to any media devices to function.
How Tele-Film scripts are prepared? Evolve a script for a five minute film on a subject of your choice.
While screenplay formatting software such as Final Draft, Movie Magic Screenwriter, Movie Outline and Montage frees you from having to learn the nitty-gritty of margins and indents, it´s good to have a grasp of the general spacing standards.
The top, bottom and right margins of a screenplay are 1". The left margin is 1.5". The extra half-inch of white space to the left of a script page allows for binding with brads, yet still imparts a feeling of vertical balance of the text on the page. The entire document should be single-spaced.
The very first item on the first page should be the words FADE IN: The first page is never numbered. Subsequent page numbers appear in the upper right hand corner, 0.5" from the top of the page, flush right to the margin.
Below is a list of items (with definitions) that make up the screenplay format, along with indenting information. Again, screenplay software will automatically format all these elements, but a screenwriter must have a working knowledge of the definitions to know when to use each one.
Indent: Left: 0.0" Right: 0.0" Width: 6.0"
A scene heading is a one-line description of the location and time of day of a scene, also known as a "slugline." It should always be in CAPS.
Example: EXT. WRITERS STORE - DAY reveals that the action takes place outside The Writers Store during the daytime.
Indent: Left: 0.0" Right: 0.0" Width: 6.0"
When a new scene heading is not necessary, but some distinction needs to be made in the action, you can use a subheader. But be sure to use these sparingly, as a script full of subheaders is generally frowned upon. A good example is when there are a series of quick cuts between two locations, you would use the term INTERCUT and the scene locations.
Indent: Left: 0.0" Right: 0.0" Width: 6.0"
The narrative description of the events of a scene, written in the present tense. Also less commonly known as direction, visual exposition, blackstuff, description or scene direction.
Remember - only things that can be seen and heard should be included in the action.
Indent: Left: 2.0" Right: 0.0" Width: 4.0"
When a character is introduced, his name should be capitalized within the action. For example: The door opens and in walks LIAM, a thirty-something hipster with attitude to spare.
A character´s name is CAPPED and always listed above his lines of dialogue. Minor characters may be listed without names, for example "TAXI DRIVER" or "CUSTOMER."
Indent: Left: 1.0" Right: 1.5" Width: 3.5"
Lines of speech for each character. Dialogue format is used anytime a character is heard speaking, even for off-screen and voice-overs.
Indent: Left: 1.5" Right: 2.0" Width: 2.5"
A parenthetical is direction for the character, that is either attitude or action-oriented. With roots in the playwriting genre, today, parentheticals are used very rarely, and only if absolutely necessary. Why? Two reasons. First, if you need to use a parenthetical to convey what´s going on with your dialogue, then it probably just needs a good re-write. Second, it´s the director´s job to instruct an actor on how to deliver a line, and everyone knows not to encroach on the director´s turf!
Placed after the character´s name, in parentheses
An abbreviated technical note placed after the character´s name to indicate how the voice will be heard onscreen, for example, if the character is speaking as a voice-over, it would appear as LIAM (V.O.).
Indent: Left: 4.0" Right: 0.0" Width: 2.0"
Transitions are film editing instructions, and generally only appear in a shooting script. Transition verbiage includes:
As a spec script writer, you should avoid using a transition unless there is no other way to indicate a story element. For example, you might need to use DISSOLVE TO: to indicate that a large amount of time has passed.
Indent: Left: 0.0" Right: 0.0" Width: 6.0"
A shot tells the reader the focal point within a scene has changed. Like a transition, there´s rarely a time when a spec screenwriter should insert shot directions. Once again, that´s the director´s job.
Examples of Shots:
ANGLE ON --
EXTREME CLOSE UP --
PAN TO --
LIAM´S POV --
1. Discuss the contribution of Wilbur Schramm to Communication Theory
Wilber Schramm proposed the model of communication in 1954. Information is of no use unless and until it is carefully put into words and conveyed to others. Encoding plays a very important role because it initiates the process of communication by converting the thought into content. When the information reaches the recipient his prime responsibility is to understand what the speaker intends to convey. Unless and until the second party is able to understand or decode the information what the sender wants to communicate, the message is actually of no use. Thus encoding and decoding are two most important factors of an effective communication without which information can never flow between two individuals. Schramm’s model also revolves around the above principle. According to the Schramm’s model, coding and decoding are the two essential processes of an effective communication.
He also emphasizes that the communication is incomplete unless and until the sender receives a feedback from the recipient. Imagine a person sharing his thoughts with his friend and his friend not responding to him Schramm believed that communication is actually a two way process between the first party and the second party.
- Jennifer to Sam -“Will you accompany me for a movie ?”
Sam kept mum and did not respond and hence the communication between Sam and Jennifer was not complete. If Sam was not interested for the movie, he could have responded or given the feedback to Jennifer about his unwillingness. According to Schramm’s model, whenever the information reaches the recipient, it becomes his responsibility to give the feedback and let him know if he has downloaded the message in exactly the same manner the speaker wanted. If he is not clear with anything or has any doubts, it must be cleared with the speaker. Thus when the speaker conveys any message to the listener, the listener, decodes the message and once again passes the message to the speaker after understanding it and completing the full circle.
M - Stands for message
Schramm believed that an individual’s knowledge, experience and cultural background also play an important role in communication. Individuals from diverse cultures, religion or background tend to interpret the message in different ways
- John to Teddy -“I get late for my office, please buy me a clock”
Teddy went to a local market and gifted a clock to John and John was never late to office after that. He could have also misinterpreted the message, then how come he could understand his friend’s desire? A Clock is always a clock whether Teddy has to bring it or any other individual has to bring it. A clock can never be confused with a wrist watch or for that matter something else. There are some messages which are more or less same for everyone. They are called as messages with a Denotative meaning which are almost the same for all individuals and in such cases chances of misinterpretation and misunderstanding gets nullified.
Please once again refer to the above situation of John and Teddy and slightly modify the situation. When John wanted a clock, Teddy brought two clocks for him as he was two concerned for John and didn’t want him to get late. In this case John actually wanted a single clock but Teddy brought his emotional quotient and personal affection in between. Such meanings are called Connotative meaning which are affected by emotional factors. A message can also get distorted due to wrong body movements, gestures, facial expressions and many other factors.
To conclude according to this model of communication when a sender passes on the information to the receiver, the receiver must interpret it in the desired form the sender wants and give him the feedback or respond accordingly. Any communication where the sender does not get the feedback, the communication is not complete and thus ineffective.
2.Write a detailed script for a Tele-film on Communal Harmony, the total time available being 20 minutes only.
FADE IN ON
- NATHU (A MAN)
Nathu , a Chamar, is finishing his work in his shop
Thekedar walks in and asks nathu to entice a pig from a nearby piggery into his shop and kill it for the Veterinary doctor who needs it for medical purposes.
Nathu tries to decline saying he has never killed a pig before and doesn´t have the necessary skill for it, offering instead to tan the hide if required provided the people from the piggery kill it
Insists that he wants Nathu to do it and gives him 5 rupees for it and leaves the shop saying that the work must be done by morning when the jamadar will come to take the carcass.
- Early next morning Bakshiji and a few other members of the Congress party gather at the Congress office and march out for cleaning the drains in a Muslim mohalla for propaganda, singing patriotic songs. Initially they´re received at the mohalla warmly and are joined in by the residents in cleaning the drains.
- OLD MUSLIM asked
Leave for your own good.
- Soon stones fly at the party members from neighboring houses and they flee the scene. Party members soon discover that someone has thrown a pig carcass at the steps of a mosque.
- Fearing unrest in the community Bakshiji and Hayat Baksh , the spokesman of the Muslim League, visit the Deputy Commissioner Richard at his house and urge him to take preemptive measures to bring the situation under control.
- RICHARD Suggests
Deploy police or impose a curfew and instead tells the party members to urge their respective communities to maintain peace and order.
- NATHU having seen the pig carcass at the mosque wonders
It was the same pig he had killed the previous night.
While returning home in the evening Nathu stops for a couple of drinks and sees the thekedar in the street..
- Nathu runs after Thekedar trying to talk to him but the thekedar ignores him completely and rushes off hurriedly. Now sure that it was the same pig,
- NATHU CONFESSES TO WIFE KAMMO
Outside at a distance houses are burning and I am the one for the erupting communal violence.
Nathu decides to leave his house and go to another city with his wife and mother.
Nathu carrying his old cripple mother on his back. During the travel Nathu´s mother dies and has to be burned in the forest without proper funeral rites which further devastates the conscience-stricken Nathu who in his naivety holds himself responsible for the holocaust.
IN ANOTHER VILLAGE
- Harnam Singh and his wife Banto , being the only Sikh family in the village, decide to leave their house and a small tea stall and go to their daughter Jasbir´s house where they have a substantial Sikh community.
- They travel on foot all night and the next morning reach a village and knock a door seeking shelter. The house belongs to a Muslim, Ehsan Ali, who has been a friend of Harnam Singh since long. Harnam Singh and Banto hide at the house during the day, but at night are discovered by Ehsan´s son and are asked to leave immediately.
- On their way the next morning they meet Nathu and his wife in the forest and they all go together to a gurudwara where Jasbir and several other Sikhs have taken shelter.
AT THE GURUDWARA
- TEJA SINGH leader of sikh council informed
Mulims are continually collecting arms and hence they should do the same for their own protection.
- JUNIOR GRANTHI
The Muslims are realizing that the Sikhs are out numbered and not sufficiently armed have asked for 2 lakh rupees for truce
- TEJA SINGH to granthi and nathu
Go and negotiate with the muslims
Teja Singh and the council members watch from the terrace of the gurudwara as Nathu and the granthi are approached by the Muslim mob, surrounded and attacked. Sikhs enraged by this take up arms and go out to fight shouting Sikh slogans.
- JASBIR to all other sikh women
We have to do a collective suicide by jumping into the well with our children in our arms.
3. Write short notes on any three of the following
(i) Film Festival
A film festival is an organized, extended presentation of films in one or more cinemas or screening venues, usually in a single city or region. Increasingly, film festivals show some films outdoors. Films may be of recent date and, depending upon the festival´s focus, can include international and domestic releases. Some festivals focus on a specific film-maker or genre (e.g., film noir) or subject matter (e.g., horror film festivals). A number of film festivals specialize in short films of a defined maximum length. Film festivals are typically annual events. Some film historians do not consider Film Festivals as official releases of film, like Jerry Beck. The best known film festivals are the Venice Film Festival, the Cannes Film Festival, the Toronto Film Festival, Sundance Film Festival, and the Berlin International Film Festival, the latter being the largest film festival worldwide, based on attendance. The Venice Film Festival is the oldest major festival. The Melbourne International Film Festival is the largest film festival in the Southern Hemisphere and one of the oldest in the world.
(ii) Regional Films
India is home to one of the largest film industries in the world. Every year thousands of movies are produced in India. Indian film industry comprises of Hindi films, regional movies and art cinema. The Indian film industry is supported mainly by a vast film-going Indian public, though Indian films have been gaining increasing popularity in the rest of the world, especially in countries with large numbers of emigrant Indians.
India is a large country where many languages are spoken. Many of the larger languages support their own film industry. Some of the popular regional film industries in India are Bengali, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam and Punjabi. The Hindi/Urdu film industry, based in Mumbai, formerly Bombay, is called Bollywood. Similar neologisms have been coined for the Tamil film industry Kollywood and the Telugu film industry. Tollygunge is metonym for the Bengali film industry, long centered in the Tollygunge district of Kolkata. The Bengali language industry is notable as having nurtured the director Satyajit Ray, an internationally renowned filmmaker and a winner of many awards.
The Bollywood industry is the largest in terms of films produced and box office receipts, just as Urdu/Hindi speakers outnumber speakers of other Indian languages. Many workers in other regional industries, once established, generally move to Bollywood for greater spotlight or opportunity.
(iii) INSAT – 1C
INSAT-1C was the third in the first generation INSAT series of satellites (termed as INSAT-1) developed by United States to satisfy the domestic communication requirement of India. The Govt. agencies using its services were All India Radio, Doordarshan, Department of Space and Indian Meteorological Department.
INSAT-1C was launched from Guiana Space Centre in Kourou using Ariane 3 rocket on July 21, 1988. At launch, it had a mass of 1,190 kilograms (2,620 lb), and an expected operational lifespan of seven years. The satellite was positioned at 93.5° East longitude in geostationary orbit.
INSAT-1C carried 3 payloads on board to provide communication services to Indian Meteorological Department, Department of Telecommunications and Department of Space:
Very High Resolution scanning Radiometer (VHRR)
12 transponders operating in 2-phases (earth-to-satellite and vice versa).
Data channel to send data for land based applications.
(iv) INSAT – 1B
INSAT-1B was an Indian communications satellite which formed part of the Indian National Satellite System. Launched in 1983, it was operated in geostationary orbit at a longitude of 74 degrees east. At the end of its seven-year design life it was replaced by the newly launched INSAT-1D, dropping to backup status. In 1992, it was relocated to 93° east, before being decommissioned in August 1993.
INSAT-1B was deployed by Space Shuttle Challenger during the STS-8 mission. Challenger lifted off from Launch Complex 39A at the Kennedy Space Center at 06:32:00 UTC on 30 August 1983. INSAT-1B was deployed from the orbiter´s payload bay at 07:48 UTC on 31 August, with a PAM-D upper stage firing shortly afterwards to place it into geosynchronous transfer orbit. The spacecraft used its own propulsion system to raise itself into geostationary orbit. It received the International Designator 1983-089B and Satellite Catalog Number 14318.
After some initial problems deploying its solar array, INSAT-1B became operational in October 1983. It was located at 74° east for most of its operational life, before being moved to 93° east in 1992. In August 1993 it was decommissioned and raised to a graveyard orbit slightly above geosynchronous altitude. As of 14 November 2013, it is in an orbit with a perigee of 35,741 kilometres (22,208 mi), an apogee of 35,846 kilometres (22,274 mi), inclination of 14.69 degrees and an orbital period of 23.93 hours.
Question No. 1 Marks - 10
‘Journalism in the Modern India’ is written by
- M. Chalapathi Rao
- Mahatma Gandhi
- Lala Lajpat Rai
- Roland E. Wolselley
Question No. 2 Marks - 10
The author of the “Truth about India Press” is
- Kushwant Singh
- Durga Das
- J. N. Sahani