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Title Name Amity Solved Assign Management of change and Organizational Development
University AMITY
Service Type Assignment
Course PGDM-(Human-Resource)
Semister Semester-I Cource: PGDM-(Human-Resource)
Short Name or Subject Code Management of change & Organizational Development
Commerce line item Type Semester-I Cource: PGDM-(Human-Resource)
Product Assignment of PGDM-(Human-Resource) Semester-I (AMITY)

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  Questions :-

 

 Q.1: What are the common pitfalls while implementing organizational change? Discuss in   detail.

2. (a) State and explain various theories of planned change in detail? Influence the quality and direction of change.

b) List and explain the steps that managers can take to minimize resistance to change.

 

Q .3 Discuss and exemplify the relevance of intergroup development OD intervention in the organization.

Q .4 what are the various factors accelerating change? Explain the sources of individual and organizational resistance to change.

Q .5 How is organizational change different from organizational development? Discuss, quoting suitable example.

Q .6 How do organizations know when they should change? What cues should an organization look for?  Discuss in detail.

 

Q .7 What is an OD Intervention? Discuss the OD values necessary for dealing with individuals, team and organization.

Q .8 Explain different kinds of OD interventions specially designed to improve team performance. Explain the human process approach to OD.

                                                           

 

 

 

 CASE STUDY 

CROSS – TRAINING EMILY

             Emily, who has the reputation of being an excellent worker, is a machine operator in a furniture manufacturing plant that has been growing at a rate of 15% to 20% each year for the past decade. New additions have been built onto the plant, new plants opened in the region, workers hired, new product lines developed, lots of expansion, but with no significant change in overall approach to operations, plant lay-out, ways of managing workers, or in the design processes. Plant operations as well as organizational culture are rooted in traditional Western management practices and logic, based largely on the notion of mass production and economies of scale. Over the past four years, the company has been growing in number and variety of products produced and in market penetration; however, profitability has been flattening and showing signs of decline. As a result, management is beginning to focus more on production operations (internal focus) rather than  new market strategies, new products, and new market segments (external focus), in developing their strategic plans. They hope to get manufacturing costs down, improve consistency of quality and ability to meet delivery times better, while decreasing inventory and increasing flexibility.

            One of several new programs initiated by management in this effort to improve flexibility and lower costs was to get workers cross-trained. However, when a representative from Human Resources explained this program to Emily’s supervisor, Jim, he reluctantly agreed to cross-train most of his workers, but NOT Emily.

            Jim explained to the Human Resources person that Emily works on a machine that is very complex and not easy to effectively operate.  He has tried many workers on it, tried to train them, but Emily is the only one that can consistently get product through the machine that is within specification and still meet production schedules. When anyone else tries to operate the machine, which performs a key function in the manufacturing process, it either ends up being a big bottle neck or producing excessive waste, which creates a lot of trouble for Jim.

            Jim goes on to explain that Emily knows this sophisticated and complicated machine inside and out, she has been running it for five years. She likes the challenge; she says it makes the day go by faster, too. She is meticulous in her work, a very skilled employee who really cares about the quality of her work. Jim told the HR person that he wished all of his workers were like Emily. Jim was adamant about keeping Emily on this machine and not cross-training her. The HR person was frustrated. He could see Jim’s point but he had to follow executive orders: “Get these people cross-trained.”

            Around the same period of time, a university student was doing a field study in the section of the plant where Emily worked and Emily was one of the workers he interviewed. Emily told the student that, in spite of the fact that the plant had some problems with employee morale and excessive employee turnover, she really liked working there. She also mentioned that she is hoping that she did not have to participate in the recent “Program of the Month” which was having operators learn each other’s jobs. She told the student that it would just create more waste if they tried to have other employees run her machine.

 

            Emily seemed to take a special liking for the student and began to open up to him. She. She had tried to explain this to her supervisor a couple of years ago but he just told her to “do her work and leave operations to the manufacturing engineers.” She also said that, if workers up stream in the process would spend a little more time and care to keep the raw material in slightly tighter specifications, it would go through her machine much more easily and trouble-free, but that they were too focused on going fast. She expressed a lack of respect for the managers who couldn’t see this and even joked about how “managers didn’t know anything.”

 

Q .1 Identify the sources of resistance to change in this case.  

Q .2 Discuss whether this resistance is justified or could be overcome. 

 

Q .3 Recommend the ways to minimize resistance to change in this incident. 

 

 

 

 

Assignment C

  1. is an OC approach that focuses on data collection and analysis using a scientific methodology
    1. Action research
    2. Lewin’s three step model
    3. Organizational development
    4. Process consultation

 

 

  1. When people resist change because they hear what they want to hear and they ignore information that challenges those perception, they are resisting change because:
    1. economic factors
    2. the fear of unknown
    3. selective information processing
    4. the security need

 

 

  1. John Kotter built on Lewin´s three-step model to create a more detailed approach for implementing ______.  
    1. Action research
    2. Economic shocks
    3. Change
    4. Social trends

 

 

  1. Which is not an Internal Change?
    1. Change in Equipments
    2. Job restructuring
    3. Change in Employee Attitude
    4. Change in Business cycles

 

 

  1. In Incremental change there is a
    1. small change
    2. radical change
    3. gradual change
    4. significant change

 

 

 

  1. A change agent is:
    1. an external or an internal agent
    2. a behavioral scientist
    3. both a and b
    4. a national scientist

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a tactic that managers can use to reduce resistance to change?
    1. Coercion
    2. Manipulation
    3. Education & Communication
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. Which one of the following is not a part of Effective Change Management?
    1. Motivating Change
    2. Initiating Change
    3. Creating Vision
    4. Developing political support

 

 

  1. When organizational development involves radical change that is multidimensional and multilevel it is most likely going through
    1. Structural change
    2. Technological change
    3. First order change
    4. Second order change

 

 

  1. "First-order change" is change that:  
    1. Is multidimensional, multilevel, discontinuous, and radical
    2. Provides insight into the ability of some individuals to resist change
    3. Is linear and continuous
    4. Is very threatening

 

 

  1. Basically an operational change on a calculated basis as response to internal and external demands is a
    1. Fundamental change
    2. Planned Change
    3. Strategic Change
    4. Transformational change

 

 

  1. Kurt Lewin´s three-step model for successful change in organizations includes:
    1. Unthawing, changing, freezing
    2. Unfreezing, moving, freezing
    3. Unfreezing, moving, and refreezing
    4. Unfreezing, changing, and refreezing

 

 

 

  1. Action Research was first defined by
    1. Kurt Lewin
    2. John Collier
    3. French and Bell
    4. None of the above

 

 

  1. An OD technique that involves unstructured group interaction in which members learn by observing and  participating rather than being told is
    1. Survey Feedback
    2. Team Building
    3. Sensitivity Training
    4. Process Consultation

 

 

 

  1. Interventions that are aimed at improving communication ability are:
    1. Structural interventions
    2. Intergroup interventions
    3. Interpersonal interventions
    4. Process consultation

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  1. Inter group development seeks to
    1. facilitate entry and exit of members into groups
    2. change attitudes, stereotypes and the perceptions the group have of each other
    3. change the group structure and leadership
    4. Merge two groups into functioning teams

 

 

 

  1. The assumption underlying the use of survey feedback in OD is
    1. surveys are the best way to collect data
    2. a great deal of data is collected
    3. it is used to provide feedback and to initiate change in the organization
    4. responses can be easily be interpreted

 

 

 

  1. The first T group was formed
    1. to facilitate decision making
    2. to work on group projects
    3. to make group more cohesive
    4. as people reacted to data as the

 

 

 

  1. The following is not the stem of OD
    1. Laboratory training
    2. Action research / Survey feedback
    3. Strategic change
    4. managerial Grid

 

 

  1. OD is often defined as:
    1. anything done to better an organization
    2. a planned effort to improve the effectiveness of the organization
    3. training function of the organization
    4. all of the above

 

 

  1. Which is not the area of issue in consultant-client relationship?
    1. Mutual Trust
    2. Career Development
    3. Nature of Consultant’s Expertise
    4. Entry and Contracting

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is an external change?
    1. performance gaps
    2. change in products
    3. advances in information process
    4. change in organizational size

 

 

 

  1. In the moving stage of the Lewin’s Model
    1. driving forces within the organization provide disconfirming information that shows discrepancies between the organization’s desired state and its current state to reduce potentially resisting forces
    2. supporting mechanism stabilize the organization at a new state of equilibrium
    3. driving forces focus on developing new behaviors that may differ from prior habits
    4. none of the above

 

 

  1. What is not true about Organizational Development?
    1. It’s a systematic approach
    2. It’s a response to change
    3. It’s an unplanned change
    4. It’s a scientific approach

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is a source of organizational resistance to change?
    1. Security
    2. Group Inertia
    3. Economic factors
    4. Habit

 

 

  1. Grid Organization Development technique was designed by
    1. Robert R Blake
    2. Jane S Mouton
    3. Roger Harrison
    4. Both a and b

 

 

 

  1. Team building intervention which is designed to clarify role expectation is
    1. Grid OD
    2. Role Analysis Technique
    3. Role negotiation Technique
    4. Job design

 

 

 

  1. In managerial Grid, an individual’s style can be best described as which of the following:
    1. the way one dresses
    2. one’s concern for production and people
    3. how one interacts with management
    4. the way one deals with the problem

 

 

 

  1. Strategic change interventions involve improving
    1. The alignment among an organization’s environment, strategy and organization design
    2. The organization’s relationship to its environment
    3. The fit between the organization’s technical, political and cultural systems.
    4. All of the above

 

 

 

  1. The third party attempts to make intervention aimed at opening communication and confronting the problem including which of the following
    1. ensuring mutual motivation
    2. coordinating confrontation efforts both the above two
    3. both the above two
    4. collecting data

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a fundamental assumption underlying process consultation? 
    1. the group is the building block of organization
    2. groups are the basic units of change
    3. a skilled party can help the group in joint diagnosis
    4. it is an agenda less meeting

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following is not a step of Role analysis technique?
    1. role incumbent’s expectations of others
    2. Role negotiation
    3. role expectations
    4. role profile

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following areas do OD practitionerneeds to be familiar with to bring about strategic change
    1. competitive strategy
    2. team building
    3. negotiation
    4. all of the above

 

 

 

  1. In fundamental change there is 
    1. redefinition of current purpose or mission
    2. abrupt change in organization’s strategy
    3. change of all or most of the organization components
    4. response to an even or a series of events

 

 

 

  1. Coaching and Counseling is an OD technique which is used for
    1. Individuals
    2. Dyads
    3. Groups
    4. Organization

 

 

 

  1. Third Party Intervention an OD technique which is used for
    1. Individuals
    2. Dyads
    3. Organization
    4. Intergroup

 

 

 

  1. Role Negotiation an OD technique which is used for
    1. Individuals
    2. Dyads
    3. Groups
    4. Organization

 

 

 

  1. Consultant client relationship does not follow 
    1. Understanding the actual client
    2. Slowly and gradually understanding of the whole system
    3. Finding out the inter-related and inter-dependent groups.
    4. misrepresentation and collusion

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following statements is false?
    1. In an organization, it is not essential to have regular changes and development in order to bring effectiveness
    2. Organization brings a change mainly because of planned and unplanned change
    3. Sometimes organization is resistant to change
    4. Organizational change is important to usher in long-term success in an organization

 

 

 

  1. Change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity is called: 
    1. Refreezing
    2. Mobilizing
    3. Unfreezing
    4. Planned change

 

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  Answers :-

  Q.1: What are the common pitfalls while implementing organizational change? Discuss in   detail.

Ans:-

Organizational change is a structured approach in an organization for ensuring that changes are smoothly and successfully implemented to achieve lasting benefits. Globalization and the constant innovation of technology result in a constantly evolving business environment.

Organizational change directly affects all departments from the entry level employee to senior management. The entire company must learn how to handle changes to the organization.

Effectively managing organizational change is a four-step process:

  1. Recognizing the changes in the broader business environment
  2. Developing the necessary adjustments for their company’s needs
  3. Training their employees on the appropriate changes
  4. Winning the support of the employees with the persuasiveness of the appropriate adjustments

Challenge or barriers

Planning

Without step-by-step planning, change in an organization is likely to fall apart or cause more problems than benefits. You need to understand exactly what changes will take place and how those changes will occur. For example, if you´re transitioning to a new content management system, you´ll need to know if the new system is compatible with the old system, how you will transition the old information to the new system and if there will be limited access during the transition. You also need to assign roles to individuals who are responsible for the change so all duties are covered. The time line for the change is also a key component. You need to plan for downtime or difficulties in completing regular work tasks while the change occurs.

Lack of Consensus

If you fail to get everyone on board with the corporate changes, you are likely to face barriers during the process. The decision to implement changes should come from the top level of the organization. All management level staff needs to be on board and able to deal with the changes or you may face dissension within the staff. You may not have everyone on board right from the beginning. Showing managers how the changes will affect the company and the steps for implementing the changes helps get them on board if they initially have reservations.

Communication

Failing to communicate with all employees invites rumors and fear into the workplace, particularly if you´re facing major changes, such as downsizing or a merger. Employees want to know what´s going on, whether it is positive or negative news. The feeling of uncertainty when management doesn´t communicate disrupts work and makes employees feel as if they aren´t a part of the decision. Keep employees updated regularly about the plans and progress toward the change implementation. Involve all employees as much as possible through meetings or brainstorming sessions to help during the planning phase.

Employee Resistance

In some cases, employees resist change. They become comfortable with the way the business is run. They know the expectations and their role within the company. When a major change disrupts their familiarity, some employees become upset. They don´t want to relearn their jobs or change the way they do things. Supporting your employees and providing training for any new responsibilities can help ease the transition

 

 

Q .2 (a) State and explain various theories of planned change in detail? Influence the quality and direction of change.

Ans:-

Change is a planned action to make things different is defined as change intervention

A planned change is characterized by a few aspects. these include

·         A planned change is qualitative in nature.

·         Every planned change has a basic purpose and rationale

·         The means used for bringing about the change

·         In any change process the adoption rates vary.

Theory of Change (ToC) is a specific type of methodology for planning, participation, and evaluation that is used in the philanthropy, not-for-profit and government sectors to promote social change. Theory of Change defines long-term goals and then maps backward to identify necessary preconditions. Theory of Change explains the process of change by outlining causal linkages in an initiative, i.e., its shorter-term, intermediate, and longer-term outcomes. The identified changes are mapped –as the “outcomes pathway” – showing each outcome in logical relationship to all the others, as well as chronological flow. The links between outcomes are explained by “rationales” or statements of why one outcome is thought to be a prerequisite for another.

The innovation of Theory of Change lies

 (1) in making the distinction between desired and actual outcomes, and

 (2) In requiring stakeholders to model their desired outcomes before they decide on forms of intervention to achieve those outcomes.

Theory of Change can begin at any stage of an initiative, depending on the intended use. A theory developed at the outset is best at informing the planning of an initiative. Having worked out a change model, practitioners can make more informed decisions about strategy and tactics. As monitoring and evaluation data become available, stakeholders can periodically refine the Theory of Change as the evidence indicates. A Theory of Change can be developed retrospectively by reading program documents, talking to stakeholders and using monitoring and evaluation data. This is often done during evaluations reflecting what has worked or not in order to understand the past and plan for the future. A common error in describing Theory of Change is the belief that it is simply a methodology for planning and evaluation. Theory of Change is instead a form of critical theory that ensures a transparent distribution of power dynamics. Further, the process is necessarily inclusive of many perspectives and participants in achieving solutions lot has changed since the theory was originally presented in 1947, but the Kurt Lewin model is still extremely relevant. A key theme of Kurt Lewin´s model is the idea that change, especially at the psychological level, is a journey rather than a simple step. This journey may not be simple and may involve several stages of misunderstanding before people get to the other side.

Kurt Lewin proposed a three stage theory of change commonly referred to as,

 Kurt Lewin Model of Change

Stage 1: Unfreeze - this is the first of Lewin´s change transition stages, where people are taken from a state of being unready to change to being ready and willing to make the first step.

The Unfreezing stage is probably one of the more important stages to understand in the world of change we live in today. This stage is about getting ready to change. It involves getting to a point of understanding that change is necessary, and getting ready to move away from our current comfort zone. This first stage is about preparing ourselves, or others, before the change (and ideally creating a situation in which we want the change). The more we feel that change is necessary, the more urgent it is, the more motivated we are to make the change.

Stage 2: Change (Transition) –

Once you have unfrozen the people, the next question is how you keep them going. Kurt Lewin was aware that change is not an event, but rather a process. He called that process a transition. Transition is the inner movement or journey we make in reaction to a change. This second stage occurs as we make the changes that are needed. People are ´unfrozen´ and moving towards a new way of being. That said this stage is often the hardest as people are unsure or even fearful. This is not an easy time as people are learning about the changes and need to be given time to understand and work with them.

Support is really important here and can be in the form of training, coaching, and expecting mistakes as part of the process. Using role models and allowing people to develop their own solutions also help to make the changes. It´s also really useful to keep communicating a clear picture of the desired change and the benefits to people so they don´t lose sight of where they are heading.

Stage 3: Freezing (or Refreezing) - refreezing is the third of Lewin´s change transition stages, where people are taken from a state of being in transition and moved to a stable and productive state. Kurt Lewin refers to this stage as freezing although a lot of people refer to it as ´refreezing´. As the name suggests this stage is about establishing stability once the changes have been made. The changes are accepted and become the new norm. People form new relationships and become comfortable with their routines. This can take time. In today’s world of change the next new change could happen in weeks or less. There is just no time to settle into comfortable routines. This rigidity of freezing does not fit with modern thinking about change being a continuous, sometimes chaotic process in which great flexibility is demanded. So popular thought has moved away from the concept of freezing. Instead, we should think about this final stage as being more flexible. This way ´Unfreezing´ for the next change might be easier.

 

 

  1. b) List and explain the steps that managers can take to minimize resistance to change.

Ans:-                          

So now that we understand why people may resist change, what approaches can we take to manage change and decrease the resistance?

Approach 1: Establish the Need for Change

Here is a popular formula for change:

C = A x B x D > X

Where:

C = the probability of change being successful A = dissatisfaction with the status quo B = a clear statement of the desired end state after the change D = concrete steps toward the goal X = the cost of change

This formula simply states that if you want people to change you have to (A) convince them that change is needed, (B) provide them with a vision of how change will improve the current situation, and (D) prove to them that you have an effective plan and roadmap for realizing productive change. And of course, it must all be proven that this change design will ultimately be cost effective.

But the most important component of them all is (A) convincing the organization that change isn’t just a pilot project but necessary. In order for change to succeed an organization must have the complete support of: virtually all the top executives, 75% of the managers, and the majority of the employees. But how is it possible to fully convince all of these people?

As previously stated, people won’t generally accept change unless they absolutely have to. You have to convince them that there are no other alternatives.

Some of the methods of doing so may be considered somewhat extreme:

- Clean up the balance sheet to show the reality of ongoing losses
- Insist more of the members speak with unhappy, disgruntled customers and suppliers
- Eliminate obvious examples of excess within the organization
- Allow errors to explode rather than being fixed at the last moment
- Insist that more people at lower levels be held accountable for broader measures of business performance

Approach 2: Create a Clear, Compelling Vision that Shows People How Their Lives Will Improve

Management must present a vision to its employees that is grounded in reality. The vision must have meaning and it must be achievable. Visions that include slogans or buzz words are going to cut it. It must be apparent that the vision comes from the heart and success in realizing that vision will be supported by management.

Approach 3: Go For True Performance Goals and Create Early Wins

Rome wasn’t created in a day, but it was created. The daily motivation back in Roman times was simple; work hard today or die tonight! Fortunately we don’t work that way anymore, but we do need daily feedback to stay motivated. In any change initiative there should be benchmarks along the road to completion. Recognize and reward arrival at those benchmarks instead of waiting to celebrate at the very end of the project. Some initiatives may last for years and with projects of this magnitude it may be tough seeing that light at the very far end of the tunnel. By providing short term victories, evidence is provided that prove the sacrifices are worth it and they undermine those opposed to change. Change agents are rewarded and examples for the benefits of following the program are demonstrated. Momentum can thus be built by turning “neutrals” into change supporters.

Approach 4: Communicate, Communicate, Communicate…

John Kotter (Leading Change; Harvard Business School Press, 1996) states 7 Principles for Successfully Communicating a Vision:

1) Keep it Simple: use jargon free information disseminated to large groups

2) Use metaphors, analogies and examples

3) Use many different forums, and keep the same message

4) Repeat, repeat, repeat. Let the workers know there is commitment behind this concept and it’s not going to go away

5) Walk the talk or lead by example: All the top executives and managers must display that they are a part of this vision and not just the conductors of it.

6) Explicitly address seeming inconsistencies: if you can’t walk the talk in some instance, explain to employees why this inconsistency exists. If you can’t explain it see Principle #5 and ask yourself how badly you want this change.

7) Listen and be listened to. People will listen to you better if they believe they are being heard.

Approach 5: Build a Strong, Committed, Guiding Coalition That Includes Top Management

Another vehicle to assist in the dissemination of information is to create Change Coalitions that include representatives from every level of the organization. This will allow the executives to learn firsthand about the fears or the employees, and allow the employees to see firsthand and understand better the vision of the organization.

Approach 6: Keep It Complex, Stupid

If it were easy everybody would be doing it. In order for true change to be effective it needs to be complicated and on a grand scale. But this is where Approach #3 comes into play, break this large scale, reengineering process down into bite-sized goals and increments. Don’t be afraid to create and elaborate, long range vision, but be sure to create a road map that shows the marker, benchmarks and rewards along the way.

Approach 7: People Do Not Resist Their Own Ideas

Of course you don’t have to be a leadership guru to know that including people right from the beginning in the planning process helps build ownership of the plan from the ground up. But despite having this knowledge, this is one of the first mistakes organizations undertaking a change process make. When initiating change, consider Approach #5 when assembling task forces, process teams and work groups to get the ball rolling and acquire early buy-in from the masses

 

 

Q .3 Discuss and exemplify the relevance of intergroup development OD intervention in the organization.

Ans

 “Organizational Development is a long-term behavioral philosophy initiated by the top management. It relates to use of latest technologies and organizational processes to affect planned change by establishing cultural framework based on vision, empowerment and employee wellbeing leading to attainment of quality of work life and organizational effectiveness thus creating a learned organization.”

The intervention is the procedure the OD consultant uses, after diagnosing an organizational situation and providing feedback to management, to address an organization problem or positive future.

OD interventions are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units engage in a series of tasks which will lead to organizational improvement.

Interventions are actions taken to produce desired changes.

There are one of four reasons why there is need for OD interventions:

  1. The organization has a problem- something is “broken”, and corrective actions need to be taken i.e. it needs to be “fixed”.
  2. The organization sees an unrealized opportunity: something it wants is beyond its reach. Enabling actions- interventions- are developed to seize the opportunity.
  3. Features of the organization are out of alignment: parts of the organization are working at cross-purposes. Alignment activities- interventions- are developed to get things back in tune.
  4. The vision guiding the organizational changes: yesterday’s vision is no longer good enough. Actions to build the necessary structures, processes, and culture to support the new vision- interventions- are developed to make the new vision a reality.

 OD interventions are planned sets of actions to change situations 

Generally OD interventions follow a well-planned overall OD strategy and get revealed as events unfold and are answers to the following questions:

  1. What are the change/improvement goals of the program?
  2. What parts of the organization are most receptive to the OD program?
  3. What are the key leverage points( individual or group) in the organization
  4. What are the most pressing problems in the client organization?
  5. What resources are available for the program in terms of client time and energy and internal and external facilitators?

Intergroup Operating Problems

Group conflict depends on:

  • How incompatible the goals are.
  • Extent to which resources are scarce and shared.
  • Degree of interdependence of task activities.

 

Team Development and Group Processes Intervention
Team development and group processes interventions aim at improving different aspects of a group performance, such as goal setting, development of interpersonal relations among team members, role clarification and analysis, decision making, problem solving, and communities of practice, among other. One of the most important objective of team building interventions relies on improving interdependency of team members. The underlying premise is that the aggregated value of the team is much greater than any individual. According to Robbins (1994), Team building is applicable where group activities are interdependent. The objective is to improve the coordination efforts of members, which will result in increasing the team’s performance

  • Dialogue Sessions
  • Team Building
  • Team Development/ Effectiveness
  • Meeting Facilitation
  • Conflict Management/ Confrontation Meeting
  • Fishbowls
  • Strategic Alignment Assessment

 

 

Q .4 what are the various factors accelerating change? Explain the sources of individual and organizational resistance to change.

Ans.

With every major and minor change, resistance typically occurs. Every judicial educator has seen

this tendency, whether the change involves a certain speaker or a particular topic, a customary time of year or time of day to meet, a favorite location for conferences or planning sessions, or a given style for delivering a speech or organizing a paper. This resistance should be accepted as a “given,” so that the educator can predict and plan for effectively dealing with inevitable resistance. This section will address some of the causes and types of resistance to change, particularly at the organizational level.

When determining which of the latest techniques or innovations to adopt, there are four major factors to be considered:

  1. Levels, goals, and strategies
  2. Measurement system
  3. Sequence of steps
  4. Implementation and organizational change

Individual Resistance

Why does resistance to change occur? The primary reason is that people fear change. They are not usually eager to forego the familiar, safe, routine ways of conducting their business in favor of unknown and possibly unsafe territory. As humans, we tend to prefer routines and accumulate habits easily; however, fear of change may be attributed to more than a tendency toward regularity. Change represents the unknown. It could mean the possibility of failure, the relinquishing or diminishing of one’s span of control and authority, or the possibility of success creating further change. It might be that the planned change has little or no effect on the organization whatsoever. Any one of these possibilities can cause doubt and thus fear, understandably causing resistance to the change efforts.

In describing the process of ending, Bridges presents the following four stages that individuals must pass through in order to move into the transition state and effectively change:

  • Disengagement. The individual must make a break with the “old" and with his or her current definition of self.
  • Disidentification. After making this break, individuals should loosen their sense of self, so that they recognize that they aren’t who they were before.
  • Disenchantment. In this stage, individuals further clear away the “old,” challenging Assumptions and creating a deeper sense of reality for themselves. They perceive that the old way or old state was just a temporary condition, not an immutable fact of life.
  • Disorientation. In this final state, individuals feel lost and confused. It’s not a comfortable state, but a necessary one so that they can then move into the transition state and to a new beginning.

Organizational Resistance

With even this very brief discussion on the difficulties involved in individual change, it should be apparent that this phenomenon occurs at the organizational level as well. Organizations, regardless of size, are composed of individuals. The extent to which individuals within the organization can appropriately manage change represents the overall organizational capacity for change. However, there are other factors peculiar to the organizational setting that can act as barriers to implementing change. These include:

  • Inertia.

One of the most powerful forces that can affect individuals and organizations is inertia.

The day-to-day demands of work diminish the urgency of implementing the change effort until it slowly vanishes within the organization.

  • Lack of Clear Communication.

 If information concerning the change is not communicated clearly throughout the organization, individuals will have differing perceptions and expectations of the change.

Low-Risk Environment. In an organization that does not promote change and tends to punish mistakes, individuals develop a resistance to change, preferring instead to continue in safe, low risk behaviors.

  • Lack of Sufficient Resources. If the organization does not have sufficient time, staff, funds, orother resources to fully implement the change, the change efforts will be sabotaged. These factors, combined with others characteristic to the specific organization, can undermine the change effort and create resistance. A wise change agent will spend the necessary time to anticipate and plan for ways to manage resistance. Techniques such as force-field analysis, discussed earlier, are useful tools to assist in developing strategies for overcoming organizational resistance to change.

 

 

Q .5 How is organizational change different from organizational development? Discuss, quoting suitable example.

Ans:-

Organizational change is a structured approach in an organization for ensuring that changes are smoothly and successfully implemented to achieve lasting benefits. Globalization and the constant innovation of technology result in a constantly evolving business environment.

Organizational change directly affects all departments from the entry level employee to senior management. The entire company must learn how to handle changes to the organization.

Effectively managing organizational change is a four-step process:

  1. Recognizing the changes in the broader business environment
  2. Developing the necessary adjustments for their company’s needs
  3. Training their employees on the appropriate changes
  4. Winning the support of the employees with the persuasiveness of the appropriate adjustments

ORGANISATIONAL DEVELOPMENT

O.D. is system-wide and value-based collaborative process of applying behavioral science knowledge to the adaptive development, improvement and reinforcement of such

Organizational features as the strategies, structures, processes, people and cultures that lead to organizational effectiveness

The characteristics of O. D. are:

  1. It is a system-wise process
  2. It is value-based
  3. It is collaborative
  4. It is based on behavioral science knowledge
  5. It is concerned with strategies, structures, processes, people and culture
  1. It is about organizational effectiveness

The important aspects include:

  • Long-term effort
  • Led and supported by top management
  • Visioning processes-viable, coherent and shared picture
  • Empowerment processes
  • Learning processes
  • Problem solving processes
  • Ongoing collaborative management of the organizational culture
  • Intact work teams and other configurations
  • Cross- functional teams
  • Consultant- facilitator role
  • Theory and technology of applied behavioral science
  • Action research

OBJECTIVES OF ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

  1. Individual and group development.
  2. Development of organization culture and processes by constant interaction between members irrespective of levels of hierarchy.
  3. Inculcating team spirit.
  4. Empowerment of social side of employees.
  5. Focus of value development.
  6. Employee participation, problem-solving and decision-making at various levels.
  7. Evaluate present systems and introduction of new systems thereby achieving total system change if required.
  8. Transformation and achievement of competitive edge of the organization.
  9. Achieve organization growth by total human inputs by way of research and development, innovations, creativity and exploiting human talent.
  10. Behavior modification and self managed team as the basic unit of an organization

Comparison to Change Management

We see then that OD is similar to Change Management in the aspects of:

  • Focusing on improving the organization or something in the organization
  • Being executed through a sequence of planned actions, using certain industry accepted processes, and relying heavily on good leadership to be implemented effectively.

The main difference lies in the values, or what is considered the most important elements of the two approaches.

  1. Change Management often focuses very strongly on:
  • Cost
  • Quality
  • Schedule

     OD focuses on:

  • Behavioral Science values
  • Development
  • Human Potential
  • Participation
  • Transfer of skill

 

  1. So the difference between the way an OD consultant and a Change Management consultant would approach an organizational request for assistance, will be different from the start.

The CM consultant will, in the interest of cost and schedule, focus very specifically on the issue raised by the organization. The most efficient way to perform a diagnosis might, or might not be to do it collaboratively

OD compared to Organizational Change

Traditionally, Organizational Change can refer to any type of change, and it draws on certain methods that have been refined for specific types of organizational change. Skills transfer would focus only on the skills needed to institutionalize the desired changes, and not on the process of diagnosing, analyzing, designing a change intervention and implementation of that intervention.

OD focuses specifically on changes that enhance organizational effectiveness, by building its ability to solve its own problems and achieve its own goals, and it has a very strong focus on transferring the knowledge and the skill of the change process itself, to the organization

As per OB literature, organizational refers to "individual" as the unit of analysis whereas organization refers to "collective or wholesome" as the unit of analysis

Organizational change is a very broad area, dealing with all types of changes in organizations, large and small changes, fast and slow changes, periodic and continuous changes, painful and painless changes, planned and unplanned changes.

Organizational development is a specific approach to change; it involves carefully planned change, it involves slow rather than fast change, it attempts to make the change as painless as possible, and it is often an ongoing or continuous effort at improving the organization.

 

Q .6 How do organizations know when they should change? What cues should an organization look for?  Discuss in detail.

Ans:-

Any business in today´s fast-moving environment that is looking for the pace of change to slow is likely to be sorely disappointed. In fact, businesses should embrace change. Change is important for any organization because, without change, businesses would likely lose their competitive edge and fail to meet the needs of what most hope to be a growing base of loyal customers

Technology

Without change, business leaders still would be dictating correspondence to secretaries, editing their words and sending them back to the drawing board, wasting time for all involved. Change that results from the adoption of new technology is common in most organizations and while it can be disruptive at first, ultimately the change tends to increase productivity and service

Technology also has affected how we communicate. No longer do business people dial a rotary phone, get a busy signal, and try again and again and again until they get through. No longer do business people have to laboriously contact people, in person, to find out about other people who might be useful resources - they can search for experts online through search engines as well as through social media sites. Today´s burgeoning communication technology represents changes that allow organizations to learn more, more quickly, than ever before.

Customer Needs

Customers who were satisfied with conventional ovens many years ago are sometimes impatient with the microwave today. As the world evolves, customer needs change and grow, creating new demand for new types of products and services -- and opening up new areas of opportunity for companies to meet those needs.

The Economy

The economy can impact organizations in both positive and negative ways and both can be stressful. A strong economy and increasing demand for products and services will mean that companies must consider expansion that might involve the addition of staff and new facilities. These changes offer opportunities for staff, but also represent new challenges. A weak economy can create even more problems as companies find themselves needing to make difficult decisions that can impact employees´ salaries and benefits and even threaten their jobs. The ability to manage both ends of the spectrum are critical for organizations that want to maintain a strong brand and strong relationships with customers as well as employees.

Growth Opportunities

Change is important in organizations to allow employees to learn new skills, explore new opportunities and exercise their creativity in ways that ultimately benefit the organization through new ideas and increased commitment. Preparing employees to deal with these changes involves an analysis of the tools and training required to help them learn new skills. Training can be provided through traditional classroom settings or, increasingly, through online learning opportunities. Importantly, organizations need to do a good job of evaluating employees´ capabilities and then taking steps to fill the gaps between current skills and the skills required to respond to growth.

Challenging the Status Quo

Simply asking the question "Why?" can lead to new ideas and new innovations that can directly impact the bottom line. Organizations benefit from change that results in new ways of looking at customer needs, new ways of delivering customer service, new ways of strengthening customer interactions and new products that might attract new markets. New employees joining an organization are especially valuable because they can often point to areas of opportunity for improvement that those who have been long involved in the company might have overlooked. But even existing employees should be encouraged to question why things are done a certain way and look for new ways to get work done faster, better and with higher levels of quality and service.

What Causes Structural Change within an Organization?

Structural change within an organization might stem from internal or external factors. Efficient change management requires the ability to identify what causes structural change within an organization. The ability to identify the signs of oncoming organizational change can help you better prepare for the change and implement policies that will keep your company on a growth path.

Acquisitions

According to Organizational Change Management, acquiring or merging with another company has a profound effect on organizational structure. The deletion of duplicate departments manages cost, yet talent from both companies can be utilized in the resulting corporate structure. However, job functions will be altered to fit the business model of the company, and management positions may be eliminated as well.

Job Duplication

Multiple managers or executives within an organization may create the need for change, according to JobDig.com. Employees can either become frustrated with trying to please more than one manager, or employees may find ways to use opposing views by multiple managers to get what the employee needs. When employees encounter duplicate management positions, the structure of the organization needs to be altered to eliminate the excess positions and bring departments into line with the proper individual manager.

Marketplace Changes

As the marketplace changes, so do the structural needs of your organization. For example, as fuel prices rise, customers may begin to demand more fuel-efficient vehicles. If you own a car dealership known for selling large SUVs and vans, you may have to shift your focus to smaller and more fuel efficient cars. This requires bringing in sales people and service technicians accustomed to selling and working on these vehicles. Marketing then needs to change to target the car-buying public, and the old methods should be eliminated.

Process Changes

Changes to the way the company does business can cause structural changes. If your company was used to allowing departments to be autonomous, then a change to a centralized way of doing business will create changes in company structure. If a new department has been created to address a company demand, the company structure must change to accommodate the new group. For example, if the backlog of archived files becomes so large that an archiving department needs to be created, that can change the flow of information in your company and have a significant effect on corporate structure.

 

 

Q .7 What is an OD Intervention? Discuss the OD values necessary for dealing with individuals, team and organization.

Ans:-

The intervention is the procedure the OD consultant uses, after diagnosing an organizational situation and providing feedback to management, to address an organization problem or positive future.

OD interventions are sets of structured activities in which selected organizational units engage in a series of tasks which will lead to organizational improvement.

Organizational Development Tools are numerous and depend on the following:

1. The stage of OD Intervention

  1. The Intervention Level
  2. The stage of OD Intervention

This could be any of the following stages:

- Initial Diagnostic Meeting

- Detail Problem Design / Research Design (This is usually the Action Research)

- Hypothesis Formulation

- Data Gathering

- Data Analysis

- Result and Recommendation Presenting

- Action Planning

- Follow Up and Adjustments

All the above steps would warrant the usage of different tools.

  1. The Intervention Level

OD interventions can be done at different levels as below:

- Individual Level

- Team Level


- Group Level

- Organizational Level

- Process Interventions

- Strategic Interventions

Individual / Interpersonal Process

Individual / interpersonal process interventions aim at improving organizational performance by developing specific skills of individuals. Given its nature, these OD interventions are the most personalized of all, and probably the most widely used by organizations. The most common examples of this type of interventions are learning strategies, life transitions, mentoring, and interpersonal communications, among other

Laboratory Training Group (T-Groups)

  • Coaching
  • Mentoring
  • Self-Awareness Tools
  • Reflection
  • Training, Education and Development
  • Leadership Development

 

  • Multirater (360-Degree) Feedback
  • Job Design
  • Job Descriptions
  • Responsibility Charting
  • Policies Manual
  • Values Clarification and Value Integration
  • Conflict Management
  • Action Learning

 

Team Development and Group Processes Interventions

Team development and group processes interventions aim at improving different aspects of a group performance, such as goal setting, development of interpersonal relations among team members, role clarification and analysis, decision making, problem solving, and communities of practice, among other. One of the most important objective of team building interventions relies on improving interdependency of team members. The underlying premise is that the aggregated value of the team is much greater than any individual. According to Robbins (1994), Team building is applicable where group activities are interdependent. The objective is to improve the coordination efforts of members, which will result in increasing the team’s performance

  • Dialogue Sessions
  • Team Building
  • Team Development/ Effectiveness
  • Meeting Facilitation
  • Conflict Management/ Confrontation Meeting
  • Fishbowls
  • Strategic Alignment Assessment

 

Organizational interventions

  • Organization Design
  • Company-wide Survey
  • Learning Organization/Organizational Learning
  • Culture Change
  • Accountability and Reward Systems
  • Succession Planning
  • Valuing Differences/Diversity
  • Strategic planning, including Environmental Scanning and Scenario Planning
  • Mission, Vision, and Values Development
  • Large-Scale Interactive Events (LSIEs)
  • Open Systems Mapping
  • Future Search
  • Open Space Technology Meetings

Human Process Interventions

The following interventions deal with interpersonal relationships and group dynamics.

  • T Groups: The basic T Group brings ten to fifteen strangers together with a professional trainer to examine the social dynamics that emerge from their interactions.
  • Process Consultation: This intervention focuses on interpersonal relations and
  • Social dynamics occurring in work groups.
  • Third Party Interventions: This change method is a form of process consultation
  • Aimed at dysfunctional interpersonal relations in organizations.
  • Team Building: This intervention helps work groups become more effective in
  • Accomplishing tasks.

The following Interventions deal with human processes that are more system wide than individualistic or small-group oriented.

  • Organization Confrontation Meeting: This change method mobilize organization members to identify problems, set action targets, and begin working on problems.
  • Problems, set action targets, and begin working on problems.
  • Intergroup Relations: These interventions are designed to improve interactions among different groups or departments in organizations.
  • Large-group Interventions: These interventions involve getting abroad variety of stakeholders into a large meeting to clarify important values, to develop new ways of working, to articulate a new vision for the organization, or to solve pressing organizational problems.
  • Grid Organization Development: This normative intervention specifies a particular way to manage an organization.

Techno-Structural Interventions

These interventions deal with an organization’s technology (for examples its task methods and job design) and structure (for example, division of labor and hierarchy).

These interventions are rooted in the disciplines of engineering, sociology, and psychology and in the applied fields of socio-technical systems and organization design. Practitioners place emphasis both on productivity and human fulfillment.

  • Structural Design: This change process concerns the organization’s division of labour – how to specialize task performances. Diagnostic guidelines exist to determine which structure is appropriate for particular organizational environments, technologies, and conditions.
  • Downsizing: This intervention reduces costs and bureaucracy by decreasing the size of the organization through personnel layoffs, organization redesign, and outsourcing.
  • Re-engineering: This recent intervention radically redesigns the organization’s core work processes to create tighter linkage and coordination among the different tasks
  • Parallel Structures
  • High-involvement Organizations (HIO’s)
  • Total Quality Management
  • Work design: This refers to OD interventions aimed at creating jobs, and work groups that generate high levels of employee fulfilment and productivity.

Human Resource Management Interventions

  • Goal Setting: This change program involves setting clear and challenging goals. It attempts to improve organization effectiveness by establishing a better fit between personal and organizational objectives.
  • Performance Appraisal: This intervention is a systematic process of jointly assessing work-related achievements, strengths and weaknesses,
  • Reward Systems: This intervention involves the design of organizational rewards to improve employee satisfaction and performance.
  • Career Planning and development: It generally focuses on managers and professional staff and is seen as a way of improving the quality of their work life.
  • Managing workforce diversity: Important trends, such as the increasing number of women, ethnic minorities, and physically and mentally challenged people in the workforce, require a more flexible set of policies and practices.
  • Employee Wellness: These interventions include employee assistance programs (EAPs) and stress management.

Strategic Interventions

These interventions link the internal functioning of the organization to the larger environment and transform the organization to keep pace with changing conditions.

  • Integrated Strategic Change: It argues that business strategies and organizational systems must be changed together in response to external and internal disruptions. A strategic change plan helps members manage the transition between a current strategy and organization design and the desired future strategic orientation.
  • Trans organization development: This intervention helps organizations to enter into alliances, partnerships and joint ventures to perform tasks or solve problems that are too complex for single organizations to resolve
  • Merger and Acquisition Integration: This intervention describes how OD practitioners can assist two or more organizations to form a new entity.
  • Culture Change: This intervention helps organizations to develop cultures (behaviours, values, beliefs and norms) appropriate to their strategies and environments.
  • Self-designing organizations: This change program helps organizations gain the capacity to alter themselves fundamentally. It is a highly participative process, involving multiple stakeholders in setting strategic directions and designing and implementing appropriate structures and processes.
  • Organization learning and knowledge management.

Top values associated with O. D. today:

  1. Increasing effectiveness and efficiency
  2. Creating openness in communication
  3. Empowering employees to act
  4. Enhancing productivity
  5. Promoting organizational participation

 

Values considered to be most important:

  • Empowering employees to act
  • Creating openness in communication
  • Facilitating ownership of process and outcome
  • Promoting a culture of collaboration
  • Promoting inquiry and continuous learning

 

 

Q .8 Explain different kinds of OD interventions specially designed to improve team performance. Explain the human process approach to OD.

Ans:-

Team Development and Group Processes Interventions

Team development and group processes interventions aim at improving different aspects of a group performance, such as goal setting, development of interpersonal relations among team members, role clarification and analysis, decision making, problem solving, and communities of practice, among other. One of the most important objective of team building interventions relies on improving interdependency of team members. The underlying premise is that the aggregated value of the team is much greater than any individual. According to Robbins (1994), Team building is applicable where group activities are interdependent. The objective is to improve the coordination efforts of members, which will result in increasing the team’s performance

 

  • Dialogue Sessions
  • Team Building
  • Team Development/ Effectiveness
  • Meeting Facilitation
  • Conflict Management/ Confrontation Meeting
  • Fishbowls
  • Strategic Alignment Assessment

 

As an approach to changing organizations, OD has several distinguishing characteristics:

1) It usually involves action research, which means collecting data about a group, department, or organization, and feeding the information back to the employees so they can analyze it and develop hypotheses about what the problems in the unit might be.
2) It applies behavioral science knowledge to improve the organization’s effectiveness.
3) It changes the organization in a particular direction – towards improved problem solving responsiveness, quality of work, and effectiveness

There are four basic categories of OD applications: human process, techno-structural, human resource management, and strategic applications. Action research – getting the employees themselves to collect the required data and to design and implement the solutions is the basis of all four.

  • Human Process applications:

Human Process OD techniques generally aim first at improving human relations skills. The goal is to give employees the insight and skills required to analyze their own and others behavior more effectively, so they can then solve interpersonal and inter-group problems. These problems might include, for instance conflict among employees, or a lack of interdepartmental communications. Sensitivity training is perhaps the most widely used technique in this category. Team building and survey research are others.

  • Sensitivity laboratory or t-group training’s (the t is for training) basic aim is to increase the participant’s insight into his or her own behavior by encouraging an open expression of feelings in the trainer-guided t-group. Typically, 10 to 15 people meet, usually away from the job, with no specific agenda. Instead, the focus is on the feelings and emotions of the members in the group at the meeting. The facilitator encourages participants to portray themselves as they are in the group rather than in terms of past behaviors. The t-group’s success depends on the feedback each person gets from the others and on the participants willingness to be candid. The process requires a climate of psychological safety so participants feel safe enough to expose their feelings.
  • T-group training is controversial. Its personal nature suggests that participation should be voluntary. Some view it as unethical because you can consider participation suggested by one’s superior as really voluntary. Others argue that it can actually be a dangerous exercise led by an inadequately prepared trainer.
  • Survey research, another human process OD technique, requires that employees throughout the organization complete attitude surveys. The facilitator then uses those data as a basis for problem analysis and action planning. In general, such surveys are a convenient way to unfreeze a company’s management and employees. They provide a comparative graphic illustration of the fact that the organization does have problems to solve.
  • Techno-structural Interventions:

OD practitioners are involved in changing firms’ structures, methods, and job designs, using an assortment of techno-structural interventions. For example, in a formal structural change program, the employees collect data on the company’s existing organizational structure; they then jointly redesign and implement a new one.

  • HRM Applications:

 OD practitioners use action research to enable employees to analyze and change their firm’s human resources practices. Targets of change here might include the performance appraisal and reward systems, as well as installing diversity programs.

  • Strategic Interventions:

 These types of interventions are designed to change various characteristics of organization settings such as employees, technologies, products among others by focusing on the organization’s interaction with the external environment. According to (McNamara, 2009), these types of interventions are applied mostly in cultural change and strategic planning et cetera

 

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Please read the case study given below and answer questions given at the end.

                                                           

 

 

 

 CASE STUDY 

CROSS – TRAINING EMILY

             Emily, who has the reputation of being an excellent worker, is a machine operator in a furniture manufacturing plant that has been growing at a rate of 15% to 20% each year for the past decade. New additions have been built onto the plant, new plants opened in the region, workers hired, new product lines developed, lots of expansion, but with no significant change in overall approach to operations, plant lay-out, ways of managing workers, or in the design processes. Plant operations as well as organizational culture are rooted in traditional Western management practices and logic, based largely on the notion of mass production and economies of scale. Over the past four years, the company has been growing in number and variety of products produced and in market penetration; however, profitability has been flattening and showing signs of decline. As a result, management is beginning to focus more on production operations (internal focus) rather than  new market strategies, new products, and new market segments (external focus), in developing their strategic plans. They hope to get manufacturing costs down, improve consistency of quality and ability to meet delivery times better, while decreasing inventory and increasing flexibility.

            One of several new programs initiated by management in this effort to improve flexibility and lower costs was to get workers cross-trained. However, when a representative from Human Resources explained this program to Emily’s supervisor, Jim, he reluctantly agreed to cross-train most of his workers, but NOT Emily.

            Jim explained to the Human Resources person that Emily works on a machine that is very complex and not easy to effectively operate.  He has tried many workers on it, tried to train them, but Emily is the only one that can consistently get product through the machine that is within specification and still meet production schedules. When anyone else tries to operate the machine, which performs a key function in the manufacturing process, it either ends up being a big bottle neck or producing excessive waste, which creates a lot of trouble for Jim.

            Jim goes on to explain t

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