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Title Name Amity Solve Assignment PGDM HA 1st Sem for Hospital Information System
University AMITY
Service Type Assignment
Course PGDM-(Hospital-Administration)
Semister Semester-I Cource: PGDM-(Hospital-Administration)
Short Name or Subject Code Hospital Information System
Commerce line item Type Semester-I Cource: PGDM-(Hospital-Administration)
Product Assignment of PGDM-(Hospital-Administration) Semester-I (AMITY)

Solved Assignment


  Questions :-

                                                                                                   Amity PGDM In Hospital Administration For Hospital Information System 1 Sem

Assignment A

1.         Discuss the societal challenges of IT.

2.         Discuss about system software          

3.         Explain the structure of database.     

4.         Explain about challenges of E-health.           

5.         Explain the concept of networking hospital information system      

6.         Discuss in detail about medical audit.           

7.         Explain about the business use of internet.    

8.         Explain the programming language of operating system.

 

 

Assignment B

Case Detail:

1.         Explain the business use of Internet. 

2.         Describe the evaluation of HIS.

3.         Explain the process of medical audit.

 

 

 

Assignment C

Question No.  1           Marks - 10

Information is

Options          

  1. Data   
  2. Processed Data          
  3. Manipulated input      
  4. Computer output

 

Question No.  2           Marks - 10

Data by itself is not useful unless       

Options          

  1. It is massive   
  2. It is processed to obtain information 
  3. It is collected from diverse sources   
  4. It is properly stated

 

Question No.  3           Marks - 10

For taking decisions data must be     

Options          

  1. Very accurate 
  2. Massive          
  3. Processed correctly    
  4. Collected from diverse sources

 

Question No.  4           Marks - 10

Strategic information is needed for   

 Options          

  1. Day to day operations
  2. Meet government requirements         
  3. Long range planning  
  4. Short range planning

 

Question No.  5           Marks - 10

Tactical information is needed for     

 Options          

  1. Day to day operations
  2. Meet government requirements         
  3. Long range planning
  4. Short range planning

 

Question No.  6           Marks - 10

Operational information is needed for           

 Options           

  1. Day to day operations
  2. Meet government requirements
  3. Long range planning
  4. Short range planning

 

Question No.  7           Marks – 10

In a hospital information system the following type of information is strategic

 Options          

  1. Opening a new children’s ward         
  2. Data on births and deaths      
  3. Preparing patients’ bill           
  4. Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

 

Question No.  8           Marks - 10

In in a hospital information system the following type of information is tactical

 Options          

  1. Opening a new children’s’ ward        
  2. Data on births and deaths      
  3. Preparing patients’ bill           
  4. Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

 

Question No.  9           Marks - 10

In in a hospital information system the following follow type of information is operational

 Options          

  1. Opening a new children’s’ ward        
  2. Data on births and deaths      
  3. Preparing patients’ bill           
  4. Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

 

Question No.  10         Marks - 10

In in a hospital information system the following type of information is statutory stat

 Options          

  1. Opening a new children’s’ ward        
  2. Data on births and deaths      
  3. Preparing patients’ bill           
  4. uying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

 

Question No.  11         Marks - 10

Volume of strategic information is    

 Options          

  1. Condensed     
  2. Detailed         
  3. Summarized   
  4. Irrelevant

 

Question No.  12         Marks - 10

Volume of tactical information is      

 Options          

  1. Condensed     
  2. Detailed         
  3. Summarized   
  4. relevant

 

Question No.  13         Marks - 10

Tactical information is           

 Options          

  1. Haphazard      
  2. Well organized           
  3. Unstructured  
  4. Partly structured

 

Question No.  14         Marks - 10

Organizations are divided into departments because

 Options          

  1. it is convenient to do so
  2. each department can be assigned a specific functional responsibility
  3. it provides opportunities for promotion
  4. it is done by every organization

 

Question No.  15         Marks - 10

Organizations have hierarchical structures because   

 Options          

  1. it is convenient to do so         
  2. it is done by every organization
  3. specific responsibilities can be assigned for each level          
  4. it provides opportunities for promotions

 

Question No.  16         Marks - 10

The quality of information which does not hide any unpleasant information is known as

 Options          

  1. Complete        
  2. Trustworthy   
  3. Relevant         
  4. None of the above     

 

Question No.  17         Marks - 10

The quality of information which is based on understanding user needs      

 Options          

  1. Complete        
  2. Trustworthy   
  3. Relevant         
  4. None of the above

 

Question No.  18         Marks - 10

Decision support systems are essential for     

 Options          

  1. Day–to-day operation of an organization.     
  2. Providing statutory information.       
  3. Top level strategic decision making.  
  4. Ensuring that organizations are profitable.

 

Question No.  19         Marks - 10

Decision support systems are used by           

 Options          

  1. Line managers.           
  2. Top-level managers.   
  3. Middle level managers.          
  4. System users

 

Question No.  20         Marks - 10

Data mining can not be done if         

 Options          

  1. operational data has not been archived          
  2. earlier management decisions are not available         
  3. the organization is large         
  4. all processing had been only batch processing

 

Question No.  21         Marks - 10

Data mining requires  

 Options           

  1. large quantities of operational data stored over a period of time
  2. lots of tactical data    
  3. several tape drives to store archival data       
  4. large mainframe computers

 

Question No.  22         Marks - 10

A management information system is one which      

 Options          

  1. is required by all managers of an organization           
  2. processes data to yield information of value in tactical management
  3. provides operational information       
  4. allows better management of organizations

 

Question No.  23         Marks - 10

Batch processing is used when          

 Options          

  1. response time should be short
  2. data processingis to be carried out at periodic intervals        
  3. transactions are in batches     
  4. transactions do not occur periodically

 

Question No.  24         Marks - 10

Online transaction processing is used because           

 Options          

  1. it is efficient   
  2. disk is used for storing files   
  3. it can handle random queries.
  4. Transactions occur in batches

 

Question No.  25         Marks - 10

Information systems are an outcome of culture, politics, work flows, standard operating procedures and.

 Options          

  1. computer professionals.         
  2. organizational structure          
  3. economic need.          
  4. the internet

 

Question No.  26         Marks - 10

E-commerce and the use of Internet technology are driving the move         

 Options          

  1. fiber-optic networks worldwide.       
  2. multinational organizations.   
  3. satellite communications systems.     
  4. digital firms.

 

Question No.  27         Marks - 10

The interaction between information technology and organizations is very complex and is influenced by a great many mediating factors, including the organization structure, standard operating procedures, politics, culture, management decisions and:   

 Options          

  1. the surrounding environment.
  2. the economic basis of the company   
  3. the microeconomic definition of the specific organization    
  4. the economic basis of the company

 

Question No.  28         Marks - 10

Digital firms require:

 Options          

  1. massive computer capacities. 
  2. deep pockets. 
  3. exceptionally flexible transaction processing system 
  4. networks that bypass traditional distribution channel

 

Question No.  29         Marks - 10

Members of the organization use intranets to create:

 Options          

  1. a collaborative environment.  
  2. new services for customers.   
  3. an organization requiring fewer middle managers     
  4. better operations control.

 

Question No.  30         Marks - 10

Internet-based systems are more vulnerable to penetration by outsiders than private networks because:    

 Options          

  1. so many people see each message.     
  2. most Internet companies do not have adequate firewal        
  3. the Internet was designed as an open environment.  
  4. a computer in the home environment is insecure.

 

Question No.  31         Marks - 10

Which of the following is not a technology driver for an information system?        

 Options          

  1. enterprise applications
  2. object technologies    
  3. collaborative technologies      
  4. networks and the Internet

 

Question No.  32         Marks - 10

An information system that supports the planning and assessment needs of executive management is       

 Options          

  1. MIS    
  2. TPS    
  3. ERP    
  4. none of the above

 

Question No.  33         Marks - 10

Which one of the following is not a business driver for an information system?      

 Options          

  1. business process redesign       
  2. knowledge asset management           
  3. proliferation of networks and the Internet    
  4. security and privacy

 

Question No.  34         Marks - 10

Which one of the following desirable characteristics of health information is THE LEAST IMPORTANT in a crisis context           

 Options          

  1. Precision         
  2. Timeliness      
  3. accuracy/validity        
  4. Cost

 

Question No.  35         Marks - 10

An ...................... is a set of processes and procedures that transform data into information and knowledge.        

 Options          

  1. information system    
  2. Knowledge system    
  3. Database system        
  4. Computer system       

 

Question No.  36         Marks - 10

What among the following are the primary characteristics that information must process?

 i) Relevance             ii) Availability iii) Timeliness          iv) Accuracy         

 Options          

  1. Only i, ii, and iii         
  2. Only ii, iii and iv        
  3. Only i, iii and iv         
  4. All i, ii, iii, and iv

 

Question No.  37         Marks - 10

The .................... is defined as a set of activities performed across the organization creating as output of value to the customer.        

 Options          

  1. development process  
  2. business process         
  3. quality process           
  4. customer focus

 

Question No.  38         Marks - 10

(Master files are normally stored in The

 Options          

  1. a hard disk
  2. a tape  
  3. CD – ROM    
  4. computer’s main memory

 

Question No.  39         Marks - 10

Every record stored in a Master file has a key field because

 Options          

  1. it is the most important field  
  2. it acts as a unique identification of record     
  3. it is the key to the database   
  4. it is a very concise field

 

Question No.  40         Marks - 10

Data mining is used to aid in 

 Options          

  1. operational management        
  2. analyzing past decision made by managers
  3. detecting patterns in operational data
  4. retrieving archival data
  Answers :-

                                                                                                        Hospital Information System

Assignment A

  1. 1. Discuss the societal challenges of IT.

ANS- The use of IT in business has had major impact on society, & therefore raises moral problems within the areas of crime, privacy, individuality, surroundings, health & operating conditions. the complete world is currently altogether engrossed within the data revolution. With the arrival of the net and connected Technologies, all barriers are countermined and also the world has become one massive international Village wherever doing business across the planet has become as straightforward as doing business with ones neighbours living not far away. data Revolution has dramatically exaggerated our ability to accumulate, manipulate, store and communicate data and conduct business although hyper-technology and open systems design of the net. whereas this provides all the facilities to conduct business swimmingly and quickly it´s conjointly created a threat to the users of link to have interaction in moral and unethical business practices electronically anyplace within the world. There area unit moral Philosophies that the majority religions mention, moral values and models that guide the ethics of conducting business. These values apply to data even a lot of thus, as currently data terribly|is extremely|is incredibly} simply on the market and mis-utilization of this data ends up in very serious consequences. This paper appearance at {the moral|the moral} and social group dimensions of IT and ethical principles governing IT and at last however it´s effecting the lives of everyday man, particularly within the privacy realm

  1. Discuss about system software

ANS- System software system may be a form of trojan horse that´s designed to run a computer’s hardware and application programs. If we predict of the pc system as a stratified model, the system software system is that the interface between the hardware and user applications.

The OS (OS) is that the known example of system software system. The OS manages all the opposite programs in an exceedingly pc.

Other samples of system software system and what every does:

  • The BIOS (basic input/output system) gets the pc system started when you switch it on and manages the information flow between the OS and connected devices like the fixed disk, video adapter, keyboard, mouse, and printer.
  • The boot program masses the OS into the computer´s main memory or random access memory (RAM).
  • An computer program takes basic pc directions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer´s processor will use to perform its basic operations.
  • A utility program controls a selected form of device that´s connected to your pc, like a keyboard or a mouse. the driving force program converts the additional general input/output directions of the OS to messages that the device sort will perceive.
  • According to some definitions, system software system conjointly includes system utilities, like the disk defragmenter and System Restore, and development tools like compilers and debuggers.
  1. Explain the structure of database

Fields, Records and Tables

Ans: The first factor you wish to place confidence in area unit the fields you´re reaching to use. Fields area unit the classes of knowledge that your info goes to store. as an example, our college offers out deserves to students WHO have worked well. to supply a deserves info, you´d embody fields like Student Name, Tutor cluster, Subject, Date, Reason for benefit, Teacher, etc.

Once you´ve selected the fields you´re reaching to use, you´ll begin coming into the information. All the knowledge for one person or factor, i.e. the knowledge for all fields gathered along, is termed a record. within the deserves info example, therefore, every student WHO had a benefit would have a record within the info.

All the records area unit then gathered along in an exceedingly table (or the file, if you´re employing a flat-file database).

Field sorts

Most info programs enable, or rather need, that you simply offer every field in your info a sort. the sphere sort indicates what sort of info goes to be keep therein field. Common field sorts are:

  • whole numbers
  • decimal numbers
  • text
  • dates

Boolean (or yes/no)

Some additional advanced databases conjointly allow you to store multimedia system objects, like footage or sounds.

Field sorts kind a basic sort of validation therein the info won´t enable you to enter, say, text in an exceedingly date field. They conjointly facilitate sorting, because the info "knows" additional regarding the contents of the sphere. If you were to store numbers in an exceedingly text field, as an example, and so kind them, eleven would precede two as a result of the character one comes before two, and therefore the numbers would be sorted in alphabetical order.

For our deserves info, then, we´d use text for the name, tutor cluster, reason, teacher and subject, and a date field for the date of the benefit.

Key Field/Primary Key

In order to supply a logical structure for your info, there ought to be one thing distinctive regarding every record in your info. this can usually be the contents of 1 explicit field, referred to as the key field. as an example, if you had a automotive info, then you may use the identification number because the distinctive key, as no 2 cars ought to have identical one.

Sometimes you can´t establish one key field in your info table. within the deserves info, as an example, there would be nobody factor a couple of benefit that may be distinctive. It couldn´t be the date, as a result of there can be quite one benefit given per day. It couldn´t be the teacher or the scholar, as a result of that may mean they might solely offer or receive one benefit ever. It´s even unlikely to be the explanation, as some academics area unit simply reaching to enter things like "Good work!".

In cases like this, you´ll produce what´s referred to as a compound key - a mixture of fields that´s distinctive. This may be any range of field, however ought to be the minimum range needed to made a singular description of the record. Within the deserves info, as an example, you may opt for a mixture of student, date and subject. A student would possibly get quite one benefit, ever. He/she would possibly get quite one for a selected subject, and presumably ever 2 on identical day, however it´s most likely unlikely that he or she is going to get 2 deserves on identical day for identical subject.

Indexes

The final factor you´ll produce for your fields is Associate in Nursing index. Once you´ve started mistreatment your info, the information will be keep within the table in any order, most likely the order during which you entered. If you´ve got plenty of records in your info, then sorting and looking may take an extended time. Associate in Nursing index is simply just like the index in an exceedingly book - it´s an additional bit additional on to the info to assist the info program notice records quickly. you´re discouraged from assortment each field in your info as there´s Associate in Nursing overhead concerned once making the records, however you ought to index all key fields and any fields that you simply frequently use to look or kind.

4 Explain about challenges of E-health..

Ans: Major challenges of E-health are-

  1. Guaranteeing information security and information protection was highlighted because the biggest challenge. Patients and aid professionals alike ought to feel 100 per cent assured regarding the confidentiality of digital health systems.
  2. Healthy investment. it had been discovered that EU Governments and personal aid suppliers square measure forecasted to take a position a staggering €12.7 billion by the year 2018 into eHealth systems. The returns square measure foretold to be even larger.
  3. Partaking and coaching doctors, nurses and different aid professionals, within the new technologies square measure essential. Additionally as making a digitally savvy hands, patient populations have to be compelled to be educated to confirm that the potential of economical aid systems square measure maximised.
  4. Apps for aid, of that there square measure quite a hundred,000 currently obtainable, ought to be higher absorbed into aid systems. They additionally ought to be rationalised, standardised and simplified to help price and usefulness.
  5. Yearning for and recruiting new IT talent. The NHS has already started a significant digital health recruiting drive - https://digitalhealth.blog.gov.uk/2015/03/25/we-do-health-come-join-us/
  6. Together! By pooling data and resources across surgeries, hospitals and countries integrated eHealth systems may be developed quicker and for the nice of all. Tweets discovered that delegates at the EU eHealth Week were keen advocates of ‘sharing best apply.’
  7. Aid professionals and a patient-centric imperative have to be compelled to be at the centre of all digital innovation.

5.Explain the concept of networking hospital information system

Ans. A hospital system (HIS) is a component of health information processing that focuses in the main on the administrational desires of hospitals. In several implementations, a HIS could be a comprehensive, integrated system designed to manage all the aspects of a hospital´s operation, like medical, body, financial, and legal problems and also the corresponding process of services.

Hospital system design has 3 main levels, Central Government Level, Territory Level, and Patient Carrying Level. typically all kinds of hospital system (HIS) are supported in client-server architectures for networking and process. Most work positions for HIS are presently resident sorts. Mobile computing began with wheeled computer stands. currently pill computers and smartphone applications are used.

Enterprise HIS with web architectures are with success deployed publically attention Territories and are wide adopted by more entities. The Hospital system (HIS) could be a province-wide initiative designed to boost access to patient data through a central electronic system. HIS’s goal is to contour patient data flow and its accessibility for doctors and different health care suppliers. These changes in commission can improve patient care quality and patient safety over time.

The patient carries system record patient data, patient laboratory take a look at results, and patient’s doctor data. Doctors will access simply person data, take a look at results, and former prescriptions. Patient schedule organization and early warning systems will give by connected systems.

Hospital data Systems give a typical supply of knowledge a couple of patient’s health history. The system ought to keep information in secure place and controls WHO will reach the information in bound circumstances. These systems enhance the flexibility of health care professionals to coordinate care by providing a patient’s health data and visit history at the place and time that it´s required. Patient’s laboratory take a look at data additionally visual results like X-ray could approachable from professionals. HIS give internal and external communication among health care suppliers.

The HIS could management organizations, that is Hospital in these case, official documentations, money state of affairs reports, personal information, utilities and stock amounts, additionally keeps in secure place patients data, patients medical record, prescriptions, operations and laboratory take a look at results.

The HIS could shield organizations, handwriting error, buy in issues, conflict of planning personnel, official documentation errors like tax preparations errors.

  1. 6. Discuss in detail about medical audit.    

Ans. Quality health care relies on correct and complete clinical documentation within the anamnesis. The most effective thanks to improve your clinical documentation and therefore the keep of your health care organization is thru anamnesis audits. They’re necessary to see areas that need enhancements and corrections.

The goals of Associate in Nursing audit square measure to supply economical and higher delivery of care and to enhance the money health of your medical supplier. Anamnesis audits specifically target and measure procedural and designation code choice as determined by doctor documentation. Once square measure as of weakness are disclosed through Associate in nursing audit, you´ll be able to gift the audit findings and establish opportunities for coaching in your health care organization.

Medical auditing entails conducting internal or external reviews of cryptography accuracy, policies, Associate in nursing procedures to make sure you´re running an economical and hopefully liability-free operation.

There square measure several reasons to perform medical audits:

  • To confirm outliers before giant payers notice them in their claims code and request an enclosed audit be done.
  • To shield against deceitful claims and asking activity
  • To reveal whether or not there´s variation from national averages as a result of inappropriate cryptography, short documentation, or lost revenue.
  • To facilitate establish and proper downside areas before insurance or government payers challenge inappropriate cryptography
  • To facilitate forestall governmental investigational auditors like recovery audit contractors (RACs) or zone program integrity contractors (ZPICs) from sound at your door
  • To remedy under coding, unhealthy unbundling habits, and code overuse and to bill befittingly for documented procedures
  • To establish compensation deficiencies and opportunities for acceptable compensation.
  • To stop the utilization of superannuated or incorrect codes for procedures
  • To verify ICD-10-CM and electronic health record (EHR) purposeful use readiness

7.Explain about the business use of internet.

ANS- The business uses of web are:

  • Reach a worldwide audience The web could be a worldwide network permitting you to succeed in individuals even terribly high-ticket advertising couldn´t.
  • Provide product info Give customers direct access to information concerning your merchandise. Some individuals value more highly to find out about merchandise on their own. the web has associate degree unexceeded ability to create info concerning your company´s merchandise or services on the market to potential customers. It conjointly provides the knowledge once the client desires it (now).
  • Save on literature costs Providing the knowledge on-line reduces the necessity to print and mail product literature, thereby leading to vital value reductions.
  • Provide quick access to client service representatives Human interaction can´t be entirely replaced by even the simplest graphical interface. once customers have a matter, or would love to talk with someone, offer an inventory of contacts and phone numbers or enable them to send e-mail on to a client service representative, requesting that they be contacted..
  • Inexpensively create/augment your company image It is straightforward and cheap to outline your image on the web, whether or not you´re a one-person-company or an outsized corporation.
  • Recruit new employees Many firms (now nearly all), offer current info concerning job openings and attract gifted individuals from places they might not reach otherwise.
  • Provide your service on-line many merchandise and services are often delivered over the web. Since the group action is electronic, request and internal control are often machine-controlled, increasing accuracy and reducing your accounting and merchandise storage prices.
  • Eliminate the middleman Middlemen exist in some industries wherever there are barriers to direct contact between producers and customers. The web could be a vehicle for removing these barriers. This lowers costs for customers and will increase profits for producers.
  • On-line commerce some merchandise and services are similar temperament for sales on-line. Ascension during this space can occur as secure master card transactions become (are now) standardized. Potency of shipping and delivery strategies for laborious product is vital for usually impatient web shoppers.
  1. Explain the programming language of operating system.

Ans. The UNIX operating system Kernel and most OS utilities, what you´d decision the OS betting on however academic you would like to be, are written in C.

Windows uses a kernel written in C, with most utilities and applications written in C++

Both iOS and OSX (the "Apple OS"), are written in an exceedingly combination of C and Objective-C, C is employed for the philosopher kernel and alternative lower levels. Objective-C is employed for the upper levels.

Android is constructed on prime of UNIX operating system, and an outsized portion of it´s written in C. There are swaths of code written in C++ tho´. Also, most of the applying framework (the stuff you´d decision golem and virtually everything you see on screen) is written in Java.

Generally speaking, C was created aboard operational system| operating system| OS} and may be a fantastic language for writing things like operating systems. Altogether of my on top of examples, assembly is employed for performance-critical things. However, the whole OS isn´t written in assembly as a result of the ensuing code would be unportable and onerous to take care of.

Assignment B

 Case Detail:

  1. Explain the business use of Internet.

ANS – The business uses of net are:

  • Reach a worldwide audience The net could be a worldwide network permitting you to achieve individuals even terribly valuable advertising couldn´t.
  • Provide product data Give customer’s direct access to information concerning your merchandise. Some individuals value more highly to study merchandise on their own. the web has associate degree unexceeded ability to form data concerning your company´s merchandise or services on the market to potential customers. It additionally provides the data once the client needs it (now).
  • Save on literature costs providing the data on-line reduces the necessity to print and mail product literature, thereby leading to vital price reductions.
  • Provide easy accessibility to client service representative’s Human interaction can´t be completely replaced by even the most effective graphical interface. once customers have a matter, or would really like to talk with someone, give a listing of contacts and phone numbers or enable them to send e-mail on to a client service representative, requesting that they be contacted..
  • Inexpensively create/augment your company image It is simple and cheap to outline your image on the web, whether or not you´re a one-person-company or an oversized corporation.
  • Recruit new employees Many corporations (now nearly all), give current data concerning job openings and attract gifted individuals from places they may not reach otherwise.
  • Provide your service on- line many merchandise and services will be delivered over the web. Since the dealings is electronic, charge and internal control will be machine-driven, increasing accuracy and reducing your accounting and products storage prices.
  • Eliminate the middleman Middlemen exist in some industries wherever there are barriers to direct contact between producers and customers. The web could be a vehicle for removing these barriers. This lowers costs for customers and will increase profits for producers.
  • On-line commerce some merchandise and services are like minded for sales on-line. Ascent during this space can occur as secure master card transactions become (are now) standardized. Potency of shipping and delivery strategies for arduous merchandise is very important for generally impatient net shoppers.
  1. Describe the evaluation of HIS.

ANS-1960s: the most health care drivers during this era were health care and health care. The IT drivers were dearly-won mainframes and storage. As a result of computers and storage were therefore giant and dearly-won, hospitals usually shared a mainframe. The principal applications arising during this setting were shared hospital accounting systems.

1970s: one in every of the most health care drivers during this era was the requirement to try to to a much better job act between departments (ADT, order communications, and results review) and also they would like for separate division systems (e.g., clinical research laboratory, pharmacy). Computers were currently sufficiently little to be put in during a single department while not environmental controls. As a result, division systems proliferated. Sadly, these transactional systems, embedded in individual departments, were usually islands unto themselves.

1980s: health care drivers were heavily tied to DRGs and compensation. For the primary time, hospitals required to drag important data from each clinical and monetary systems so as to be reimbursed. At a similar time, personal computers and widespread, non-traditional package applications had entered the market, as had rising networking solutions. The result was that hospitals began to integrate applications so monetary and clinical systems may confer with one another during a restricted approach.

1990s: during this decade, competition and consolidation drove health care, at the side of the requirement to integrate hospitals, providers, and managed care. From AN IT perspective, hospitals currently had access to broad, distributed computing systems and strong networks. And then we have a tendency to created integrated delivery network (IDN)-like integration, as well as the impetus to integrate information and reportage.

2000s: the most health care drivers were additional integration and also the beginnings of outcomes-based compensation. We have a tendency to currently had enough technology and side clinical applications put in to create a significant run at business, time period clinical call support.

  1. 3. Explain the process of medical audit. Solve by www.solvezone.in

ANS-MEDICAL AUDIT COMMITTEE

Medical audit committee ought to encompass hospital consultants, WHO ar committed to Medical audit.

The committee ought to meet once during a month and submit the report back to medical superintendent (MS) as confidential.

It ought to be well-grooved of

  • Senior clinical adviser Chairman
  • Consultants from involved clinical depts. Members
  • Representative of MS Member
  • Medical record officer Member Secy.

PROCESS FOR MEDICAL AUDIT

STAGE1. getting ready FOR AUDIT

  1. Involving users
  2. choosing a subject
  3. shaping the aim
  4. Planning
  5. 1. INVOLVING USERS
  • The focus of any audit project should be those receiving care.
  • Users is real collaborators, instead of simply sources of information.
  • The issues of users is known from varied sources, including:
  • letters containing comments or complaints
  • crucial incident reports
  • individual patients’ stories or feedback from focus teams
  • direct observation of care
  • direct conversations.
  1. choosing a subject
  • Topic ought to be of concern to service users and has potential to enhance service user ‘outcomes’.
  • It ought to be of clinical concern (e.g. Associate in Nursing acknowledged variation in clinical apply, speculative procedures, advanced management).
  • It ought to be financially necessary (either quite common and/or terribly expensive).
  • It ought to be of native and/or national importance (e.g. a Department of Health initiative).It ought to be much viable (e.g. is measured and you may be able to implement modification or impact the implementation of change).
  • There ought to be new analysis proof offered on the subject.
  • E.g.
  • the incidence of wound infection following rupture repair
  1. shaping the aim g.
  • to enhance the transfusion processes among the trust
  • to extend the proportion of patients with cardiovascular disease whose force per unit area is controlled
  • to make sure that each child has access to protection against contagious disease, tetanus, pertussis, acute anterior poliomyelitis before six months getting on.
  1. designing
  • Involve ALL the individuals involved
  • Time and resources
  • Access the proof
  • information assortment instrument
  • Methodology
  • Pilot
  • Report and action
  • Re-audit of these ought to be documented

STAGE 2. 1. shaping CRITERIA

  • The audit criteria can offer an announcement on what ought to be happening. • the standards can set the minimum acceptable performance for those criteria. • the factors and standards should be
  • Specific – clear, comprehensible
  • Measurable
  • Achievable
  • Relevant – to the aims of the audit
  • Theoretically sound – supported current analysis.

EXAMPLE Audit title- the incidence of wound infection following rupture repair Criteria- there ought to be no wound infection in such cases. Standard- ninety fifth, i.e. apply is satisfactory if but five-hitter of cases have wound infection.

The basic varieties and sources of criteria:

  • Statistical (empirical) criteria
  • Normative (consensus) criteria
  • Optimal care (general consensus)
  • Essential (critical)
  • Scientific (validated) criteria.

STAGE 3. measure LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE

  1. information assortment
  2. information analysis
  3. comparison with standards set
  4. Dissemination of feedback findings
  1. 1. information assortment
  • Data is collected from laptop keep information, case notes/medical records, surveys , questionnaires, interviews, Focus teams, Prospective recording of specific information.
  • The careful choice of Associate in nursing applicable information assortment tool is additionally necessary.
  • don´t attempt to collect too several things, keep it straightforward and short.
  • Continually conduct alittle pilot study.
  • The dependability {of information|of knowledge|of information} may also be improved by providing applicable coaching in data assortment for the person enterprise this task.
  • make sure that your information is keep in such the simplest way that it´s each secure and conforms to legal needs.
  1. Information ANALYSIS
  • The following approaches is also employed in analysing information descriptive statistics applied math tests analysis
  • once analysing information, it´s tried to succeed in conclusions regarding the final pattern of actual apply.
  1. comparison WITH STANDARDS SET

Results could prove most meaty if following shares are calculated:

  • percentage of cases meeting every commonplace.
  • share of cases not meeting every commonplace
  • share of cases thought-about non-applicable
  • share of applicable cases meeting every commonplace
  • share of applicable cases not meeting every commonplace.
  1. DISSEMINATION OF FEEDBACK FINDINGS

it´s necessary that each one of the key stakeholders are created awake to the findings of the project and are given a chance to touch upon them. A mix of passive feedback (written information) and active feedback (discussion of findings) is desirable once human activity the findings of project.

STAGE 4. creating enhancements

  1. characteristic barriers to vary
  2. Implementing modification.
  3. characteristic BARRIERS to vary

Fear

Lack of understanding

Low morale

Poor communication

Culture

Pushing too onerous

agreement not gained

IDENTIFYING BARRIERS to vary

Some strategies are • Interviews of key employees and/ or users • Discussion at a team meeting • Observation of patterns of labor • Identification of the care pathway • expedited team conferences with the utilization of brain storming or bone diagrams

  1. IMPLEMENTING modification

Develop a clinical audit action set up that specifies: what must modification, however modification might be achieved – what actions got to happen, WHO must take these actions, once the planned actions can begin , however these actions are going to be monitored and by whom, however and once to assess whether or not the actions taken have achieved the specified outcome

STAGE 5. SUSTAINING enhancements

  1. watching and analysis
  2. Re-audit
  3. Maintaining and reinforcing improvement
  4. watching AND analysis
  • Although up performance is that the primary goal of audit, sustaining that improvement is additionally essential. • solely minimum variety of essential indicators ought to be enclosed in watching. • If performance targets haven´t been reached throughout implementation, modifications to the set up or extra interventions are going to be required.
  1. RE-AUDIT

it´s necessary to travel round the clinical audit cycle for a second time so as to get whether: • in agreement actions have occurred • changes have achieved the specified enhancements – i.e. nearer to line target and, therefore, enhancements in commission delivery • standards still be met (where no changes were made).

  1. MAINTAINING AND REINFORCING IMPROVEMENT

Factors that are known for maintaining enhancements • Reinforcing or motivating factors inbuilt by the management to support the continual cycle of quality improvement. • robust leadership • Integration of audit into organization’s wider quality improvement system .

Assignment C

Question No.  1           Marks - 10

Information is

Options          

  1. Data   
  2. Processed Data          
  3. Manipulated input      
  4. Computer output

Question No.  2           Marks - 10

Data by itself is not useful unless       

Options          

  1. It is massive   
  2. It is processed to obtain information 
  3. It is collected from diverse sources   
  4. It is properly stated

Question No.  3           Marks - 10

For taking decisions data must be     

Options          

  1. Very accurate 
  2. Massive          
  3. Processed correctly    
  4. Collected from diverse sources

Question No.  4           Marks - 10

Strategic information is needed for   

 Options          

  1. Day to day operations
  2. Meet government requirements         
  3. Long range planning  
  4. Short range planning

Question No.  5           Marks - 10

Tactical information is needed for     

 Options          

  1. Day to day operations
  2. Meet government requirements         
  3. Long range planning
  4. Short range planning

Question No.  6           Marks - 10

Operational information is needed for           

 Options           

  1. Day to day operations
  2. Meet government requirements
  3. Long range planning
  4. Short range planning

Question No.  7           Marks – 10

In a hospital information system the following type of information is strategic

 Options          

  1. Opening a new children’s ward         
  2. Data on births and deaths      
  3. Preparing patients’ bill           
  4. Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

Question No.  8           Marks - 10

In in a hospital information system the following type of information is tactical

 Options          

  1. Opening a new children’s’ ward        
  2. Data on births and deaths      
  3. Preparing patients’ bill           
  4. Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

Question No.  9           Marks - 10

In in a hospital information system the following follow type of information is operational

 Options          

  1. Opening a new children’s’ ward        
  2. Data on births and deaths      
  3. Preparing patients’ bill           
  4. Buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

Question No.  10         Marks - 10

In in a hospital information system the following type of information is statutory stat

 Options          

  1. Opening a new children’s’ ward        
  2. Data on births and deaths      
  3. Preparing patients’ bill           
  4. buying an expensive diagnostic system such as CAT scan

Question No.  11         Marks - 10

Volume of strategic information is    

 Options          

  1. Condensed     
  2. Detailed         
  3. Summarized   
  4. Irrelevant

Question No.  12         Marks - 10

Volume of tactical information is      

 Options          

  1. Condensed     
  2. Detailed         
  3. Summarized   
  4. relevant

Question No.  13         Marks - 10

Tactical information is           

 Options          

  1. Haphazard      
  2. Well organized           
  3. Unstructured  
  4. Partly structured

Question No.  14         Marks - 10

Organizations are divided into departments because

 Options          

  1. it is convenient to do so
  2. each department can be assigned a specific functional responsibility
  3. it provides opportunities for promotion
  4. it is done by every organization

Question No.  15         Marks - 10

Organizations have hierarchical structures because   

 Options          

  1. it is convenient to do so         
  2. it is done by every organization
  3. specific responsibilities can be assigned for each level          
  4. it provides opportunities for promotions

Question No.  16         Marks - 10

The quality of information which does not hide any unpleasant information is known as

 Options          

  1. Complete        
  2. Trustworthy   
  3. Relevant         
  4. None of the above     

Question No.  17         Marks - 10

The quality of information which is based on understanding user needs      

 Options          

  1. Complete        
  2. Trustworthy   
  3. Relevant         
  4. None of the above

Question No.  18         Marks - 10

Decision support systems are essential for     

 Options          

  1. Day–to-day operation of an organization.     
  2. Providing statutory information.       
  3. Top level strategic decision making.  
  4. Ensuring that organizations are profitable.

Question No.  19         Marks - 10

Decision support systems are used by           

 Options          

  1. Line managers.           
  2. Top-level managers.   
  3. Middle level managers.          
  4. System users

Question No.  20         Marks - 10

Data mining can not be done if         

 Options          

  1. operational data has not been archived          
  2. earlier management decisions are not available         
  3. the organization is large         
  4. all processing had been only batch processing

Question No.  21         Marks - 10

Data mining requires  

 Options           

  1. large quantities of operational data stored over a period of time
  2. lots of tactical data    
  3. several tape drives to store archival data       
  4. large mainframe computers

Question No.  22         Marks - 10

A management information system is one which      

 Options          

  1. is required by all managers of an organization           
  2. processes data to yield information of value in tactical management
  3. provides operational information       
  4. allows better management of organizations

Question No.  23         Marks - 10

Batch processing is used when          

 Options          

  1. response time should be short
  2. data processingis to be carried out at periodic intervals        
  3. transactions are in batches     
  4. transactions do not occur periodically

Question No.  24         Marks - 10

Online transaction processing is used because           

 Options          

  1. it is efficient   
  2. disk is used for storing files   
  3. it can handle random queries.
  4. Transactions occur in batches

Question No.  25         Marks - 10

Information systems are an outcome of culture, politics, work flows, standard operating procedures and.

 Options          

  1. computer professionals.         
  2. organizational structure          
  3. economic need.          
  4. the internet

Question No.  26         Marks - 10

E-commerce and the use of Internet technology are driving the move         

 Options          

  1. fiber-optic networks worldwide.       
  2. multinational organizations.   
  3. satellite communications systems.     
  4. digital firms.

Question No.  27         Marks - 10

The interaction between information technology and organizations is very complex and is influenced by a great many mediating factors, including the organization structure, standard operating procedures, politics, culture, management decisions and:   

 Options          

  1. the surrounding environment.
  2. the economic basis of the company   
  3. the microeconomic definition of the specific organization    
  4. the economic basis of the company

Question No.  28         Marks - 10

Digital firms require:

 Options          

  1. massive computer capacities. 
  2. deep pockets. 
  3. exceptionally flexible transaction processing system 
  4. networks that bypass traditional distribution channel

Question No.  29         Marks - 10

Members of the organization use intranets to create:

 Options          

  1. a collaborative environment.  
  2. new services for customers.   
  3. an organization requiring fewer middle managers     
  4. better operations control.

Question No.  30         Marks - 10

Internet-based systems are more vulnerable to penetration by outsiders than private networks because:    

 Options          

  1. so many people see each message.     
  2. most Internet companies do not have adequate firewal        
  3. the Internet was designed as an open environment.  
  4. a computer in the home environment is insecure.

Question No.  31         Marks - 10

Which of the following is not a technology driver for an information system?        

 Options          

  1. enterprise applications
  2. object technologies    
  3. collaborative technologies      
  4. networks and the Internet

Question No.  32         Marks - 10

An information system that supports the planning and assessment needs of executive management is       

 Options          

  1. MIS    
  2. TPS    
  3. ERP    
  4. none of the above

Question No.  33         Marks - 10

Which one of the following is not a business driver for an information system?      

 Options          

  1. business process redesign       
  2. knowledge asset management           
  3. proliferation of networks and the Internet    
  4. security and privacy

Question No.  34         Marks - 10

Which one of the following desirable characteristics of health information is THE LEAST IMPORTANT in a crisis context           

 Options          

  1. Precision         
  2. Timeliness      
  3. accuracy/validity        
  4. Cost

Question No.  35         Marks - 10

An ...................... is a set of processes and procedures that transform data into information and knowledge.        

 Options          

  1. information system    
  2. Knowledge system    
  3. Database system        
  4. Computer system       

Question No.  36         Marks - 10

What among the following are the primary characteristics that information must process?

  1. i) Relevance             ii) Availability iii) Timeliness          iv) Accuracy    

 Options          

  1. Only i, ii, and iii         
  2. Only ii, iii and iv        
  3. Only i, iii and iv         
  4. All i, ii, iii, and iv

Question No.  37         Marks - 10

The .................... is defined as a set of activities performed across the organization creating as output of value to the customer.        

 Options          

  1. development process  
  2. business process         
  3. quality process           
  4. customer focus

Question No.  38         Marks - 10

(Master files are normally stored in The

 Options          

  1. a hard disk
  2. a tape  
  3. CD – ROM    
  4. computer’s main memory

Question No.  39         Marks - 10

Every record stored in a Master file has a key field because

 Options          

  1. it is the most important field  
  2. it acts as a unique identification of record     
  3. it is the key to the database   
  4. it is a very concise field

Question No.  40         Marks - 10

Data mining is used to aid in 

 Options          

  1. operational management        
  2. analyzing past decision made by managers
  3. detecting patterns in operational data
  4. retrieving archival data

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