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Title Name Amity Solved Assignment 4th sem int.Bus for Global Business Operation
University AMITY
Service Type Assignment
Course MBA
Semister Semester-IV-Int.Bus.. Cource: MBA
Short Name or Subject Code Global Business Operation
Commerce line item Type Semester-IV-Int.Bus.. Cource: MBA
Product Assignment of MBA Semester-IV-Int.Bus.. (AMITY)

Solved Assignment


  Questions :-

                                                                                                                                         Global Business Operation

Assignment- A

Q1. What is International Business ?
Q2. Write any four disadvantages of globalization
Q3. Discuss about Ecosystem services in UAE ?
Q4. Explain about Ecosystems services provided by EU ?
Q5. Discuss tyhe various reasons for the growth of MNCS ?
Q6. Discuss about Indian Companies operating abroad ?
Q7. Discuss general Cultural Differences between the West and China ?
Q8. Explain nature of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ?

 

Assignment- B

Q1. What is Cultural diversity?
Q2. What is Alliance Operation ?
Q3. discuss various steps in conrtact Negotiation.

 

 

Assignment- C

1. With the Globalization of Markets, the testes and preferences of consumer´s world-wide are:

 

Options

 
   

So different that they can be ignored by international organizations

 

Becoming similar to the tastes and preference of American consumers 

 

Being encouraged by multinational organization to become increasingly similar

 

Converging upon a global norm

 

 

Question No.  2

Marks - 10


The main advantage of a differentiation strategy in international markets lies in that:

 

Options

 
   

It enables brand stretching and extension

 

Consumers in foreign markets pay less for the same product

 

The focus is taken away dorm price 

 

Imtators cannot reduce margins 

 

 

 

Question No.  3

Marks - 10


The goals of international marketing are to:

 

Options

 
   

Expand business activities abroad 

 

Eliminate competition in international markets

 

Create and retain customers in global markets

 

Gain market share and increace profit

 

 

 

Question No.  4

Marks - 10


Being a global organization means:

 

Options

 
   

Creating both standardized and customized products

 

Creating standardized products for homogeneous markets

 

Customizing the product range for each segment in part 

 

Any of the above

 

 

Question No.  5

Marks - 10


Which of the following represents a company´s effort to identyfy and categorize groups of customers and countries according to common characteristics?

 

Options

 
   

Global market segmentation 

 

Global marketing research 

 

Global Positioning

 

Global Targeting

 

 

Question No.  6

Marks - 10


Which of the following is an approach to natual resource management that focuses on sustaining ecosystems to meet both ecological and human needs in the future?

 

Options

 
   

Management

 

Ecosystems management

 

Eclogy

 

All the above

 

 

Question No.  7

Marks - 10


Ecosystems management promotes shared vision of a desired future by _____________________

 

Options

 
   

Integrating social 

 

Environment and economics perspectives 

 

Managing geographically

 

All the above

 

 

Question No.  8

Marks - 10


An ecosystem includes all of the living things_______________________ 

 

Options

 
   

Palnts

 

Animals

 

Organisms

 

All the above

 

 

Question No.  9

Marks - 10


Which of the following are the tropical forests that receive a mean rainfall of 80 for every 400 inches annually?

 

Options

 
   

Tropical evergreen forest

 

Desert ecosystems

 

Grasslands

 

None of thease

 

 

Question No.  10

Marks - 10


The ecological footprint is an estimate of human pressure on global ecosystems, according to the ______________________________

 

Options

 
   

United Nations

 

United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)

 

SAARC

 

All the above

 

 

 

Question No.  11

Marks - 10


Which of the following is an example of a multinational corporation?

 

Options

 
   

NATO

 

League of Nations

 

Greenpeace

 

McDonald´s

 

 

Question No.  12

Marks - 10


Multinational corporations´ _______________________

 

Options

 
   

Are U.S. Companies that trade their securities on the exchanges in other countries?

 

Are firms that trade their operations in more than one country through subsidiaries, divisions, or branches in foreign countries

 

Are required to use international accounting standards

 

Are U.S. Companies that sell goods and services in other countries

 

 

Question No.  13

Marks - 10


Which level of analysis considers the relative power of states and the interactions of the states themselves?

 

Options

 
   

National

 

Global

 

Interstate

 

Individual

 

 


14. Which of the following powers become newly expansionist in the 1930s"

 

Options

 
   

France

 

Britain

 

Russia

 

Japan

 

 

Question No.  15

Marks - 10


Which level of analysis considers aggregations of individuals within states that influence state actions in the international arena?

 

Options

 
   

Interstate

 

Individual

 

Global

 

Domestic

 

 

Question No.  16

Marks - 10


What is the most important geographic element at the global level of analysis?

 

Options

 
   

The East-West population disparity 

 

The North-South gap

 

The East-West culture difference

 

The divide between arable and non-arable land

 

 

Question No.  17

Marks - 10


American Giant such as: IBM Gillette, Dow Chemical, Hewlett-Packard and Xerox get the majority of their sales from:

 

Options

 
   

Outside the USA 

 

From each other´s customers.

 

Within the USA.

 

From Asia.

 

 

Question No.  18

Marks - 10


Developing countries such as china or India benefit from the patronage of companies that outsource to them in terms of:

 

Options

 
   

Job prestige and education.

 

Increased wages.

 

Increased quality of life.

 

All of the above

 

 

Question No.  19

Marks - 10


Cross-culture competence refers to the knowledge, skills, and affect/motivation that enable individuals to adapt effectively in________________.

 

Options

 
   

Value System

 

Cross-cultural environments

 

Culture

 

None of these

 

 

Question No.  20

Marks - 10


The cultural impact on management is reflected by____________.

 

Options

 
   

Basic values

 

Attitudes

 

Beliefs and behavior of the people

 

All the above

 

 

Question No.  21

Marks - 10


___________ refer to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of one´s conduct are the true basis for any judgment about the morality of that conduct?

 

Options

 
   

Consequentialism

 

Meta-ethics

 

Business Ethics

 

Corporate Social responsibility

 

 

Question No.  22

Marks - 10


Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of _____________________.

 

Options

 
   

Ethical properties

 

Statements

 

Attitudes and judgements

 

All the above

 

 

Question No.  23

Marks - 10


_________ refers to the principles performs and philosophies that direct the business people in the day to day business choice.

 

Options

 
   

Business Ethics

 

Corporate social responsibility

 

Values

 

None of these

 

 

Question No.  24

Marks - 10


Managers and acquisitions are both aspects of strategic management, corporate finance and management dealing with the________________.

 

Options

 
   

Buying

 

Selling

 

Dividing and combining of different companies

 

All the above

 

Question No.  25

Marks - 10


M & A can be defined as a type of restructuring in that they result in some entity reorganization with the aim to_______________________

 

Options

 
   

Provide growth

 

Positive value

 

Both A & B

 

None of these

 

Question No.  26

Marks - 10


_________________ is the area of corporate finances, management and strategy dealing with purchases and /or joining with other companies.

 

Options

 
   

Amalgamation

 

Mergers and acquisitions (M&A)

 

Takeover

 

All the above

 
       

 

Question No.  27

Marks - 10


_____________ happen when a company mergers or takes over another company that offers the same or similar product lines and services to the final consumer?

 

Options

 
   

Horizontal mergers

 

Vertical merger

 

Concentric mergers

 

None of the above

 

 

Question No.  28

Marks - 10


Foreign Direct investment outside India means investments, either under_______________.

 

Options

 
   

The Automatic Route 

 

The Approval Route

 

Both a and b

 

None of these

 

Question No.  29

Marks - 10


International business refers to domestic operations within a foreign country.

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 

.

 

.

 

 

Question No.  30

Marks - 10


International business is business whose activities are carried out across national borders.

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 

.

 

.

 

 

Question No.  31

Marks - 10


International business is business denotes the operations of a company outside its home or domestic market many refer to this as business conducted within a foreign country

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 

 

Question No.  32

Marks - 10


International business exports its goods and services all over the world.

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 

.

 

.

 

 

Question No.  33

Marks - 10


International business makes minimum utilization of resources.

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 

.

 

.

 

 

Question No.  34

Marks - 10


Ecosystems management promotes shared vision of a desired future by integrating social environmental and economic perspectives to managing geographically defined natural ecological systems

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 

.

 

.

 

 

Question No.  35

Marks - 10


Ecosystems promote human wellbeing through the various services they provide

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 
   
   

 

Question No.  36

Marks - 10


An ecosystems includes all of the living things in a given area interacting with each other and also with their nonliving environments.

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 
 
 

 

37. Desert ecosystems are located in regions that receive an annual rainfall less than 35.

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 

 

Question No.  38

Marks - 10


Economic indicator is a piece of economic data usually of macroeconomic scale that is used by investors to interpret current or future investment possibilities and judge the overall health of an economy.

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 

 

Question No.  39

Marks - 10


Multinational corporations have unique and empirical capacity to increase production and distribution.

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

 

 

Question No.  40

Marks - 10


MNCs can provide the required financial technical and other resource to needy countries in exchange for economic gains.

 

Options

 
   

True

 

False

  Answers :-

 

                                                                                                                                                 Global Business Operation

Part –A

  1. What is International Business?

Answer:

International Business conducts business transactions all over the world. These transactions include the transfer of goods, services, technology, managerial knowledge, and capital to other countries. International business involves exports and imports.

International Business is also known, called or referred as a Global Business or an International Marketing.

An international business has many options for doing business, it includes,

  1. Exporting goods and services.
  2. Giving license to produce goods in the host country.
  3. Starting a joint venture with a company.
  4. Opening a branch for producing & distributing goods in the host country.
  5. Providing managerial services to companies in the host country.

 

 

  1. Write any four disadvantages of globalization

Answer:

The Disadvantages of Globalization

  1. Loss of Culture

Because entire things today are well built and well advanced, the former culture and tradition of the people disappeared. Most of the people choose the well advanced world rather than to live just like the way before.

  1. Health Problems

There are many health illnesses that were developed when globalization existed. Most health issues that occur are serious.

  1. Environmental Degradation

The business mutiny really altered the outlook and level of economy. Because most companies today are utilizing the natural resources, deforestation arises. They often destroy the land which often contains lots of minerals and resources.

  1. Disparity

Even though globalization is widely open in the latest avenues such as employment and market, there is still a disparity that comes along with the improvement of the economy. Structural unemployment is obligated to the presence of disparity.

 

 

  1. Discuss about Ecosystem services in UAE?

Answer:

Abu Dhabi: When the global economy grew four times between 1981 and 2005, 60 per cent of ecological services deteriorated, a top official said here, quoting UN findings.

Ecosystems provide many services to humankind and they are collectively known as ecosystem services. These provisions include things like clean drinking water and processes such as the decomposition of waste.

Although economic growth has helped achieve many gains during the past decades, it has caused a negative impact on the environment and exacerbated a number of problems such as pollution and climate change, Rashid Bin Fahad, the minister of environment, said.

Additionally, the individual Ecological Footprint of most nations has also increased, according to UN reports, he said.

The Ecological Footprint is an estimate of human pressure on global ecosystems, according to the United Nations Environmental Programmed (UNEP).

This has happened because of the imbalance between developmental requirements and environmental factors, but “green growth” will fill that gap, Bin Fahad said while announcing the theme for this year’s UAE Environment Day at a press conference at Masdar Institute in Abu Dhabi.

The theme of the 17th UAE Environment Day on February 4 will be “Green growth, innovation and sustainability”, he said. The theme will remain the same for two more consecutive Environment Days.

Green Growth is a term used to describe a path of economic growth that uses natural resources in a sustainable manner.

“On this occasion, we reiterate our determination to exert more efforts to protect our environment in line with the UAE Vision 2021,” the minister said.

To address the imbalance between development and environmental conservation, focus on a “green economy” has become an alternative to the traditional economy, which relied heavily on natural resources, Bin Fahad said.

A green economy is one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, according to UNEP.

The UAE follows global developments in the green economy with the Ministry of Environment and Water taking this approach since 2009 by holding annual conferences on the green economy in the presence of many experts.

“We endeavor to achieve an integrated management of natural resources for a green economy, for us and the future generations,” Bin Fahad said.

The UAE has also launched initiatives in renewable energy, sustainable transport and green building. All these initiatives led to the adoption of the UAE green economy concept in 2012.

The Emirates Green Development Strategy was announced by His Highness Shaikh Mohammad Bin Rashid Al Maktoum, UAE Vice-President, Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai, putting the UAE at the forefront of global efforts.

“Ever since the strategy was launched, we have been working with economic and environmental bodies to work out a roadmap to implement this strategy,” Bin Fahad said.

As part of the ministry’s efforts to enhance its international stature and partnerships with international organizations, it will organize the first International Conference on Partnership for Green Economy in Dubai in March.

The UNEP, International Labor Organization, and United Nations Industrial Development Organization will be partners of the conference.

 

           

  1. Explain about Ecosystems services provided by EU?

Answer:

An analytical framework is developed for estimating ecosystem services delivered by restored and non-restored river corridors, i.e. the active river channel and its accompanying valley floor. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach towards ecosystem services is adopted with a focus on final services, i.e. only those services are quantified that provide a net benefit to societal beneficiaries. A long list of services potentially provided by European rivers is provided and linked qualitatively to a river style typology developed in D2.1 by Gurnell and colleagues.

An analytical framework is developed for the estimation of ecosystem services delivered by restored and non-restored river corridors, i.e. the active river channel and its accompanying valley floor. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach towards ecosystem services is adopted, but with a focus on final services, i.e. only those services are quantified that provide a net benefit to societal beneficiaries. A long list of services potentially provided by European rivers is provided and linked qualitatively to a river style typology developed in D2.1 by Gurnelland colleagues to present the major services potentially provided by European rivers and their floodplains.

The appropriate spatial scale for a quantification of services provided is defined as that of a reach, hence the method should cover extents of ~ 10 km and grains of ~ 100 m. From the reach, aggregation upwards to segments and catchments is feasible. The consolidated land cover classification of CORINE can serve to provide the Mapp able units but requires additional fine-grained detail to specify the different habitats (or landscape elements, as specified in EUNIS) present in a reach as a mapped unit. The analytical framework starts from the mapped mosaic of habitat units within a reach and lists the potentially delivered services by each habitat. Subsequently, the exercise is re-iterated to assess whether a service is only provided at a larger scale by a combination of landscape elements, or the full length and width of the floodplain and stream that can only be appreciated as a landscape. Then services are summed across the reach, generally as fluxes in biophysical units, and brought under the same denominator of economic value using benefit transfer functions. For several cultural services that have no market, direct field surveys using questionnaires are proposed. Such economic valuation methodologies for different services are briefly justified and procedures are outlined.

 

 

  1. Discuss the various reasons for the growth of MNCS?

Answer:

Reasons for the Growth of MNCs:

(i) Non-Transferable Knowledge:

It is often possible for an MNC to sell its knowledge in the form of patent rights and to licence foreign producer. This relieves the MNC of the need to make foreign direct investment.

However, sometimes an MNC that has a Production Process or Product Patent can make a larger profit by carrying out the production in a foreign country itself. The reason for this is that some kinds of knowledge cannot be sold and which are the result of years of experience.

(ii) Exploiting Reputations:

In some situation, MNCs invest to exploit their reputation rather than protect their reputation. This motive is of particular importance in the case of foreign direct investment by banks because in the banking business an international reputation can attract deposits.

If the goodwill is established the bank can expand and build a strong customer base. Quality service to a large number of customers is bound to ensure success. This probably explains the tremendous growth of foreign banks such as Citibank, Grind-lays and Standard Chartered in India.

(iii) Protecting Reputations:

Normally, products, develop a good or bad name, which transcends international boundaries. It would be very difficult for an MNC to protect in reputation if a foreign licensee does an inferior job. Therefore, MNCs prefer to invest in a country rather than licensing and transfer expertise, to ensure the maintenance of their good name.

(iv) Protecting Secrecy:

MNCs prefer direct investment, rather than granting a license to a foreign company if protecting the secrecy of the product is important. While it may be true that a license will take precautions to protect patent rights, it is equally true that it may be less conscientious than the original owner of the patent.

(v) Availability of Capital:

The fact that MNCs have access to capital markets has been advocated as another reason why firms themselves moved abroad. A firm operating in only one country does not have the same access to cheaper funds as a larger firm. However, this argument, which has been put forward for the growth of MNCs has been rejected by many critics.

(vi) Product Life Cycle Hypothesis:

It has been argued that opportunities for further gains at home eventually dry up. To maintain the growth of profits, a corporation must venture abroad where markets are not so well penetrated and where there is perhaps less competition.

This hypothesis perfectly explains the growth of American MNCs in other countries where they can fully exploit all the stages of the life cycle of a product. A prime example would be Gillette, which has revolutionized the shaving systems industry.

(vii) Avoiding Tariffs and Quotas:

MNCs prefer to invest directly in a country in order to avoid import tariffs and quotas that the firm may have to face if it produces the goods at home and ship them. For example, a number of foreign automobile and truck producers opened plants in the US to avoid restrictions on-selling foreign made cars. Automobile giants like. Fiat, Volkswagen, Honda and Mazda are entering different countries not with the products but with technology and money.

(viii) Strategic FDI:

The strategic motive for making investments has been advocated as another reason for the growth of MNCs. MNCs enters foreign markets to protect their market share when this is being threatened by the potential entry of indigenous firms or multinationals from other countries.

(ix) Symbiotic Relationships:

Some firms have followed clients who have made direct investment. This is especially true in the case of accountancy and consulting firms. Large US accounting firms, which know the parent companies special needs and practices have opened offices in countries where their clients have opened subsidiaries.

These US accounting firms have an advantage over local firms because of their knowledge of the parent company and because the client may prefer to engage only one firm in order to reduce the number of people with access to sensitive information. Templeton, Goldman Sachs and Earnest and Young are moving with their clients even to small countries like Sri Lanka, Panama and Mauritius.

Country Risk:

When making over direct investment it is necessary to allow for risk due to investments being made in a foreign country. Country risk is one of the special issues faced by MNCs when investing abroad. In involves the possibility of losses due to country-specific economic, political and social events.

Among the country risks that are faced by MNCs are those related to the local economy, those due to the possibility of confiscation i.e. Government takeover without any compensation, and those due to expropriation i.e., Government takeover with compensation which at times can be generous. In addition there are the political/social risks of wars, revolutions and insurrections.

Even though none of these latter events are specifically directed towards on MNC by the foreign government, they can damage or destroy an investment. There are also risks of currency non-convertibility and restriction the repatriation of income. International magazines like Euro Money and the Economist regularly conduct country risk evaluations in order to facilitate MNCs.

 

 

  1. Discuss about Indian Companies operating abroad?

Answer:

Indian companies have certainly become more ambitious. Most companies are no more restricted them in India only. In today’s world, Indian companies are not only setting up their own bases overseas, they have become quite ambitious to fly out of the Indian business boundaries to find new companies and potential markets for acquisition and company investment. Even though it might take few more years to start showing the big time profit evaluations.

However, this shows that Indian companies have certainly become confident about expanding their operations overseas successfully.

In the last decade itself, many Indian companies have been on a big time acquisition spree, and that has definitely added a huge value to Brand India. Indian companies (listed and unlisted) announced 1995 overseas acquisitions from the last two which involves an investment of nearly $ 116 billion – as reported by The Economics Times.

India has also come out as the world’s 21st largest overseas and foreign investor, with more than 75 billion dollars in foreign investment, just in the past 10 years. And during the financial year 2009-2010, the investment by the native companies in foreign joint ventures and self-owned subsidiaries alone come up to around 10.3 billion dollars, as per The Reserve Bank of India’s report.

Some of significant acquisition

  1. Corus Group (U.K.)corus

Acquired by – Tata Steel

Tata Steel, one of the leading steel producers in India, acquired Corus Group for U.S. $12.11 billion (€ 8.5 billion) on January 31, 2007. But only after nine rounds of bidding, the acquisition process was completed. The only other competitive bidder was CompanhiaSiderurgica Nacional (CSN), Brazil.

This acquisition is considered to be one of the biggest foreign acquisitions by an Indian company, and after this only TATA Steel came out to be the fifth largest steel producer in the whole world.

  1. Zain Africa Zain

Acquired by – Bharti Airtel

India’s largest mobile services company, Bharti Airtel’s ambition to expand into the markets outside India was completed after this complete acquisition of the African operations of Mobile Telecommunications Company (known as Zain).

  1. Novelis (U.S.)

adBirla

Acquired by – Hindalco Industries

Aditya Birla Group, one of India’s leading MNCs, acquired the entire stake in the Atlanta based aluminum company Novelis for U.S. $6 billion. This company had separated from Alcan, a global aluminum company. This deal was announced on Feb 11, 2007 by Kumar Mangalam Birla, Chairman of the AV Birla group.

  1. Imperial Energy (U.K.)

Imperial

Acquired by – ONGC

Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) has acquired Imperial Energy. This deal was for 1.3 billion pounds (U.S. $1.9 billion). 96.8 percent of London-listed firm’s shareholders had top accept this takeover offer, for the acquisition deal to take effect.

  1. Jaguar Cars and Land Rover (U.K.)

tata jaguar

Acquired by – Tata Motors

Tata Motors, one of the leading automobile MNCs in India, has acquired both Jaguar and Land Rover, which are two iconic British brands with worldwide growth prospects. This deal was for a whooping U.S. $ 2.3 billion with Ford, the previous American owners.

  1. Honiton Energy Holdings (China)

hotton

Acquired by – Tanti group

Tanti group of companies jointly with Bahrain-based Arcapita Bank, has acquired Honiton Energy Holdings, a Chinese wind energy firm. The joint venture partners invested around U.S. $2 billion which help to develop a 1,650-MW portfolio of wind farms in China.

Tulsi R. Tanti, Chairman Tanti Group felt that the acquisition would reinforce their commitment towards the renewable energy sector. And also would have a potential growth of wind energy in developing countries like India and China

  1. Abbot Point Coal Terminal (Australia)

Adani

Acquired by – Adani Enterprises

Adani Enterprises completed a $2-billion deal which acquired Abbot Point Coal Terminal in Australia on the month of May, 2011.This acquisition marked the third overseas acquisition in nine months by Adani Enterprises, the country’s biggest private port and is India’s largest coal importer.

  1. Algoma Steel (Canada)

essar

Acquired by – Essar Steel Global

Ruias owned Essar Steel Global acquires the Canadian steel company Algoma Steel at a valuation of Canadian $1.85 billion. The arrangement must be approved by Algoma’s shareholders by the affirmative vote of at least 66 per cent (2/3rd) of the votes cast. Algoma Steel is an integrated steel producer based in Sault Ste Marie, Ontario.

  1. Marcellus Shale (U.S.)

Reliance

Acquired by – Reliance Industries

India’s Reliance Industries bought a $1.7 billion stake in natural-gas properties Marcellus Shale, from Atlas Energy Inc. This acquisition made Reliance in becoming the latest international energy company to bet on growing fuel output in U.S. shale formations.

 

 

  1. Discuss general Cultural Differences between the West and China?

Answer;

Difference in the concept of morality

Western: a moral person must be honest, namely, always telling the truth

Chinese Confucian: honesty gives way to loyalty and filial piety

Differences in the way of thinking

Western: “comes to the point”, from micro to macro, focusing on the specifics

Chinese: step-by-step exploring the idea and purpose, from macro to micro emphasizing the “general”

 

History perspective

Chinese historians: analyze from general perspective, and explore motive and significance

Western historians: more attention to a witness narrative and statistics that show different aspects of the event and results. Their conclusions are based on interpretation of the info.

 

View of the ideal world

West: broadly associated with democracy, freedom, equality

Chinese: Confucian concept; “Harmony” based on collective effort and responsibility as well as perfect top down arrangement.  

Western cultures are based on individualism rather than collectivism. For instance in many Western societies, there is an emphasis on individual rights rather than placing the whole society above one self. This is clearly different in China where the country, society or family are based above one self.

There are many day to day differences in culture that can be noticed imminently. When it comes to greeting people in China, Chinese people tend to greet each other by asking questions such as have you had dinner and where are you going; this would very much confuse Westerners as they would see their way of greeting as a general questions. In Western societies questions like this would not be asked when greeting someone, Westerns would simply say “hello, how are you?” There is also no distinction between formal and informal greetings in China. However in Western societies it is polite to shake hands in formal situations.

Etiquette is something that Westerners seem to be much harder up on than in China. Table manners and general politeness and customer service seem to be apparent in Western countries.  For example Westerners would not pick up a bowl off the table when eating, they would also not eat off their cutlery. In China this is the way in which they eat. They do not use a knife and fork like in Western societies. Instead chopsticks are used and bowls are picked up off the table. The Chinese eat off their chopsticks and do not cut up food. The way in which meals are presented is also very different in the two cultures. In China, dishes will be placed in the middle of the table for everyone to share. In Western countries, everyone will choose an individual dish.

 

 

  1. Explain nature of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)?

Answer:

The main components of corporate social responsibilities are as:

Community Involvement:

It refers to a wide range of actions taken by companies to maximize the impacts of their spending, time products, services for the welfare of community at large.

Human Rights:

The business practices can profoundly affect the rights and dignity of employees and communities. The main focus is on developing workplace free from discriminations where creativity and learning can flourish decent codes of profession conduct and where a proper balance can he created.

Labor Security:

It includes freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining, the eliminations of all forms of forced and compulsory labor, the effective abolition of child labor and the eliminations of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

Environmental Protection:

The environmental issues have been global concerns thus the corporate sector also focuses on finding sustain able solutions for natural resources and to reduce companies’ impact on environment. Over the past several years, environmental responsibility has expanded to involve substantially more than compliance with all applicable government regulations or even a few initiatives such as recycling or energy efficiency.

Many citizens, environmental organizations and leadership companies define environmental responsibility as involving a comprehensive approach to company’s operations, products and facilities including assessing business, products, processes and maintained balance between work and other aspects of life.

Business Standard:

It covers a broad area of corporate activist such as ethics, financial return and environment protections.

Educations and Leadership Development:

As education is one of the key elements of sustainable development and pro-poor growth, businesses, working together with public sector and civil society can make an important contribution in providing access to quality education for all further companies can also make more critical impact on the development process by raising standards in corporate education and leadership development.

 

 

Part –B

There is no case study you need to answer the Questions            

  1. What is Cultural diversity?

Answer:

The phrase ´Cultural Diversity´ means a range of different societies or people of different origins, religions and traditions all living and interacting together. Britain has benefited from diversity throughout its long history and is currently one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world.

The food we eat, the music we listen to, and the clothes we wear have all been influenced by different cultures coming into Britain. Ethnic food, for example, is part of an average British diet. One of Britain´s favorite dishes is Indian curry. Britons have enjoyed curry for a surprisingly long time - the first curry went on an English menu in 1773.

Even the English language developed from the languages spoken by Anglo-Saxons, Scandinavian Vikings and Norman French invaders. New words were added from the languages of other immigrants over the years.

 

 

  1. What is Alliance Operation?

Answer:

Alliance is an agreement between two or more parties to pursue a set of agreed upon objectives needed while remaining independent organizations. This form of cooperation lies between mergers and acquisitions and organic growth. Strategic alliances occurs when two or more organizations join together to pursue mutual benefits.

Partners may provide the strategic alliance with resources such as products, distribution channels, manufacturing capability, project funding, capital equipment, knowledge, expertise, or intellectual property. The alliance is a cooperation or collaboration which aims for a synergy where each partner hopes that the benefits from the alliance will be greater than those from individual efforts. The alliance often involves technology transfer (access to knowledge and expertise), economic specialization, shared expenses and shared risk.

 

 

  1. Discuss various steps in contract Negotiation.

Answer:

  1. Identify a Need

Whether you are looking for help cleaning your building, repairing an HVAC unit or an IT company to help with some strategic initiatives, you need to understand what your need is before you can look for a vendor to help you.  Take some time to educate yourself and be able to define the problem with a vendor.

  1. Identify Team

Identify a team of employees to help identify the need, research and interview the vendor.  This will be your think tank to make sure every aspect of the agreement is thought through.  You only need a few people for this but it is always beneficial to have other eyes and brains on this type of project.

  1. Research Vendors

Once you know what the need is, have your team help research vendors that specialize in the particular area you need help with.  Talk to friends and others in your field for referrals.  The internet is a great resource and many organizations have ratings on their services.  Use these resources and read customer comments.  You can learn a lot from just doing a little research and listening to their customers.

  1. Use BBB as a Resource

Check with the BBB on the vendors you pick and see if they have any prior unresolved customer issues.  This can also be done online and is a great resource not only for finding a good vendor but also if you make Charity Donations.  You want to do this checking before you ask for a proposal so you won’t be wasting your time negotiating a bid only to find out the vendor has unresolved customer issues.

  1. Identify Three Vendors

Identify three vendors that look the best to you.  Think about the big name vendors that do a lot of advertising. You can expect to pay a little more for them so make sure you list at least one vendor that does not have the big name recognition.  Smaller vendors that have not been around as long are hungry and might be able to do a really good job for you at a lower cost.

  1. Request for Proposal

 Contract negotiations Once you have your three vendors chosen, contact them, describe what your needs are and ask for a formal proposal or otherwise called a request for proposal (RFP). Ask the vendor to include a list of customer references with their proposal.

  1. Vendor Interview

Have the vendor come in and present the proposal to the team.  Allow the team to ask questions and clarify any uncertainties.  This is when you make sure the proposal is written to meet all of your needs.

  1. Review Terms of Agreement

Once you have all three proposals, review each of them side by side to make sure they are comparable.  Call the vendor and get clarification on anything that does not make sense or may need further clarification.  Things to look at are duration of agreement, payment cycle, termination clause, liability for both sides, scope of services, what they will and will not do, etc.  Look at what their approach is to cost control, quality of product or service and their customer service commitments.

  1. Negotiate Differences

Once you have a good understanding of the proposed agreements, go back and negotiate any sticking points that might hold you back.  Everything is negotiable so don’t hesitate to ask if you think it is something important to the agreement.

  1. Check References

Once you are settled on an agreement, start calling the list of references and ask questions like:

How long have you used this vendor?

Have there been any issues?

If yes, how did the vendor address the issues?

How is the customer service of the vendor?

How would you rate the vendor employees?

If there was anything you could improve with the vendor, what would it be?

  1. Second Opinion on Agreement

Once you feel comfortable with an agreement, have another set of eyes look at it to see if there are any outstanding things that may be missing.  This should be another person who is familiar with looking at contracts.

  1. Sign

Ok, now is when you sign the agreement and agree on a start date. Take the agreement and tickle your calendar or the appropriate person’s calendar with anything you may be responsible for in the agreement ie; payment schedule, auditing process, inspections, etc.

Lastly, negotiating is a skill that can be learned.  The trick is to find a good balance for what your needs are and what the vendor can provide.  Remember, vendors are always looking for new business so make sure you give them the opportunity to give you their best offer.  Also, remember that cheaper is not always better so be sure you can evaluate the product/service differences so you don’t mistakenly sacrifice quality for cost

 

 

 

Part –C

Question No.  1

Marks - 10

 

With the Globalization of Markets, the testes and preferences of consumer´s world-wide are:

 
 

Options

 
   

So different that they can be ignored by international organizations

 

Becoming similar to the tastes and preference of American consumers 

 

Being encouraged by multinational organization to become increasingly similar

 

Converging upon a global norm

Ans: Being encouraged by multinational organization to become increasingly similar

 

 

 

Question No.  2

Marks - 10

 

The main advantage of a differentiation strategy in international markets lies in that:

 
 

Options

 
   

It enables brand stretching and extension

 

Consumers in foreign markets pay less for the same product

 

The focus is taken away dorm price 

 

Imtators cannot reduce margins 

 

Ans: The focus is taken away dorm price 

 

 

Question No.  3

Marks - 10

 

The goals of international marketing are to:

 
 

Options

 
   

Expand business activities abroad 

 

Eliminate competition in international markets

 

Create and retain customers in global markets

 

Gain market share and increace profit

 

Ans: Create and retain customers in global markets

 

 

Question No.  4

Marks - 10

 

Being a global organization means:

 
 

Options

 
   

Creating both standardized and customized products

 

Creating standardized products for homogeneous markets

 

Customizing the product range for each segment in part 

 

Any of the above

 

Ans: Creating both standardized and customized products

 

 

Question No.  5

Marks - 10

 

Which of the following represents a company´s effort to identyfy and categorize groups of customers and countries according to common characteristics?

 
 

Options

 
   

Global market segmentation 

 

Global marketing research 

 

Global Positioning

 

Global Targeting

Ans: Global market segmentation 

 

 

Question No.  6

Marks - 10

 

Which of the following is an approach to natual resource management that focuses on sustaining ecosystems to meet both ecological and human needs in the future?

 
 

Options

 
   

Management

 

Ecosystems management

 

Eclogy

 

All the above

Ans: Ecosystems management

 

 

Question No.  7

Marks - 10

 

Ecosystems management promotes shared vision of a desired future by _____________________

 
 

Options

 
   

Integrating social 

 

Environment and economics perspectives 

 

Managing geographically

 

All the above

Ans: All the above

 

 

Question No.  8

Marks - 10

 

An ecosystem includes all of the living things_______________________ 

 
 

Options

 
   

Palnts

 

Animals

 

Organisms

 

All the above

Ans: All the above

 

 

Question No.  9

Marks - 10

 

Which of the following are the tropical forests that receive a mean rainfall of 80 for every 400 inches annually?

 
 

Options

 
   

Tropical evergreen forest

 

Desert ecosystems

 

Grasslands

 

None of these

Ans: None of these

 

 

Question No.  10

Marks - 10

 

The ecological footprint is an estimate of human pressure on global ecosystems, according to the ______________________________

 
 

Options

 
   

United Nations

 

United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP)

 

SAARC

 

All the above

 

Ans: All the above

 

 

Question No.  11

Marks - 10

 

Which of the following is an example of a multinational corporation?

 
 

Options

 
   

NATO

 

League of Nations

 

Greenpeace

 

McDonald´s

Ans: McDonald´s

 

 

Question No.  12

Marks - 10

 

Multinational corporations´ _______________________

 
 

Options

 
   

Are U.S. Companies that trade theirsecurities on the exchanges in other countries?

 

Are firms that trade their operations in more than one country through subsidiaries, divisions, or branches in foreign countries

 

Are required to use international accounting standards

 

Are U.S. Companies that sell goods and services in other countries

Ans: Are firms that trade their operations in more than one country through subsidiaries, divisions, or branches in foreign countries

 

 

Question No.  13

Marks - 10

 

Which level of analysis considers the relative power of states and the interactions of the states themselves?

 
 

Options

 
   

National

 

Global

 

Interstate

 

Individual

Ans: Interstate

 

 

 

Question No.  14

 

Which of the following powers become newly expansionist in the 1930s"

 
 

Options

 
   

France

 

Britain

 

Russia

 

Japan

Ans: Britain

 

 

Question No.  15

Marks - 10

 

Which level of analysis considers aggregations of individuals within states that influence state actions in the international arena?

 
 

Options

 
   

Interstate

 

Individual

 

Global

 

Domestic

Ans: Domestic

 

 

Question No.  16

Marks - 10

 

What is the most important geographic element at the global level of analysis?

 
 

Options

 
   

The East-West population disparity 

 

The North-South gap

 

The East-West culture difference

 

The divide between arable and non-arable land

 

Ans: The North-South gap

 

Question No.  17

Marks - 10

 

American Giant such as: IBM Gillette, Dow Chemical, Hewlett-Packard and Xerox get the majority of their sales from:

 
 

Options

 
   

Outside the USA 

 

From each other´s customers.

 

Within the USA.

 

From Asia.

 

Ans: Outside the USA 

 

Question No.  18

Marks - 10

 

Developing countries such as china or India benefit from the patronage of companies that outsource to them in terms of:

 
 

Options

 
   

Job prestige and education.

 

Increased wages.

 

Increased quality of life.

 

All of the above

 

Ans: All of the above

 

Question No.  19

Marks - 10

 

Cross-culture competence refers to the knowledge, skills, and affect/motivation that enable individuals to adapt effectively in________________.

 

Options

 
   

Value System

 

Cross-cultural environments

 

Culture

 

None of these

Ans: Cross-cultural environments

 

 

Question No.  20

Marks - 10

 

The cultural impact on management is reflected by____________.

 
 

Options

 
   

Basic values

 

Attitudes

 

Beliefs and behavior of the people

 

All the above

 

Ans: Beliefs and behavior of the people

 

Question No.  21

Marks - 10

 

___________ refer to those moral theories which hold that the consequences of one´s conduct are the true basis for any judgment about the morality of that conduct?

 

Options

 
   

Consequentialism

 

Meta-ethics

 

Business Ethics

 

Corporate Social responsibility

 

Ans: Consequentialism

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