Organizational Change & Development
- Why are organisational changes often resisted by individuals and groups within the organisation? How can such resistance be prevented or overcome?
It is difficult for organizations to avoid change, as new ideas promote growth for them and their members. Change occurs for many reasons such as new staff roles; increases or decreases in funding; acquisition of new technology; new missions, vision or goals; and to reach new members or clients. Changes can create new opportunities, but are often met with criticism from resistant individuals within the group.
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Changes within an organization start with key decision makers. It is up to them to pass along the details to team members and ensure all questions and complaints are handled before changes go into effect. Unfortunately, as news of a change spreads through the hierarchy, details are sometimes skewed and members end up receiving inaccurate, second-hand information. Poor communication can therefore cause resistance to change.
Ego often interferes with the ability to adapt to change. Some want to maintain the status quo to better advance their own personal agendas; others have different motivations. In the end, employees acting in their own self-interest, instead of the organization´s greater good, will resist change.
Organizations often solicit advance input to ensure that everyone has an opportunity to voice their ideas and opinions. If, however, employees hear of a sudden change, and they had no input, they will feel excluded from the decision making process and perhaps offended
Lack of Trust
Trust plays a big role in running a successful organization. When organization members feel they cannot trust each other or key decision makers, it becomes difficult for them to accept organizational changes. They may ascribe the changes to some negative underlying reason or even assume they will eventually lose their jobs.
When change requires mastering new skills, resistance is likely, particularly when it comes to new technology. Organizations can prevent this through offering education and training
- Address Personal Concerns First
Most organizations justify the need for change by telling their employees—the ultimate users of the change—all of the wonderful things the change will mean for the organization. This is a poor approach to getting audience buy‐in. When faced with a change, people react first with their own concerns: “What’s in it for me?” “Does this mean I’ll have a different schedule?” “Will this break up our department?” So, first things first. As a change agent, you should deal with the users’ personal concerns first and focus later (if at all) on the organizational benefits.
- Link the Change to Other Issues People Care About
The perceived need for a change can be increased by linking it to other issues that people already care about (CRED, 2009). By showing how a change is connected to issues of health, job security, and other things that are already in the front of people’s minds, you can make a change “more sticky” and less likely to be replaced as new demands for their attention show up.
- Tap into People’s Desire to Avoid Loss
People are more sensitive to loss than to gain. This “negativity bias” is a longstanding survival trait that has kept humans alive throughout their development as a species. Historically, it was always more important to avoid stepping on a snake than to find a soft place to sleep. Humans may have advanced in many ways, but something scary still gets and holds attention more quickly and longer than something pleasant. Therefore, rather than just telling people what they stand to gain from a change, you may have a greater impact by telling them what they stand to lose if they don’t accept the change.
- Tailor Information to People’s Expectations
People generally hold firm views of how the world works. These often unconscious and invisible “mental models” govern much of people’s thinking including how they perceive a potential change (Carey, S., 1986; Morgan, M., Fischhoff, B., Bostrom, A., et al., 2002). For example, they may tend to see a change as something good about to happen (a promotion model) and willingly accept it, or they may see a change as something bad about to happen (a prevention model) and deal with it as an “ought to do” while focusing their energy on avoiding loss (Cesario, Grant, and Higgins, 2004; Higgins, 1997, 2000). You can provide all the logical arguments in the world in support of your 10 Strategies to Overcome Resistance to Change Anthony Marker 2 change, but if your arguments don’t match the basic assumptions and rules to the way the person sees the world, you are unlikely to get very far. To make matters worse, people hold fast to their current beliefs, desires, or feelings; this “confirmation bias” means that if the change you are promoting doesn’t appeal to their current beliefs, desires, or feelings, you may have a hard time making any headway.
- Group Your Audience Homogeneously
Getting the message over to a group of people who share basic opinions with regard to the change is easier than getting it over to a group of people with diverse opinions. Whenever possible, divide your audience into homogeneous groups insofar as their view of the change goes. For instance, if you want to convince people to do certain things differently because of climate change, you might want to know who watches Fox News and who watches MSNBC. Not because one is better than the other, but because the argument you present will be tailored differently for the two groups. This isn’t manipulation (unless you are operating in the shadows without their knowledge and consent); it’s merely being smart about how you present your argument and evidence for change.
- Take Advantage of People’s Bias—Buy Now, Pay Later!
People tend to see things that are happening now as more urgent than those that will happen in the future (Weber, 2006). This tendency is often referred to as “discounting the future.” For instance, when presented with the option of getting $250 now or $366 in a year (a 46% rate of interest), the average person will choose the $250 now (Hardesty and Weber, 2009). This suggests that when trying to persuade others that a change is necessary, even though the future threat and loss may be great, it is desirable to emphasize that inaction now poses its own threat and loss. Also, it is often easier to get people to agree now on a solution, if they can postpone implementation until sometime in the future. People tend to believe that they will be in a better position to change in the future; they expect to have more time, more money, and fewer demands then than they do now.
While experience does not support this belief, it is one that provides people with the motivation to act in the present toward a future goal. Consequently, it is often easier to get people to agree now on a change that won’t take place until some point in the future. You will no doubt recognize this as a strategy commonly used by merchandisers—Buy now, pay later!
- Make the Change Local and Concrete
Often organizational changes are responses to some sort of threat. If that threat is seen as more relevant to distant outsiders than to the people in the organization, or if the threat is presented in the abstract, then the targeted people will have little motivation to change (Leiserowitz, 2007).
However, if you can demonstrate in concrete terms that the threat is local and will have a real impact on the people you are trying to get to accept the change, you may find it easier to persuade them to buy‐in. For instance, when people think about the threat of climate change, many think of it as a threat to other people and other places. In a situation like this, getting people to adopt inconvenient changes is difficult. On the other hand, if you can show them with concrete examples exactly how the change will impact them in their local community or organization, then they are more likely to adopt the necessary changes.
10 Strategies to Overcome Resistance to Change Anthony Marker 3
- Appeal to the Whole Brain
Often, when making a case for a change, change agents use lots of numbers, charts, tables, etc. Such facts and figures appeal especially to one side of the brain. But the human brain has two sides, and although they work together, each has a different way of processing information. The left side is analytical and controls the processing of quantitative information. The right side is experiential and controls the processing of emotional information. Even for audiences where one side may dominate (e.g., engineers who favor facts and figures), the most effective communication targets both sides of the brain (Chaiken and Trope, 1999; Epstein, 1994; Marx, et. al. 2007; Sloman, 1996). One compelling example of this is the design of Apple’s iPhone and other products. People do not stand in line to buy these products simply because of their valuable functionality (which appeals to the left analytical brain), but also because the objects themselves are designed to appeal to the emotions as well (the right brain). To appeal to both sides of the brain, you might
- Combine analytic information with vivid imagery in the form of film footage, metaphors, personal accounts, real‐world analogies, and concrete comparisons
- Employ messages designed to emphasize relevant personal experience and elicit an emotional response
- Beware of Overloading People
While connecting with people’s emotional side, it is important not to overload with too much.
People can attend to only a limited number of things. Scholars sometimes refer to this as the “Finite Pool of Worry” (Linville and Fischer, 1991). Change expert Daryl Connor (1993) likens this to pouring water onto a sponge. At first, the sponge can absorb the water. However, at some point, the sponge becomes full and any additional water simply runs off. The finite pool of worry is full.
This has implications for change agents. Often people’s lives are already filled with change. When you ask (or demand) that they worry about many more things, you may inadvertently introduce “emotional numbing,” a state in which people fail to respond to anything except threats that are immediate. So, beware of overusing emotional appeals, particularly those relying on fear!
- Know the Pros and Cons of Your Change
Not all changes are equal. Some are more beneficial, and some cause more inconvenience and pain.
It pays dividends for change agents to know how their change stacks up against six change characteristics (adapted from Rogers, 2003 and Dormant, 2011).
- Simple—Is your change complex or is it relatively simple to understand and do?
- Compatible—Is your change compatible with what your users are used to?
- Better—Does your change offer clear advantages over other alternatives, including the status quo?
- Adaptable—Can people adapt your change to their own circumstances or must they do it exactly the way you prescribe?
- 10 Strategies to Overcome Resistance to Change Anthony Marker 4
- Painful—Does your change alter social relationships in any way by changing where people work, who they deal with, or how they spend their time?
- Divisible—Can you break the change you offer into smaller parts or phases, or must audiences implement it all at one time?
It is worth noting a couple of important points when judging your change against these characteristics. The first is that any change can have both positive and negative aspects in the same characteristic. For instance, a change might be relatively advantageous in one way and be relatively disadvantageous in another. Secondly, as you evaluate these characteristics, do so—not from your perspective—but from your target audience’s perspective. You need to understand the change from the point of view of those who will feel it most acutely
- How can group dynamics be used by a manager to overcome resistance to change on the part of his subordinates?
Group dynamics refers to the even changing interactions and adjustments in the mutual perceptions and relationships among the members of the groups. These group interactions are the most powerful instrument which facilitate or inhibit adaptation to change. Adaptation is a team activity which requires conformity to the new group norms, moves traditions and work patterns. Management should use group dynamics well. Management should consider the group and not the individual as the basic unit of change.
Resistance to change could be overcome on an enduring basis by systematically planning and implementation the process of change. Kurt Lewin identified the following phases in the process of planned change:
- Unfreezing the present ways of doing things, which are ingrained as habits and customs in individuals as members of groups.
- Moving to the desired or planned level of activity.
- Freezing the group life at the new level.
All these phases affect the change as under:
(a) Unfreezing: In this phase, the manager as a change agent has to assume the responsibility to break open the shell of complacency and self-righteousness among his subordinates. He has to identify the background factors contributing to resistance. Subordinates may resist change for economic, social or personal reasons. The inter-play among the several factors responsible for resistance have to be isolated. Through a series of discussions with the subordinates, it should be possible to explain to them the problems with the present state of affairs, the need for change, the pace and volume of proposed change, the direction and the implications of such change. This is process of mutual learning between the manager and his subordinates. The manager should clear all the nagging doubts of the subordinates about the proposed changes. Eventually, subordinates may see the rationale implicit in the proposed change and may veer round to the idea of the desirability of change.
(b) Moving to the new level: Once the subordinates become receptive to change, the manager should introduce the proposed changes in a systematic manner, with the full co-operation of subordinates. They should be given intensive orientation as to the behavioural changes necessary for successful introduction of the proposed change so that adaptation to the new environment takes shape as desired. Several problems crop up during the process of implementation, some of which might be totally unforeseen. These are to be adroitly handled by the manager in consultation with his subordinates.
(c) Freezing at the new level: This is a process of stabilization, assimilation and institutionalisation of the changes which are successfully implemented. The changes which are accomplished should remain as a stable and permanent characteristic of the system until another need arises for change. The new roles, relationships and behavioural patterns should be allowed to take on the characteristics of habits. Subordinates should get a genuine feeling that the benefits generated by the change are worthwhile.
Guidelines for Making Better Use of Group Dynamics
Group cohesiveness or solidarity may produce resistance to change or acceptance of it. It is the responsibility of manager to use group dynamics in such a way that the solidarity of the group contributes to a favourable attitude towards high standards and acceptance of necessary changes. In order to achieve this, the following principles of group dynamics laid down by Darwin Cartwright should be followed:
- If the group is to be used effectively as a medium of change, those people who are to be engaged and those who are to exert influence for change must have a strong sense of belongingness to the same group.
- The more attractive to the group is to its members. The greater is the influence that the group can exert on its members.
- In attempts to change attitudes, values or behaviour the more relevant they are to the basis of attraction to the group, the greater will be the influence that the group can exert upon them.
- The greater the prestige of a group member in the eyes of the other members, the greater the influence he can exert.
- Efforts to change individuals or subparts of a group which, if successful, would have the effect of making them divide from the norms of the group, will encounter strong resistance.
- Strong pressure for changes in the group can be established by creating a shared percepting by the member of the need for change, thus making the source of pressure for change lie within the group.
- " Change in organisation should be implemented with the cooperation of the effected employees". Comment.
Change proves to be a challenge not just for supervisors and managers, but for employees as well. This adds another dimension to the already difficult situation: guiding the employees through the change. After all, organizations don’t change, people do.
The following are eight suggestions that will help managers and supervisors guide employees through organizational change.
Involve employees in the change process. Employees are not so much against change as they are against being changed. Any time managers are going to implement organizational change, there is always a lag between the time the change has been discussed at the management level and the time the change is going to be implemented. Managers like to play like an ostrich and believe that they are the only ones who know about the changes that are going to take place. Unfortunately, while their heads are stuck in the sand believing that no one else knows, employees are effectively undermining the future changes with negative informal communication…the company grapevine. The sooner you involve employees in the process, the better off you will be implementing the change. A formal communication channel is more effective at implementing change than a negative informal one.
Interview employees regarding their feelings. It is critical that managers and supervisors understand what employees are feeling regarding the change. It is only when you accurately understand their feelings that you know what issues need to be addressed. Implementing change requires the ability to market and to sell. It is difficult to effectively sell without understanding your buyer’s needs, concerns, and fears.
Concentrate on effective delegation. Too often managers and supervisors feel they must use self-protective measures, especially during organizational change. They start by trying to police all activities. Don’t try to cover all the bases yourself. You should concentrate on effective delegation during the early stages of the change process. Effective delegation is particularly good for two reasons: first, it helps you manage and maintain your workload, and second, it gives your employees a sense of involvement. Involvement positions employees to share responsibility for change.
Raise levels of expectations. Now more than ever, you should ask more from your employees. It is expected that more work needs to be done during the change process. While it may be most practical to expect less in terms of performance, raise your levels of expectations and theirs. During change, employees are more likely to alter their work habits, so reach for the opportunity and push them to try harder and work smarter. Require performance improvements and make the process challenging, but remember to keep goals realistic in order to eliminate frustration and failure.
Ask employees for commitment. Once the change has been announced, it is important that you personally ask for each employee’s commitment to successfully implement the change. It is also important that you assure the employee that if there are problems, you want to hear about them. If a negative employee does not tell you, they will tell other employees why the change will not work.
Expand communication channels. The change process usually means that normal communication channels in the firm need to be enlarged. At this time, your employees will be hungrier than ever for information and answers. You can “beef up” communication. First, give employees an opportunity to give you input. Start by becoming more available and asking more questions. Get employees’ opinions and reactions to the changes. Maintain your visibility and make it clear that you are an accessible boss. More importantly, be a careful listener. Second, keep employees updated on a regular basis. Just letting your employees know that you have no new information is meaningful information to them. Strive to be specific; clear up rumors and misinformation that clutter the communication channels. Remember, it is almost impossible to over communicate.
Be firm, committed, and flexible. As you introduce a change, it is important that you see the change through to completion. Abandoning it halfway through the change process accomplishes two negative impacts. First, it destroys your credibility. Second, it tells every employee that if you take the stance of a dinosaur, the change will pass by, even if you lose your job and become extinct in the process. Remain flexible, because you will have to adapt to situations to successfully implement the changes
Keep a positive attitude. Your attitude as a manager or supervisor will be a major factor in determining what type of climate is exhibited by your employees. Your attitude is the one thing that keeps you in control. Change can be stressful and confusing. Try to remain upbeat, positive, and enthusiastic. Foster motivation in others. During times of transition and change, try to compensate your employees for their extra effort. Write a brief note of encouragement on their paychecks; leave an affirming message on their voice mail; take them aside and tell them what a great job they are doing; listen to their comments and suggestions. Last, try to instill organizational change as a personal challenge that everyone can meet…with success!
- What do you understand by organisation development (OD)? Discuss the assumptions underlying organisation development.
Different people have defined OD differently. According to Koonz et. al, “OD is a systematic integrated and planned approach to improve the effectiveness of the enterprise. It is designed to solve problems that adversely affect the operational efficiency at all levels”.
Burke’ has defined OD as “a planned process of change in an organisation’s culture through the utilization of behavioural science technology, research and theory”.
In the opinion of French and Bell “OD is a systematic approach to organisational improvement, that applies behavioural science theory and research in order to increase individual and organisational well-being and effectiveness”.
Now, OD can be defined as a long-term, more encompassing change approach meant to improve individual as well as organisational well-being in a changed situation”.
Characteristics of OD:
The salient characteristics of OD implied in its definitions are gleaned as follows:
First, OD is a systematic approach to the planned change. It is structured style of diagnosing organisational problems and opportunities and then applying expertise to them.
Second, OD is grounded in solid research and theory. It involves the application of our knowledge of behavioural science to the challenge that the organisations face.
Third, OD recognizes the reciprocal relationship between individuals and organisations. It acknowledges that for organisations to change, individuals must change.
Fourth, OD is goal oriented. It is a process that seeks to improve both individual and organisational well- being and effectiveness.
Fifth, OD is designed to solve problems.
Objectives of OD:
The main objectives of OD are to;
- Improve organisational performance as measured by profitability, market share, innovativeness, etc.
- Make organisations better adaptive to its environment which always keeps on changing.
- Make the members willing face organisational problems and contribute creative solutions to the organisational problems.
- Improve internal behaviour patterns such as interpersonal relations, intergroup relations, level of trust and support among the role player.
- Understand own self and others, openness and meaningful communication and involvement in planning for organisational development.
Douglas McGregor, who was working in the Union Carbide, is considered one of the first behavioural scientists to systematically talking about and advocating for the implementation of OD for organisational improvement. OD as a subject is relatively new. Notwithstanding, it is becoming increasingly popular and visible in USA, UK, Japan, Norway, Sweden and even in India.
In India, OD is in scene since 1968. Since then, many public and private sector organisations like HAL, HMT, IDPL, LIC, SAIL, TELCO and TISCO have been applying the interventions of OD to solve the organisational problems.
Assumptions of dealing with Individuals: The two basic assumptions about individuals in organizations are:-Most individuals have drives towards personal growth and development. They want to develop their potential and therefore should be provided with an environment that is both supportive and challenging. In other words, individuals want personal growth and development, which can be attained in a supportive and challenging work situation. Most people desire to make, and are capable of making, a greater contribution to attain organization goals than most organizational environments permit. The implication of this assumption is that people are experts. Organizations must remove obstacles and barriers and reward success. Assumptions of dealing with Groups: These assumptions relate to the importance of work teams. The most psychologically relevant reference groups for most people are the work group. The work group greatly influences feelings of satisfaction and competence. Therefore, individual goals should be integrated with group goals. Most people interact co-operatively with at least one small reference group. Work groups are the best way to satisfy social and emotional needs at work.
Therefore, the growth of individual members is facilitated by relationships, which are open, supportive and trusting.
The suppression of feelings adversely affects problem solving personal growth and satisfaction with one´s work. Attitudinal and motivational problems in organizations require interactive and transactional solutions. Such problems have the greatest chance of constructive solution if all parties in the system alter their mutual relationship, co-operation is always more effective than conflict. Assumptions for designing Organizations: These assumptions relate to the importance of designing organizations. Traditional hierarchical forms of organizations are obsolete. Therefore, experimenting with new organizational structures and new forms of authority is imperative (very important/ essential). Creating cooperative rather than competitive organizational dynamics is a primary task of the organization. An optimistic, developmental set of assumptions about people is likely to reap rewards beneficial to both the organization and its members. Co-operation is always more beneficial. People are an organization´s most important resource. They are the source of productivity and profits and should be treated with care. An organization can achieve higher productivity only when the individual goals are integrated with organizational goals.
Goals of Organization Development
Edwin B. Flippo has given the following seven specific goals of OD. They are:-
Decision-making on the basis of competence rather than authority. Creatively resolving conflicts through confrontation designed to replace win-lose situations with win-win types. Reducing dysfunctional competition and maximizing collaboration. Increasing commitment and a sense of "ownership" of organizational objectives throughout the work force. Increasing the degree of interpersonal trust and support. Creating a climate in which an growth, development and renewal are a natural part of the enterprise´s daily operation. Developing a communication system characterized by mutual openness and condor in solving organizational problems.
The choice depends on the circumstances. Restrictions the managers have to take into account including limits on time and money and lack of skill at implementing a strategy. The choice of a strategy usually results from conferences and discussions involving those who will be most directly affected. The experiences, feelings and perceptions of conference participants help determine if their parts of the organization are ready for change and for OD techniques. The success of OD depends on a high level of receptiveness to change.
Purpose of Organizational Development
The main purpose of OD according to Burton is "to bring about a system of organizational renewal that can effectively cope with environmental changes. In doing so, OD strives to maximize organizational effectiveness as well as individual work satisfaction".
- Why is it necessary for doing OD? Discuss the steps involved in the process of OD.
Organizational development is the use of organizational resources to improve efficiency and expand productivity. It can be used to solve problems within the organization or as a way to analyze a process and find a more efficient way of doing it. Implementing organizational development requires an investment of time and money. But when you understand its importance, you can justify the costs.
The process of organizational development identifies areas of company operations where change is needed. Each need is analyzed, and the potential effects are projected into a change management plan. The plan outlines the specific ways in which the change will improve company operations, who will be affected by the change and how it can be rolled out efficiently to employees. Without organizational development as part of change management, a company would have a difficult time developing effective change management programs.
Organizational development is an important tool in managing and planning corporate growth. An organizational development analysis brings together sales projections and consumer demand to help determine the rate of company growth. This information is used to alter the company business plan and plan the expansion and use of company resources such as personnel and the distribution network to accommodate future growth.
When a company is involved in organizational development, it analyzes work processes for efficiency and accuracy. Any quality control measures required to attain company standards are put in place. Evaluators analyze duplicate process, or processes that can be combined for greater efficiency, and develop and implement detailed plans on how to improve company methods.
Product innovation requires the analysis of several kinds of information to be successful. Organizational development is critical to product innovation because it can help analyze each element of product development and create a method for using it effectively. Some of the processes that come together in organizational development to assist in product innovation are competitive analysis, technology development, consumer preferences, and target market research, manufacturing capabilities analysis and patents and trademarks.
- Initial Diagnosis of the Problem:
In the first step, the management should try to find out an overall view of the situation to find the real problem. Top management should meet the consultants and the experts to determine the type of programme that is needed. In the first stage only, the consultants will meet various persons in the organisation and interview them to collect some information.
- Data Collection:
In this stage, the consultant will make the surveys to determine the climate of the organisation and the behavioural problems of the employees.
The consultant will meet groups of people away from their work environment to get some answers to the questions such as:
(i) What specific job conditions contribute most to their job effectiveness?
(ii) What kind of conditions interferes with their job effectiveness?
(iii) What changes would they like to make in the working of the organisation?
- Data Feedback and Confrontation:
The data which has been collected in the second step will be given to the work groups, who will be assigned the job of reviewing the data. Any areas of disagreement will be mediated among themselves only and priorities will be established for change.
- Planning Strategy for Change:
In this stage, the consultant will suggest the strategy for change. He will attempt to transform diagnosis of the problem into a proper action plan involving the overall goals for change, determination of basic approach for attaining these goals and the sequence of detailed scheme for implementing the approach.
- Intervening in the System:
Intervening in the system refers to the planned programmed activities during the course of an OD programme. These planned activities bring certain changes in the system, which is the basic objective of OD. There may be various methods through which external consultant intervene in the system such as education and laboratory training, process consultation, team development etc.
- Team Building:
During the entire process, the consultant encourages the groups to examine how they work together. The consultant will educate them about the value of free communication and trust as essentials for group functioning. The consultant can have team managers and their subordinates to work together as a team in OD sessions to further encourage team building. Following the development of small groups, there may be development among larger groups comprising several teams.
OD is a very long process. So there is a great need for careful monitoring to get precise feedback regarding what is going on after the OD programme starts. This will help in making suitable modifications whenever necessary. For evaluation of OD programme, the use of critique sessions, appraisal of change efforts and comparison of pre and post training behavioural patterns are quite effective.
The steps in OD are part of a whole process, so all of them need to be applied if a firm expects to get the full benefits of OD. An organisation which applies only a few steps and leaves the others will be disappointed with the results.
- Discuss the behavioural interventions techniques for Organisation development.
- Survey Feedback:
Information is collected through survey method. This is the most popular and widely used method of data collection. The managers use this information collected through survey for making decisions. The wide range of data is collected regarding working conditions, quality of work, working hours, wages and salaries, attitude of employees relating to above.
These data are then analyzed by the team of managers. They find out the problem, evaluate the results and find out solutions. Information is collected from all the members of the organisation. Managers conduct meetings with their subordinates and discuss the information, allow subordinates to interpret the data. After this plans are prepared for making necessary changes. This procedure is followed at all levels of management involving all the employees of the organisation.
- Team Building:
Team Building is another method of organisation development. This method is specifically designed to make improvement in the ability of employees and motivating them to work together. It is the organisation development technique which emphasizes on team building or forming work groups in order to improve organisational effectiveness.
These teams consist of employees of the same rank and a supervisor. This technique is an application of sensitivity training to the teams of different departments. The teams or work groups are pretty small consisting of 10 to 15 persons. They undergo group discussion under the supervision of an expert trainer usually a supervisor. The trainer only guides but does not participate in the group discussion.
This method of team building is used because people in general do not open up their mind and not honest to their fellows. As they does not mix up openly and fail to express their views to the peers and superiors. This technique helps them express their views and see how others interpret their views. It increases the sensitivity to others’ behaviour.
They become aware of group functioning. They get exposed to the creative thinking of others and socio-psychological behaviour at the workplace. They learn many aspects of interpersonal behaviour and interactions.
- Sensitivity Training:
It is quite popular OD intervention. It is also known as laboratory training. Under this technique the employees in groups are asked to interact. The aim of sensitivity training is to help people understand each other and gain insight so that they feel free and become fearless.
Abraham Korman has rightly observed that, “the assumptions of sensitivity training procedure are that, if these goals are achieved, one will become defensive about himself, less fearful of the intentions of others, more responsive to others and their needs, and less likely to misinterpret others’ behaviours in a negative fashion
“Under this technique the different groups of employees are allowed to mix up with each other and communicate freely and build up interpersonal relationship. They learn the reflection of their behaviour and try to improve it. In the words of Chris Argyris, “sensitivity training is a group experience designed to provide maximum possible opportunity for the individuals to expose their behaviour, give and receive feedback, experiment with new behaviour and develop awareness of self and of others.”
The employees through this technique know others feelings and behaviour and the impact of their behaviour on others. It builds up openness, improves listening skills, tolerate individual differences and the art of resolving conflicts. It helps in reducing interpersonal conflicts in the organisation.
It is up to the executives at the top level of management in the organisation to take decision regarding appropriateness of this technique but they must see that the objectives of organisational development are achieved with the help of this method.
However there is every likelihood that some culprits will exploit the opportunity to fulfill their vested goals at the cost of organisation’s interests. There is one more serious drawback of the method that it may give rise to groupism in the organisation which will defeat the purpose of OD. To make this technique effective and fulfill the purpose of OD, the selection of trainer must be cautiously made. He must be a man of integrity and responsibility and must command respect from the participating groups.
He plays a crucial role in making the OD programme successful. He should maintain cordial atmosphere throughout the training programme. He must see that each member of the groups learn the behaviour of others and to be creative and get more exposure to group life.
- Managerial Grid:
This technique is developed by industrial psychologists duo Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. The concept of managerial grid identifies two major dimensions of management behaviour. They are people oriented and production oriented behaviours. Attempts are made to pay increased attention to both the variables.
In the diagram given below, production oriented behaviour is shown on X axis and people oriented behaviour is shown on Y axis. The point A having coordinates 1.1 managerial style shows low people oriented and low production oriented behaviour.
It is impoverished management. There are many managers come under this category. Such managers do not face any trouble and they do not carry any risk too. The point B having coordinates 1.9 represents a managerial style which is highly people oriented and low production oriented. This is a Country Club pattern of management. This type of management style keeps the employees happy without much concern for production.
The next point C or 9.1 represents a managerial style which shows high concern for production and low in people orientation. The managers who come under this category who usually fix high targets of production for their subordinates and employees and do not pay any attention to the needs and wants of their people.
The point D having coordinates 9.9 represent a managerial style which is highly production oriented and highly people oriented. Robert Blake and Jane Mouton say that this is the most effective managerial style. Under this category of management style managers put their best efforts and have commitment to the people and organisation. This is the most favoured style and efforts must be made to develop the style accordingly.
There is however a middle way which is represented by the point E or 5.5 a management style having moderate production orientation and moderate people orientation. This is known as middle of the road managerial style. But the style represented by the point D or 9.9 is the most effective and most favoured one for accomplishment of organisational objectives. To achieve D or 9.9 type of managerial style to strengthen organisational effectiveness Blake and Mouton have prescribed Grid programme which is a structured laboratory training containing six phases.
Production Oriented Behaviour
Phases of Managerial Grid:
The following are the six phases of managerial grid training programme:
- Phase or step one consists of seminar training. The seminars usually conducted up to a week. Through seminars the participants learn about their own grid concept and style. This can help them assess their management style. It also helps them to improve their skill within their group. They develop problem solving techniques and develop their own grid programme.
- The second phase gives more stress on team development. The teams consisting of managers make necessary efforts to prepare plans to attain point D or 9.9 managerial styles. Through this they learn how to develop smooth relationship with their subordinates and to develop communication skill with other members of the organisation.
- The third phase is intergroup development for improving coordination between different departments of the organisation. Participants learn to develop problem solving methods.
- The fourth phase deals with the creation of ideal models organisation. Managers and their immediate subordinates sit together, set the goals, test and evaluate them. Superiors acquired knowledge through reading of books. They prepare ideal strategy for the organisation.
- The fifth phase deals with goal accomplishment. The teams of various departments make survey of the resources available in the departments or which can be procured to accomplish the goals of the organisation.
- The sixth deals with evaluation of the programmes and to see if necessary alteration or adjustment can be made for execution. The managerial grid technique is quite complicated and its benefits cannot be visualized immediately, hence its evaluation can be done after pretty long time.
- Management by Objectives (MBO):
MBO is a technique of management development which was put forward for the first time by Peter Drucker in 1954. It is a method of achieving organisational objectives and a technique of evaluation and review of performance. Under this method objectives of the organisation are fixed and responsibility to achieve them lie on the managers and results are expected from them.
Achievement of organisational objectives is considered as the joint and individual responsibility of all managers. It also provides a perfect appraisal system. Performance of the managers is measured against the specific objectives. It is result oriented technique.
George Odiorne observed that MBO is, “a system wherein superior and subordinate managers of an organisation jointly identify its common aims, define each individual’s major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him and use these measures as guides for operating the unit, assessing the contribution benefits of its members.”
According to D D White and D A Bednar, “MBO is a technique designed to (1) increase the precision of the planning process at the organisational level and (2) reduce the gap between employee and organisational goals.”
MBO process involves four major steps:
(1) Goal Setting by Top Management:
For effective planning the organisational goals are set by the top management. These goals provide an outline or base for different departments to set their goals after making certain modifications etc. if at all necessary.
(2) Individual Goals:
Organisational goals cannot be fulfilled by a single individual but all the members’ cooperative and active participation is necessary. It is therefore pertinent to assign a target to every individual and he must attain it.
(3) Freedom for Selection of Means:
A considerable amount of freedom or autonomy is given for the accomplishment of goals to the managers and subordinates.
(4) Making Appraisal:
The performance is to be reviewed and appraised in relation to the goals. This will help the subordinates and employees to make the corrections if any and make further improvements.
MBO is an effective technique of organisational development and improving performance. It promotes coordination among superiors and subordinates at all levels and is an effective tool of planning and control. It helps to learn problem solving techniques.
- Brain Storming:
It is a technique where a group of five to eight managers come together and find a solution to a problem. As the name suggests it involves storming of the brain to develop creativity in thinking. It gives rise to new ideas. The principle involves in it is that any idea, thought or plan put forward in a meeting must be critically evaluated. The participants are asked to come forward with novel ideas generated in their mind. It works on a premise that everyone has a creative mind and capability to generate new ideas.
Participants are closely observed at the discussion and no expert is provided to conduct the meeting. The participants sit across the table for close communication. The brainstorming technique can generate an atmosphere where people can express freely. This encourages group interaction and creative thinking. The only limitation this method has is that it is time consuming and hence expensive.
- Process Consultation:
The technique of process consultation is an improvement over the method of sensitivity training or T Group in the sense that both are based on the similar premise of improving organisational effectiveness through dealing with interpersonal problems but process consultation is more tasks oriented than sensitivity training.
In process consultation the consultant or expert provides the trainee feedback and tell him what is going around him as pointed out by E H Schein that the consultant, “gives the client ‘insight’ into what is going on around him, within him, and between him and other people.”
Under this technique the consultant or expert provides necessary guidance or advice as to how the participant can solve his own problem. Here the consultant makes correct diagnosis of the problem and then guides the participants.
The consultant according to E H Schein, “helping the client to perceive, understand and act upon process events which occur in the clients’ environment.” Process consultation technique is developed to find solutions to the important problems faced by the organisation such as decision making and problem solving, communication, functional role of group members, leadership qualities. Consultant is an expert outside the organisation.
E H Schein has suggested the following steps for consultant to follow in process consultation:
(i) Initiate contact:
This is where the client contacts the consultant with a problem that cannot be solved by normal organisation procedures or resources.
(ii) Define the Relationship:
In this step the consultant and the client enter into both a formal contract spelling out services, time, and frees and a psychological contract. The latter spells out the expectations and hoped for results of both the client and the consultant.
(iii) Select a Setting and a Method:
This step involves an understanding of where and how the consultant will do the job that needs to be done
(iv) Gather Data and Make a Diagnosis:
Through a survey using questionnaires, observation and interviews, the consultant makes a preliminary diagnosis. This data gathering occurs simultaneously with the entire consultative process.
Agenda setting, feedback, coaching, and/or structural interventions can be made in the process consultation approach.
(vi) Reduce Involvement and Terminate:
The consultant disengages from the client organization by mutual agreement but leaves the door open for future involvement.” The organisation benefits from the process consultation to ease out interpersonal and intergroup problems. To use the technique of process consultation effectively the participants should take interest in it
- Quality Circles:
Under this system a group of 5 to 12 come together at their own free will during working hours once in a week and discuss out the problems and suggests solution to the management for implementation. The supervisors remain present during the meeting. Quality Circles have their origin in Japan in nineteen sixties which improved the quality, reduced cost and heightened the morale of the workers. The success was due to workers’ participation. Total quality management or TQM is the recent development. This concept was adopted by the USA in 1980.
- Transactional Analysis:
Transactional analysis helps people to understand each other better. It is a useful tool for organisational development but it has diverse applications in training, counselling, interpersonal communication and making analysis of group dynamics. Nowadays, it is widely used as OD technique. It helps in developing more adult ego states among people of the organisation. It is also used in process consultation and team building.
- “Organisations that fail to change are sure to fall". Comment.
Understanding the value of and need for a strategic plan is a great place to start, but just wanting something, isn’t enough. If it were, we’d all be famous actors in Hollywood. Developing a strategic plan takes discipline, foresight, and a lot of honesty. Regardless how well you prepare, you’re bound to encounter challenges along the way.
Here are 10 reasons why plans fail. Avoid these traps and you’ll be closer to your goal of implementing a strategic plan that actually achieves results and improves your business.
- Having a plan simply for plans sake. Some organizations go through the motions of developing a plan simply because common sense says every good organization must have a plan. Don’t do this. Just like most everything in life, you get out of a plan what you put in. If you’re going to take the time to do it, do it right.
- Not understanding the environment or focusing on results. Planning teams must pay attention to changes in the business environment, set meaningful priorities, and understand the need to pursue results.
3. Partial commitment. Business owners/CEOs/presidents must be fully committed and fully understand how a strategic plan can improve their enterprise. Without this knowledge, it’s tough to stay committed to the process.
4. Not having the right people involved. Those charged with executing the plan should be involved from the onset. Those involved in creating the plan will be committed to seeing it through execution.
5. Writing the plan and putting it on the shelf. This is as bad as not writing a plan at all. If a plan is to be an effective management tool, it must be used and reviewed continually. Unlike Twinkies or a fine vino, strategic plans don’t have a good shelf life.
- Unwillingness or inability to change. Your company and your strategic plan must be nimble and able to adapt as market conditions change.
- Having the wrong people in leadership positions. Management must be willing to make the tough decisions to ensure the right individuals are in the right leadership positions. The “right” individuals include those who will advocate for and champion the strategic plan and keep the company on track.
- Write short notes on five:
- Planned change,
Every change should have a planned way. Planned change may help the person people to adapt with the change environment, planned change is pre determined. It is decided in advance what is to be done in future. It is a deliberate process.
For making any planned change, pre thinking is supposed to be done about the outcomes and impact of change also. Despite carefulness if any negative impact is seen, one can have preparation or metal objective to face the changes. Here is a definition of planned change given below:
Definition of planned change
However, we can define planned change as follows: Any kind of alternation or modification which is done in advance and differently for the improvement of present position into brighter one is called planned change
Forces for planned change is an Organization
An organization’s planned change may take place-having demand for two sources. These forces are classified into internal sources and external sources.
- Force field analysis
Force Field Analysis is a useful decision-making technique. It helps you make a decision by analyzing the forces for and against a change, and it helps you communicate the reasoning behind your de