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Title Name Amity Solved Assignment BBA 6th Sem for Human Resource Management
University AMITY
Service Type Assignment
Course B.B.A
Semister Semester-VI Cource: B.B.A
Short Name or Subject Code Human Resource Management
Commerce line item Type Semester-VI Cource: B.B.A
Product Assignment of B.B.A Semester-VI (AMITY)

Solved Assignment


  Questions :-

                                                                                                                              Amity BBA 3 SEM Solve Assignment For Human Resource Management

 

1 .        “A good human resource manager is no longer just a hirer and firer of men”. In the light of the statement, explain the role and function of an effective Human Resource Manager?   

2 .        What is the difference between Recruitment and Selection? Give methods of recruitment in Tourism Industry.        

3 .        “Human Resource Planning is the process of determining the number and kind of human required in an organization for a specific time period in future. ”Comment

4 .        What do you mean by recruitment? What are the traditional methods and new methods and techniques of recruitment?           

5 .        What are the general training methods which can be used with the different categories of personnel?           

6 .        Describe the recent trends of recruitment with respect to campus recruitment and its process.       

7 .        What do you understand by HRD? What is its importance in service sector and tourism sector?   

8 .        What is the need of HRM in the Tourism Industry? 

 

Section B 

Case Detail: 

Apollo Hospital has been growing in size as it offers quality, prompt-caring services to the patients; Dr. Chandrashekar the administrator is a person with good medical knowledge but lacks knowledge and skills involved in human resource management. The hospital has large quantities of medicine, equipment, spare-parts of important machines installed in the hospital. As usual, the hospital has employed a “store keeper” with no previous experience of Hospital stores. Mr Ramakant the store keeper was working earlier in an engineering firm and had sufficient knowledge of such stores. Ramakant reports to the purchase executive whose job is to order requisite materials for the requirements of the entire Hospital, Dr. Chandrashekar has been receiving various complaints from the staff and doctors of non-availability of medicines, drugs, spares of equipment and other consumables required in the Hospital having 500 beds. Since the hospital so far did not employ a qualified Personnel Manager, the administrators are not aware of the job analysis procedures, nor do they have job description and job specification of any of the jobs being performed.

1. Write down theob description and Job specification of a storekeeper’s job.

2. Which are the staff members from whom you would collect useful information and requirements of the job?

3. What should be the behaviour of the administrator of a Hospital? Describe his Job Analysis.

 

Section C

Question No. 1

The basic managerial skill(s) is (are)   

  1. To supervise   
  2. To motivate    
  3. To stimulate   
  4. All of these

 

Question No. 2

The human resource Manangement helps toi improve the     

  1. Production     
  2. Productivity   
  3. power 
  4. Produce

 

Question No.  3

Recruitment and selection must be effective to ensure it:      

  1. Offsets high labour turnover  
  2. Delivers the highest calibre of individuals at optimum most 
  3. To have a surplus in case of sickness and absence     
  4. Encourages new blood into the organization

 

Question No.  4

The actual achievements compared with the objectives of the job is

  1. Job Performance        
  2. Job evaluation
  3. Job description           
  4. None of these

 

Question No.  5

The solution too many so-called ´people problems´ is often associated with improving the effectiveness of the recruitment process by:          

  1. Having a robust HR department to carry out the process     
  2. Outsourcing the HR department       
  3. Careful selection of the right people for the job        
  4. Devolving to line managers

 

Question No.  6

The following is (are) concerned with developing a pool of candidates in line with the human resources plan            

  1. Development  
  2. Training          
  3. Recruitment   
  4. All of these

 

Question No.  7

Performance development plan is set for the employee by his immediate boss.        

  1. Employer        
  2. Department Head      
  3. Immediate boss          
  4. None of these

 

Question No.  8

Performance appraisals are designed to motivate workers by providing them with feedback, recognition, and what? 

  1. Better work facilities 
  2. Equal opportunities    
  3. Greater work autonomy         
  4. Praise

 

Question No.  9

HR Planning involves four distinct phases ONE of these stages is   

  1. business scanning       
  2. Forecasting human resource records  
  3. Organisation development     
  4. planning         

 

Question No.  10

 Human Resource Information system          

  1. Integrates core process into streamline systems         
  2. Collaborates core process into streamline systems     
  3. Plans core process into streamline systems    
  4. All of these    

 

Question No.  11

Competencies are the  

  1. Knowledge    
  2. Skills  
  3. Behaviour       
  4. All of these    

 

Question No.  12

What do you understand “S” in the defining SMART Goals                      

  1. Solution          
  2. specific           
  3. standard         
  4. soft

 

Question No.  13

Strategic Human Resource management is            

  1. proactive        
  2. reactive           
  3. both    
  4. None of these

 

Question No.  14

e-HRM stands for       

  1. Electronic       
  2. Economic       
  3. Equal  
  4. None of these 

 

Question No.  15

Training increases the employees        

  1. market value   
  2. earning power
  3. job security     
  4. All of these

 

Question No.  16

Job evaluation is based on the:           

  1. Complexity of the job to perform      
  2. Conceptual skill required by the job  
  3. Relative job worth for an organization          
  4. Physical skills required by the job      

 

Question No.  17

One of the most popular methods of increasing employee responsibility and control is _______.   

  1. Outsourcing   
  2. "Military model" of management       
  3. Work teams    
  4. Manpower planning

 

Question No.  18

Full form of HRD is          

  1. Human Resource Development         
  2. Human Resource Department
  3. Human Resource Division     
  4. None of these

 

Question No.  19

The voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organisation is called ___________.          

  1. Turnover         
  2. Behaviour       
  3. Misbehaviour 
  4. None of these

 

Question No.  20

_____________ is a performance measure of both efficiency and effectiveness.    

  1. Organisational behaviour       
  2. Organisational citizenship      
  3. Employee productivity          
  4. None of these 

 

Question No.  21

What are the main aims of Employee Assistance Programmes?        

  1. To alter the organizational culture.    
  2. To address team and individual performance and well-being in the workplace.      
  3. To focus the attention of employees to the power structures of an organization.     
  4. To establish effective methods of care and support for everyone in an organization.          

 

Question No.  22

 Which of the following is a need that motivates human behaviour as per the achievement motivation theory?            

  1. Power 
  2. Affiliation      
  3. Achievement  
  4. All of these    

 

Question No.  23

Which performance appraisal methods consumes a lot of time?       

  1. Essay method 
  2. Rating Scales 
  3. Critical incident         
  4. Tests And Observation

 

Question No.  24

The focuses of psychological appraisals are on _____.          

  1. Future potential          
  2. Actual performance   
  3. Past performance       
  4. None of these 

 

Question No.  25

__________ refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow. 

  1. Training          
  2. Development  
  3. Education       
  4. All of these    

 

Question No.  26

How does training and development offer competitive advantage to an organisation?       

  1. Removing performance decencies     
  2. Individuals have the aptitude and motivation to learn          
  3. Deficiency is caused by a lack of ability       
  4. None of these 

 

Question No.  27

 Which of the following is a benefit of employee training?  

  1. Improves morale        
  2. Helps people identify with organisational goals        
  3. Provides a good climate for learning, growth and co - ordination    
  4. None of these

 

Question No.  28

Which of the following is a method used in group or organisational training needs assessment?    

  1. Consideration of current and projected changes       
  2. Rating scales  
  3. Interviews      
  4. Questionnaires

 

Question No.  29

_________ seeks to examine the goals of the organisation and the trends that are likely to affect these goals.           

  1. Organisational Support          
  2. Organisational analysis          
  3. Person analysis           
  4. Key skill abilities analysis

 

Question No.  30

Which of these is an off - the - job training method? 

  1. Television       
  2. Job rotation    
  3. Orientation training    
  4. Coaching

 

Question No.  31

Which of these is the benefit of needs assessment?  

  1. Assessment makes training department more accountable    
  2. Higher training costs  
  3. Loss of business         
  4. Increased overtime working  

 

Question No.  32

Which of these is a hindrance to effective training?  

  1. Career planning workshop     
  2. Aggregate spending on training is inadequate           
  3. Mentoring      
  4. Career counselling

 

Question No.  33

The ____________ refers incentives to variable pay.

  1. National Tribunal       
  2. International Labour office    
  3. Labour Court 
  4. None of the above

 

Question No.  34

Which of the below given options is a pre - requisite for an effective incentive system?      

  1. Increased need for planning  
  2. Co-operation of workers        
  3. Management´s commitment to the cost and time necessary to administer incentive scheme
  4. All of the these

 

Question No.  35

Which of the forecasting technique is the fastest?    

  1. Work study technique
  2. Flow models  
  3. Ratio trend analysis   
  4. HR demand Forecast

 

Question No.  36

What techniques are used while analysing the internal supply?        

  1. Inflows and outflows
  2. Turnover rate  
  3. Conditions of work and absenteeism
  4. All of the these

 

Question No.  37

Which of the following is a barrier while doing human resource planning?   

  1. HR information often is incompatible with the information used in strategy formulation   
  2. Implementing human resource information system   
  3. Managing inventories 
  4. Supply forecast

 

Question No.  38

What are the pre- requisites for successful human resource planning?          

  1. Backing of top management  
  2. Personal records must be complete    
  3. Techniques of planning should be the best    
  4. All of these

 

Question No.  39

When appraisals are made by superiors, peers, subordinates and clients then it is called ____.       

  1. 360 degree feedback  
  2. 180 degree feedback  
  3. Self - appraisal
  4. All  of these

 

Question No.  40

Which of these is one of the seven criteria for assessing performance?        

  1. Community service    
  2. Interpersonal contact 
  3. Need for supervision  
  4. All  of these
  Answers :-

                                                                                                                                                                        Human Resource Management

 

  1. “A good human resource manager is no longer just a hirer and firer of men”. In the light of the statement, explain the role and function of an effective Human Resource Manager?

Ans.

In today’s highly competitive business environment, all functions in an organization are increasingly expected to justify their existence by the contribution they make to that organization’s competitive advantage. This is especially true for administrative functions: traditional perceptions must be overcome and effectiveness successfully “marketed” internally. This article looks at perceptions of HR effectiveness and argues that such perceptions challenge HR departments to think and operate strategically. Recruitment

This is the one function which is hand in glove with HR. Recruitment has been one of the major responsibilities of the HR team. It is the job of HR personnel to plan and devise strategic campaigns and guidelines for recruiting suitable candidates for a required job description. They also have to serve as a mediator between the employer and the candidate and communicate company policies and terms of the contract to the candidate before he is hired. This is the first pillar of HR management that every HR manager starts with. It’s probably one of the most important aspects of any HR professional’s career. The recruitment function comprises 2 main objectives:

1) Attract Talent

Attracting talent starts with first planning the requirement of manpower in the organization. Gauging needs of the organization’s human resource requirements, and accordingly putting a plan of action to fulfill those needs with placement of “talented professionals”. That’s followed by creating an “employer brand” which will be representative of the organization’s good image and portray an attractive impression in the minds of potential candidates.

The employer branding aspects have become very important owing to the new-age media and awareness of employee rights. Putting the best foot forward is no longer enough, it needs to be followed through with honest actions in favor of the employees. And finally… the HR manager needs to them create detailed recruitment strategies carry out the hiring process.

2) Hire Resources

This is where the recruitment strategies are put in action. In the current age, there’s ton of competition vying for the attention of the best talent in the market. The HR manager needs to run all possible engines to go out there in the market and find that one suitable gem.

This part of the role includes things like finding relevant locations to look in, reach out to maximum potential candidates using mass communication mediums, aggregate all responses, filter out irrelevant applications, judge suitable incumbents and coordinate internally to get them interviewed. Once the finalists are decided, the HR manager turns into a ‘negotiator’ of sorts, working as a mediator between the company and the candidate to find that win-win ground.

3) Training

Not all is done once you’ve recruited a suitable candidate for the job. Many organizations perform tasks a tad differently. Training employees is important to help the new hires get acquainted with the organization’s work pattern. It is imperative for the HR department to incorporate a training program for every new employee based on the skill set required for their job. It will further also contribute towards employee motivation and retention.

For the training to be effective, every new employee can be subjected to an on-the-job training for the initial days to get him in sync with the work guidelines of the organization. This training will not only be of assistance to the employee but also give the HR team an insight into the employee’s workmanship. On completion of the training, HR plays a significant role in assessing the results of the training program and grading employees on the same.

4) Professional Development

Closely related to training, developing your employees professionally is an added bonus for the employee as well as the organization. Enrolling the employee to attend conferences, trade shows, seminars etc that may be in his personal interest will make the employee feel cared-for and a vital part of the organization, thus increasing employee engagement. It will be beneficial to the organization by way of the employee’s added skill set.

 

In short, it is a win-win. It is the HR head’s job to get to know the employee’s hobbies and areas of interest and look out for opportunities that will help them build onto those hobbies. For example, if an employee wants to master the technique of SEO, the HR could enroll him for seminars and conferences that talk on the same. However, this should not turn out to be a selfish attempt that benefits the organization only.

5) Appraisals

Since HRM is a body meant for the employees, carrying out timely performance appraisals is a given. Performance appraisals help in employee motivation by encouraging them to work to their fullest potential. It also enables to give them feedback on their work and suggest necessary measures for the same. This helps employees to have a clear view of what is expected of them and what they are delivering. They can thus, work better towards improving their performance and achieving targets.

The role of HR (especially the HR manager) in this would be to have a policy of generating timely appraisal reports and a review of the same by the authorities. The HR team should communicate individually with employees and give a clear feedback or suggestion on their performance. A system to reward employees excelling at their work would help in employee motivation and thus garner a higher degree of productivity and employee engagement.

6) Maintaining Work Culture

It is the duty of the HR to maintain a healthy, safe, and fun work environment to ensure a level of comfort amongst the employees and eliminate any stressful or awkward atmosphere that may hinder the performance of the staff. It is vital to have an efficient work atmosphere, because an individual’s performance a largely dependent on the surrounding he’s working in.

It would be great to have an open-door policy up to some extent wherein employees can freely communicate and voice their opinions to be given consideration. The HR department’s role is to be a friendly body with an open attitude. By communicating and treating every employee as equal, the HR can build a rapport with the employees. This goes a long way in increasing employee engagement and gives a higher job satisfaction.

7) Resolving Conflicts

Where different people have different views, conflicts are almost inevitable. Whether the dispute is amongst two or more employees or between the employee and the management, an HR manager has the right to intervene and help map out a solution.

The HR should be available at the disposal of the conflicting parties and hear out their issues without being judgmental. Prior investigations are a must before passing any judgment. The HR head is not expected to discriminate or play favorites in this matter and always deliver an unbiased and practical decision. A reimbursement in case of any loss caused and strict actions against the defaulter should be practiced for effective conflict resolution by the HRM.

8) Employee Relations

The Human Resources is called so because its major responsibility is dealing with the human part of the organization and this involves having great interpersonal skills. An HR manager who sits in the office all day will not turn out to be good at building connections with the employees and thus fail to serve the purpose of being an HR head. As an HR person, employees should feel comfortable coming up to you with their problems and for that, it is important that the HR team builds a good public image within the organization.

The HR team has to be proactive and know their employees. An HR personnel’s job is not a desk job altogether. The HR head’s role is to establish the trust and confidence of the employees and not have a “don’t mess with me” demeanour. He should be looked upon as both an HR expert and an employee advocate.

9) Rewards and Incentives

Rewarding the employees for a work well done imparts motivation and at the same time induces a desire to excel at tasks in hope of obtaining rewards. It serves as bait for inculcating a healthy competitive environment amongst employees to achieve targets and meet deadlines. A reward need not be materialistic always. It could just be a word of appreciation in front of all coworkers for a menial task done with complete honesty.

 

However, with globalization and evolving trends, compensations like holiday packages, pay incentive, bonuses, and promotion are taking a backseat. If as an HR manager you are wanting to reward your employees efficiently, it’s time you adapt new ways of awarding benefits such as flexible work times, paternity leave, extended holidays, telecommuting etc. These non-traditional rewards will prove fruitful not only in engaging existing workforce but also as an added benefit to attract new talent to your organization.

Legal Knowledge

This may seem the least glamorous of all, but is an important aspect of the HRM. An HR manager should always be in compliance with the law. Whether it’s drafting new policies or writing terms of a contract, it is the HR department’s job to build guidelines keeping the laws in mind. This ensures an organization’s continued growth and existence. While drafting policies, the HR should always ensure to be at an upper hand legally and keep the organization’s practices in tune with the labor laws, tax laws, permissible working hours, minimum wages, and a no-discrimination policy.

Organization

An HR head is responsible for organizing all functions of the organization. To start with, it includes employee on-boarding, i.e. welcoming new employees. It is a must for every HR head to carry out an induction for every new hire, and give them an orientation regarding the company policies and rules.

The HR personnel should also introduce the new employees to their colleagues and assign them a mentor. It also involves listing out job expectations and defining roles and responsibilities, thus getting the new employees in tune with the working of the organization. The HR personnel are also responsible for organizing and storing all employee data efficiently and keeping it secure.

Management

Management is the most important job of an HR manager. It is what defines a good HR manager. Management extends right from managing employees to managing the employers and the whole HR department as well.

The role of an HR manager is to manage, create, implement and supervise policies/regulations, which are mandatory for every employee and also have knowledge of its appropriate functioning. Monitoring attendance and tracking leaves forms a major chunk of the HR management function. There should be a proper management of the clock-in/out time to avoid late arrivals and track overtimes and half-days. As mentioned before, the HR as a department should also be well managed by the HR head. If the HR department itself is in a state of chaos, it cannot serve as a peacemaker for the other departments.

Payroll Management

Once all the attendance monitoring, leave tracking, clock in/outs etc is tracked and monitored, it’s time for the most important aspect–calculating the payroll. Efficient calculation of salaries, wage-cuts, reimbursements, and generation of pay slips amounts to the role of HR managers in payroll management.

The HR manager should maintain transparency and provide the employees with information as and when asked. The HR should ensure not only accurate calculations of salaries but also timely transfer of the same. They also have an obligation towards exiting employees in settlement of dues and compensations.

 

  1. What is the difference between Recruitment and Selection? Give methods of recruitment in Tourism Industry.

Ans.

Both recruitment and selection are the two phases of the employment process. The differences between recruitment and selection are:                                             

Recruitment

This is the one function which is hand in glove with HR. Recruitment has been one of the major responsibilities of the HR team. It is the job of HR personnel to plan and devise strategic campaigns and guidelines for recruiting suitable candidates for a required job description. They also have to serve as a mediator between the employer and the candidate and communicate company policies and terms of the contract to the candidate before he is hired. This is the first pillar of HR management that every HR manager starts with. It’s probably one of the most important aspects of any HR professional’s career. The recruitment function comprises 2 main objectives:

                                                                                                                                                                  1) Attract Talent

 
Attracting talent starts with first planning the requirement of manpower in the organization. Gauging needs of the organization’s human resource requirements, and accordingly putting a plan of action to fulfill those needs with placement of “talented professionals”. That’s followed by creating an “employer brand” which will be representative of the organization’s good image and portray an attractive impression in the minds of potential candidates.

The employer branding aspects have become very important owing to the new-age media and awareness of employee rights. Putting the best foot forward is no longer enough, it needs to be followed through with honest actions in favor of the employees. And finally… the HR manager needs to them create detailed recruitment strategies carry out the hiring process.

2) Hire Resources

This is where the recruitment strategies are put in action. In the current age, there’s ton of competition vying for the attention of the best talent in the market. The HR manager needs to run all possible engines to go out there in the market and find that one suitable gem.

This part of the role includes things like finding relevant locations to look in, reach out to maximum potential candidates using mass communication mediums, aggregate all responses, filter out irrelevant applications, judge suitable incumbents and coordinate internally to get them interviewed. Once the finalists are decided, the HR manager turns into a ‘negotiator’ of sorts, working as a mediator between the company and the candidate to find that win-win ground.

Training

Not all is done once you’ve recruited a suitable candidate for the job. Many organizations perform tasks a tad differently. Training employees is important to help the new hires get acquainted with the organization’s work pattern. It is imperative for the HR department to incorporate a training program for every new employee based on the skill set required for their job. It will further also contribute towards employee motivation and retention.

For the training to be effective, every new employee can be subjected to an on-the-job training for the initial days to get him in sync with the work guidelines of the organization. This training will not only be of assistance to the employee but also give the HR team an insight into the employee’s workmanship. On completion of the training, HR plays a significant role in assessing the results of the training program and grading employees on the same.

1) Professional Development

Closely related to training, developing your employees professionally is an added bonus for the employee as well as the organization. Enrolling the employee to attend conferences, trade shows, seminars etc that may be in his personal interest will make the employee feel cared-for and a vital part of the organization, thus increasing employee engagement. It will be beneficial to the organization by way of the employee’s added skill set.

In short, it is a win-win. It is the HR head’s job to get to know the employee’s hobbies and areas of interest and look out for opportunities that will help them build onto those hobbies. For example, if an employee wants to master the technique of SEO, the HR could enroll him for seminars and conferences that talk on the same. However, this should not turn out to be a selfish attempt that benefits the organization only.

2) Appraisals

Since HRM is a body meant for the employees, carrying out timely performance appraisals is a given. Performance appraisals help in employee motivation by encouraging them to work to their fullest potential. It also enables to give them feedback on their work and suggest necessary measures for the same. This helps employees to have a clear view of what is expected of them and what they are delivering. They can thus, work better towards improving their performance and achieving targets.

The role of HR (especially the HR manager) in this would be to have a policy of generating timely appraisal reports and a review of the same by the authorities. The HR team should communicate individually with employees and give a clear feedback or suggestion on their performance. A system to reward employees excelling at their work would help in employee motivation and thus garner a higher degree of productivity and employee engagement.

3) Maintaining Work Culture

It is the duty of the HR to maintain a healthy, safe, and fun work environment to ensure a level of comfort amongst the employees and eliminate any stressful or awkward atmosphere that may hinder the performance of the staff. It is vital to have an efficient work atmosphere, because an individual’s performance a largely dependent on the surrounding he’s working in.

It would be great to have an open-door policy up to some extent wherein employees can freely communicate and voice their opinions to be given consideration. The HR department’s role is to be a friendly body with an open attitude. By communicating and treating every employee as equal, the HR can build a rapport with the employees. This goes a long way in increasing employee engagement and gives a higher job satisfaction.

4) Resolving Conflicts

Where different people have different views, conflicts are almost inevitable. Whether the dispute is amongst two or more employees or between the employee and the management, an HR manager has the right to intervene and help map out a solution.

The HR should be available at the disposal of the conflicting parties and hear out their issues without being judgmental. Prior investigations are a must before passing any judgment. The HR head is not expected to discriminate or play favorites in this matter and always deliver an unbiased and practical decision. A reimbursement in case of any loss caused and strict actions against the defaulter should be practiced for effective conflict resolution by the HRM.

5) Employee Relations

The Human Resources is called so because its major responsibility is dealing with the human part of the organization and this involves having great interpersonal skills. An HR manager who sits in the office all day will not turn out to be good at building connections with the employees and thus fail to serve the purpose of being an HR head. As an HR person, employees should feel comfortable coming up to you with their problems and for that, it is important that the HR team builds a good public image within the organization.

The HR team has to be proactive and know their employees. An HR personnel’s job is not a desk job altogether. The HR head’s role is to establish the trust and confidence of the employees and not have a “don’t mess with me” demeanour. He should be looked upon as both an HR expert and an employee advocate.

6) Rewards and Incentives

Rewarding the employees for a work well done imparts motivation and at the same time induces a desire to excel at tasks in hope of obtaining rewards. It serves as bait for inculcating a healthy competitive environment amongst employees to achieve targets and meet deadlines. A reward need not be materialistic always. It could just be a word of appreciation in front of all coworkers for a menial task done with complete honesty.

However, with globalization and evolving trends, compensations like holiday packages, pay incentive, bonuses, and promotion are taking a backseat. If as an HR manager you are wanting to reward your employees efficiently, it’s time you adapt new ways of awarding benefits such as flexible work times, paternity leave, extended holidays, telecommuting etc. These non-traditional rewards will prove fruitful not only in engaging existing workforce but also as an added benefit to attract new talent to your organization.

7) Legal Knowledge

This may seem the least glamorous of all, but is an important aspect of the HRM. An HR manager should always be in compliance with the law. Whether it’s drafting new policies or writing terms of a contract, it is the HR department’s job to build guidelines keeping the laws in mind. This ensures an organization’s continued growth and existence. While drafting policies, the HR should always ensure to be at an upper hand legally and keep the organization’s practices in tune with the labor laws, tax laws, permissible working hours, minimum wages, and a no-discrimination policy.

8) Organization

An HR head is responsible for organizing all functions of the organization. To start with, it includes employee on-boarding, i.e. welcoming new employees. It is a must for every HR head to carry out an induction for every new hire, and give them an orientation regarding the company policies and rules.

The HR personnel should also introduce the new employees to their colleagues and assign them a mentor. It also involves listing out job expectations and defining roles and responsibilities, thus getting the new employees in tune with the working of the organization. The HR personnel are also responsible for organizing and storing all employee data efficiently and keeping it secure.

9) Management

Management is the most important job of an HR manager. It is what defines a good HR manager. Management extends right from managing employees to managing the employers and the whole HR department as well.

 

 

3“Human Resource Planning is the process of determining the number and kind of human required in an organization for a specific time period in future. ”Comment      

ANS

Human Resources planning is a process by which management determine how the organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position. Through planning, management strives to have the right number and the right kinds of people, at the right place, at the right time, doing things, which result in both organization and the individual receiving maximum long-run benefits. It is four-phased process. The first phase involves the gathering and analysis of data through manpower inventories and forecasts, the second phase consist of establishing manpower objectives and policies and gaining top management approval of these. The third phase involves designing and implementing plans promotions to enable the organization to achieve its manpower objectives. The fourth phase in consumed with control and evaluation of manpower plans sent programs to facilitate progress to benefits both the organization and the individual. The long run view means that gains may be sacrificed in the short run for the future grounds. The planning process enables the organization to identify what its manpower needs is and what potential manpower problems required current action. This leads to more effectively and efficient performance.  Following are the major steps involved in human resource planning:

  1. Assessing Human Resources

The assessment of HR begins with environmental analysis, under which the external (PEST) and internal (objectives, resources and structure) are analyzed to assess the currently available HR inventory level. After the analysis of external and internal forces of the organization, it will be easier for HR manager to find out the internal strengths as well as weakness of the organization in one hand and opportunities and threats on the other. Moreover, it includes an inventory of the workers and skills already available within the organization and a comprehensive job analysis.

  1. Demand Forecasting

HR forecasting is the process of estimating demand for and supply of HR in an organization. Demand forecasting is a process of determining future needs for HR in terms of quantity and quality. It is done to meet the future personnel requirements of the organization to achieve the desired level of output. Future human resource need can be estimated with the help of the organization´s current human resource situation and analysis of organizational plans an procedures. It will be necessary to perform a year-by-year analysis for every significant level and type.

  1. Supply Forecasting

Supply is another side of human resource assessment. It is concerned with the estimation of supply of manpower given the analysis of current resource and future availability of human resource in the organization. It estimates the future sources of HR that are likely to be available from within an outside the organization. Internal source includes promotion, transfer, job enlargement and enrichment, whereas external source includes recruitment of fresh candidates who are capable of performing well in the organization.

  1. Matching Demand And Supply

It is another step of human resource planning. It is concerned with bringing the forecast of future demand and supply of HR. The matching process refers to bring demand and supply in an equilibrium position so that shortages and over staffing position will be solved. In case of shortages an organization has to hire more required number of employees. Conversely, in the case of over staffing it has to reduce the level of existing employment. Hence, it is concluded that this matching process gives knowledge about requirements and sources of HR.

  1. Action Plan

It is the last phase of human resource planning which is concerned with surplus and shortages of human resource. Under it, the HR plan is executed through the designation of different HR activities. The major activities which are required to execute the HR plan are recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, socialization etc. Finally, this step is followed by control and evaluation of performance of HR to check whether the HR planning matches the HR objectives and policies. This action plan should be updated according to change in time and conditions.

 

 

QUES 4.What do you mean by recruitment? What are the traditional methods and new methods and techniques of recruitment?  

ANS

Recruitment is the process of finding and hiring the best-qualified candidate (from within or outside of an organization) for a job opening in a timely and cost-effective manner. The recruitment process includes analyzing the requirements of a job, attracting employees to that job, screening and selecting applicants, hiring, and integrating the new employee into the organization .Recruitment is a positive process it allow applicants to apply for the job.

According to Edwin B. Flippo, “It is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for jobs in an organisation.” He further elaborates it, terming it both negative and positive.

He says, “It is often termed positive in that it stimulates people to apply for jobs, to increase the hiring ratio, i.e. the number of applicants for a job. Selection, on the other hand, tends to be negative because it rejects a good number of those who apply, leaving only the best to be hired. ”

In the words of Dale Yoder, Recruitment is the process to “discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.”

5 Steps Involved in Recruitment Process 

1. Recruitment Planning:

The first step involved in the recruitment process is planning. Here, planning involves to draft a comprehensive job specification for the vacant position, outlining its major and minor responsibili­ties; the skills, experience and qualifications needed; grade and level of pay; starting date; whether temporary or permanent; and mention of special conditions, if any, attached to the job to be filled”

2. Strategy Development:

Once it is known how many with what qualifications of candidates are required, the next step involved in this regard is to devise a suitable strategy for recruiting the candidates in the organisation.

The strategic considerations to be considered may include issues like whether to prepare the required candidates themselves or hire it from outside, what type of recruitment method to be used, what geographical area be considered for searching the candidates, which source of recruitment to be practiced, and what sequence of activities to be followed in recruiting candidates in the organisation.

3. Searching:

This step involves attracting job seekers to the organisation. There are broadly two sources used to attract candidates.

These are:

  1. Internal Sources, and
  2. External Sources

These have been just discussed, in detail, under 6.3 Sources of Recruitment.

4. Screening:

Though some view screening as the starting point of selection, we have considered it as an integral part of recruitment. The reason being the selection process starts only after the applications have been screened and shortlisted. Let it be exemplified with an example.

In the Universities, applications are invited for filling the post of Professors. Applications re­ceived in response to invitation, i.e., advertisement are screened and shortlisted on the basis of eligibility and suitability. Then, only the screened applicants are invited for seminar presentation and personal interview. The selection process starts from here, i.e., seminar presentation or interview.

Job specification is invaluable in screening. Applications are screened against the qualification, knowledge, skills, abilities, interest and experience mentioned in the job specification. Those who do not qualify are straightway eliminated from the selection process.

The techniques used for screening candidates vary depending on the source of supply and method used for recruiting. Preliminary applications, de-selection tests and screening interviews are common techniques used for screening the candidates.

5. Evaluation and Control:

Given the considerable cost involved in the recruitment process, its evaluation and control is, therefore, imperative.

The costs generally incurred in a recruitment process include:

(i) Salary of recruiters

(ii) Cost of time spent for preparing job analysis, advertisement

(iii) Administrative expenses

(iv) Cost of outsourcing or overtime while vacancies remain unfilled

(v) Cost incurred in recruiting unsuitable candidates

In view of above, it is necessary for a prudent employer to try to answer certain questions like: whether the recruitment methods are appropriate and valid? And whether the recruitment process followed in the organisation is effective at all or not? In case the answers to these questions are in negative, the appropriate control measures need to be evolved and exercised to tide over the situa­tion.

However, such an exercise seems to be only rarely carried out in practice by the organisations employers. Having discussed recruitment process, it will be now relevant to have an idea about recruitment practices in India.

Traditional Recruitment Methods

When it comes to recruitment, organizations around the world have reaped the benefits of the traditional recruitment methods which have served them well and delivered employees which have played a key role in defining their organizations. Presenting the traditional recruitment methods:

Local Paper Advertisements

The best way to spread the word about new jobs is through local newspaper advertisements. One can argue that this is the simplest form of recruitment and yet the most effective method of all as well.

Local Employment Office Postings

Many organizations have employed recruitment methods which are based on postings at local unemployment offices, where there are bound to be people looking for a job and you are likely to find all types and sorts of employees.

Temp Agencies

One of the most used recruitment methods is through temporary employment agencies that can shortlist potential candidates for your company and find you experienced professionals in your field easily.

Internal Hiring

Another way of recruitment which has been extremely successful over the years has been the internal hiring program, through which the company often promotes employees who are already part of the organization into the positions for which they are hiring. This is one of the safest methods of recruitment, since you know all about the employee and the level of work you are getting from them.

The Modern Recruitment Methods

The 21st century has seen a significant rise in technology and has seen modern day recruitment methods grow in influence and make a difference in landing candidates for organizations all over the city.

The Power of Social Media

It is quite common to use the services of social media, when you are recruiting today, since it is both inexpensive and allows you to form a vast pool of potential candidates, within a very short period of time. Social media websites such as LinkedIn, Facebook and Twitter have communities where potential employees submit their resumes and credentials in the hope of landing a job.

There are dozens of other mediums you can take advantage from, when it comes to modern recruitment methods in general and the age old debate of which method is better, is one which will go on for quite some time.

 

 

QUES 5. What are the general training methods which can be used with the different categories of personnel?     

ANS

1. Classroom Lecture Method:

This is the most commonly used, simple, cost effective and conventional method. It is timesaving because it covers maximum number of people in a short period of time. It involves a speech by the instructor with very limited discussions. Clear and direct methods of presentation. Weaknesses of the method are that, lecture time is more than the normal human attention span of fifteen minutes and the contents of the lecture could be easily forgotten. Since the method does not provide for active participation on the part of the trainees, the extent of take-home learning is not to be known clearly. Moreover, lecture might be useful only if the presentation is made skillfully. While lecture is a useful method in so far as information dissemination is the objective, it has not been highly successful in modifying human behavior or in building commitments in the audience’s minds. An improvisation of this method is the lecture-cum-demonstration method in which the lecturer reemphasizes a skill or information by displaying the same in action.

2. Group Discussion Method:

It is a method used to knowledge and attitudinal development of trainees. In this method, sets of people examine several empirical studies to find out commonalities to derive the underlying general principles. They then combine their ideas and focus their attention on a given problem at a time, speaking from multiple points of view within a group. An instructor is optional, while a leader is necessary in this method. The various advantages of the method are that more ideas can be generated from each session. Moreover each member gets an opportunity to present one’s own ideas and get feedback from members of the same group. Peer pressure and commitments made to groups serve to ensure adherence to decisions jointly taken in the group. As a precaution, care must be taken to secure the participation of all members and make sure that a few members do not pre-determine the course of discussions or dominate the whole proceedings.

3. Simulation Exercises Method:

Simulators are a group of training devices of varying degrees of complexity that model the real world. They range from simple paper mock-ups of mechanical devices to computerized creations of total environments. In fact, some argue that case-study, roleplay and a host of other methods can be brought under the category of simulation. The advantage of simulation methods is that they improve the possibility of learning without damaging the equipments or human life or facing the numerous risks involved in actual performance. For example, most of traffic rules, signals and procedures of driving could be taught in a park that resembles main road or through a video game featuring car or twowheeler driving. Piloting planes are taught using more complex simulations. The methods are indirect but could also be expensive. The method calls for a certain level of grasp and information processing capability and transfer of learning on the part of the trainees.

4. Role Playing Method:

Role is a set of expectations around a given position and is determined by the role partners. Roles are always reciprocal and described in pairs such as trainer-trainee, buyer seller, and interviewer-interviewee and so on. Playing roles would entail practical problems like inter-role conflicts, intra-role dilemmas, role overloads and role under loads. As a result of these hurdles, role confusion ensues. In order to be trained to perform roles, trainees must attain role clarity. This may involve negotiation among the role senders and role receivers with regard to their expectations with counter expectations upon one another. Participants in role-play method are required to respond to specific problems and expectations of people that they might actually encounter in their jobs. Role-playing is often used to teach such skills as interviewing, negotiating, grievance handling, performance appraisal, and buying and selling and effective communication. It promotes healthy human relations skills among people.

5. Case Study Method:

It is a written down, narrative description of a real situation or incident relating to an organization and its business, depicting any problem that participants could face in their employment. Participant trainees are required to propose any number of viable solutions or decisions that match the variables represented in the case. Case study can be interest creating and thought stimulating for the participants. It helps to develop analytical, reasoning and problem-solving skills of the participants. As it shows and reduces gaps in understanding, a holistic understanding of reality is made possible through case study method. It also helps to reemphasize messages provided during lectures, group discussions and other methods. The disadvantage of the method might be the difficulty in drawing adequate number of stimulating cases that actually represent the real life situations of the trainees.

6. Sensitivity Training or T Group Training or Laboratory training Method:

It is a set of experiences in unstructured agenda-less groups designed to make people aware of themselves (self-insight), their immediate situation and their own impact on others. Unlike many other programs, T-groups are concerned with the real problems existing within the group itself. People are helped to become more responsive to others’ sensitivities and work more harmoniously and responsibly together by encouraging them to interact freely and actively. The members are enabled to recognize group dynamics and diagnose human relationship problems. The participants are encouraged to communicate thoughts and feelings with each other in an open, unstructured, warm and honest manner than is typically done in the usual work or social situation. A beneficial outcome of the method is that participants find better means of behavior for effective interpersonal relationships without the aid of power or authority over others. The method has to be used carefully as people may resent negative feedback and show anger in response. People have to be first prepared well to accept criticism in a constructive manner so that conflicts could be managed properly.

7. Management Games Method:

Games are used as a training tool, than as mere pastimes or amusement. Trainees are divided into teams and are given common tasks on which they would be competing to arrive at decisions, and then jointly implementing and evaluating the decisions taken with regard to the games. For example, blocks of wood would be supplied to every team and one of the members would be blind-folded with a piece of cloth. The person would have to arrange the blocks one above the other, as per the instructions and guidance of the other members. As they set on to reach greater target heights, the rewards would also grow exponentially. This game is used to bring out the nuances of teamwork, leadership styles and communication patterns exhibited by the members while playing the game. The demerits of the method are that, at times, games might result in lack of seriousness in some trainees and that the learning is indirect and slow. But it helps to convey messages in a non-threatening and fun-filled manner.

8. Outward Bound Training (OBT) Method:

As part of OBT, managers and other staff members meet and cohabitate as teams at unfamiliar wilderness out of the workplace and away from the hustles and bustles of daily life, where they would live in cabins or tents for a certain number of days. They test their survival skills and learn about their own personality and hidden potentials for creativity, cooperation and leadership. Participants get opportunities to learn their limits and capabilities. Participants irrespective of their official position and seniority would have to learn to be natural in their behavior and get rid of masks worn in an office situation. It is an expensive method and the learning might not be transferable to others or to other situations.

9. In -basket Training (IBT) Method:

IBT is a method where the trainee is required to examine a basket full of papers and files relating to his area of work and make recommendations on problems contained in them. This method is meant for trainees in a managerial level to improve their decision-making and problem-solving abilities. This is a form of simulation training designed around day to- day business situations and hence is transferable to the job experiences. The participant is usually asked to establish priorities for and then handle a number of office papers, such as memoranda, reports, telephone messages and emails that would typically cross a manager’s desk. The method has at least two main stages. At the outset, the participant starts by working through the case within a specified time limit all by himself without discussing the details with anyone. Subsequently, other participants analyze and discuss the questions of who’s, which’s, how’s, what’s, where’s, why’s and when’s of each decision or step. The merits of this method include the best of traditional case study at the same time combining the refinements to allow greater flexibility, realism and involvement.

The emphasis here is to understand things thoroughly, which is an opportunity too rarely presented during busy working days. It is done in a permissive atmosphere of experimenting and learning, rather than within the confines of a boss subordinate relationship.

10. Vestibule Training Method:

This kind of training takes place away from the production area on equipment that closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. It is a type of off-the-job training in which employees get training in a realistic job setting but in a location different from the one in which they would be working. For example, a group of lathes may be located in a training center where the trainees will be instructed in their use. The method is used frequently for training typists and bank tellers, among others. The word ‘vestibule’ means entrance. Thus vestibule training serves to facilitate full-fledged entry into job. A primary advantage of vestibule training is that it removes the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. Disturbance of production or supervisor during training is minimized. The disadvantages include the extra investment on equipment and additional persons to be employed as trainers.

11. Apprenticeship Training Method:

It combines classroom instructions with on-the-job training. It is a method in which trainees at a novice stage called ‘apprentices’, work under the guidance of skilled, licensed instructor and receive lower pay than workers. The method is a combination of education and employment and is aimed at preparing workforce with certain levels of qualification to meet the growing needs of the industry. The method develops special skills like mechanical, electronic, tailoring, etc. Apprenticeship is traditionally used in skilled jobs, such as those of plumber, carpenter, machinist and printer. The extensive nature of the training assures quality outputs, though time consumed is long. Employees recruited from the apprenticeship program are expected to hit the ground running, implying that they would have to start performing with efficiency. But uniform duration of apprenticeship training does not permit slow learners to reach the levels of mastery like others.

 

12. Work shadowing Method:

This training method is chosen while preparing a second-line leader to take up the role of the headship, in which case, the candidate could not benefit by sending them to any other formal training program. The best way to be trained for a future executive position would be through direct participant observation of the crucial events that take place in the present incumbent’s work life. The trainees are made to remain in the company of the role model whose work is to be learnt by the trainees. Trainees learn the intricacies of a job of high level, by physically being in the presence of the job-holder. Closely following the styles of working permits greater degree of learning besides helping the trainee to imbibe the values and principles adhered to by the model. Yet, care needs to be taken to avoid situations wherein trainees are not warmly welcomed and are seen by supervisors in the department as obstacles to their routines.

13. Programmed Instruction Method (PIM):

PIM provides instruction without the face-to-face intervention of an instructorTo ensure a sequential approach to learning, instructions are designed in such a way that all future learning depends on acquisition and retention of previous learning. With this method, information is broken down into small portions called ‘frames’. The learner reads each frame in sequence and responds to questions designed to verify learning. Based on the answers given by the trainees they are provided with immediate feedback on response accuracy. If the learners have got all the answers right, they proceed to the next frame. If not they repeat the frame. Primary features of this approach are immediate reinforcement and the ability of learners to proceed at their own pace. Programmed instructions may be presented in a book or in computers.

14. Large Scale Interactive Events (LSIE) Method:

The method has a lot of unique advantages when compared to other methods. First, this method stresses upon the sharing of expertise by all the participants, unlike other methods where the instructor supplies most of the inputs and might even look down upon trainees as people who are ignorant or unskilled in the topic being covered. LSIE is based on the belief that all the participants, by virtue of being in their job for a certain period of time, possess some degree of expertise that need to be shared and combined with that of others.

Second advantage is that this method transcends the limitation of other methods in terms of the number of people who could be trained per batch. The major advantage of this method is that a group as large as 300 – 400 members could be trained simultaneously without losing the effectiveness of other training methods. The third advantage is the use of group processes. While the trainer limits his role with a brief but inspiring presentation to stimulate thinking of the participant, the methods paves way for active involvement of all the participants who are assigned various roles such as sub-group leader, recorder, summarizer, presenter etc. A fourth advantage of the LSIE is that the group emphasizes on extensive on-the-spot documentation of viewpoints expressed by people. Finally, the method culminates in the entire large group addressing to the common issues. At this stage, priority is to be set on areas of intervention and a plan of action is drawn and accepted based on voting by members, thereby building commitment of all the participants to implement the agreed upon plans. A disadvantage of the method could be that it requires a lot of volunteers to assist the proceedings.

15. Personal Coaching Method:

It is an on-the-job approach in which a manager has the opportunity to teach an employee, usually his immediate subordinate, on a one-to-one basis. Coaching is helping self and others gain new perspectives their intentions and behaviors, to understand what’s possible and how to access inner resources such as motivation, commitment, passion, etc. as a coach, the supervisor gently confronts employees with their shortcomings and makes suggestions for corrective actions. The supervisor is also alert to encouraging good performance. Coaching is considered to be one of the most effective management development techniques. Constant guidance makes the trainee learn quickly.

16. Mentoring Method:

Mentoring is an on-the-job approach to training in which the trainee is given an opportunity to learn on a one-to-one basis from more experienced members of the organization. The mentor is usually an older, experienced executive who serves as a host, friend, confidant and advisor to a new member of the firm. The mentor is given the charge of protecting and responsibility of helping the new employee. The relationship may be formally planned or it may develop informally. For mentoring to be productive, the parties’ interests must be compatible and they must understand each other’s learning styles and personalities. If mentors form overly strong bonds with trainees, unwarranted favoritism might result. A highly successful mentor-protégé relationship might create feelings of jealousy among other colleagues who are not able to show equally good results out of the mentoring process.

17. Job Rotation Method:

This method of training involves the shifting of trainees from one job to another so as to widen their exposure and enable them to obtain a general understanding of the totality of the organization. Besides helping them to overcome boredom, job rotation permits direct interaction with a large number of individuals within the organization, thereby facilitating future working relationships. The method should be used at sufficient gaps to permit the development of a strong degree of expertise in the trainee in an assigned position. Care should be taken by the organization to ensure that work efficiency does not suffer when a few trainees are rotate into new jobs where they would be taking time to learn and perform. There could be some disadvantages of using the method of Job Rotation.

Trainees have to be prepared to face contrasting styles of operation and standards that vary according to superiors. Some trainees might feel more like visiting casual observers in the departments than being a part of the workforce, which would negate the purpose of job rotation. Employees who are looking for more challenging assignments might feel frustrated when asked to perform different kinds of simple jobs at the same level.

18. Computer-Based Training (CBT) Method:

CBT is a technology-driven training method that takes full advantage of the speed, memory and data manipulation capabilities of the computer for greater flexibility of instruction. It involves the trainee sitting in front of a computer terminal rather than listening to an instructor. Learning is enhanced through presentations combining automation, stereophonic sound, full motion video and graphics. Increased speed and decreased dependence on instructor are the strengths of this method. Computer-Managed Instructions (CMI) is a system that automatically generates and scores tests, tracks trainees’ performance and prescribes activities for students. An orderly, step-by-step manner is possible by using this method. As additional advantages, CBT allows reuse of the program for any number of time and allows for varying time for fast and slow learners.

But CBT method cannot reduce the learner’s anxiety and fear, which can be done only by a trained instructor. CBT is well suited for teaching facts but is less useful for teaching human skills or changing attitudes.

19. Behavior Modeling Method:

This method involves emulation of behavior from a reference group or a role model whose behavior is shown live before the trainees or by using videotapes or Compact discs (VCD). The method entails recording and producing events or situations with clear descriptions in order to cover certain subjects. The footage could be viewed, reviewed and discussed to enhance learning quality. The advantages of using this method are many. Many events and discussions can be put on one tape or CD. It is a handy method f

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