Answer any five questions given below
- Explain the process of communication?
Ans:-Communication (from Latin communicate, meaning "to share") is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of ideas, feelings, intentions, attitudes, expectations, perceptions or commands, as by speech, gestures, writings, behavior and possibly by other means such as electromagnetic, chemical or physical phenomena. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more participants (machines, organisms or their parts).
The sender also known as the encoder decides on the message to be sent, the best/most effective way that it can be sent. All of this is done bearing the receiver in mind. In a word, it is his/her job to conceptualize.The sender may want to ask him/herself questions like: What words will I use? Do I need signs or pictures?
The medium is the immediate form which a message takes. For example, a message may be communicated in the form of a letter, in the form of an email or face to face in the form of a speech.
The channel is that which is responsible for the delivery of the chosen message form. For example post office, internet, and radio.
The receiver or the decoder is responsible for extracting/decoding meaning from the message. The receiver is also responsible for providing feedback to the sender. In a word, it is his/her job to INTERPRET.
This is important as it determines whether or not the decoder grasped the intended meaning and whether communication was successful
- Why is recognizing common barriers to effective communication important? Identify one common barrier from each of the following three barrier zones
Barriers by surrounding environment
-Barrier between the people
-Barrier made by words
Ans:-Barriers to effective communication can retard or distort the message and intention of the message being conveyed which may result in failure of the communication process or an effect that is undesirable. These include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, gender differences and political correctness
This also includes a lack of expressing "knowledge-appropriate" communication, which occurs when a person uses ambiguous or complex legal words, medical jargon, or descriptions of a situation or environment that is not understood by the recipient.
Physical barriers are often due to the nature of the environment. An example of this is the natural barrier which exists if staff are located in different buildings or on different sites. Likewise, poor or outdated equipment, particularly the failure of management to introduce new technology, may also cause problems. Staff shortages are another factor which frequently causes communication difficulties for an organization. While distractions like background noise, poor lighting or an environment which is too hot or too cold can all affect people´s morale and concentration, which in turn interfere with effective communication.
System design faults refer to problems with the structures or systems in place in an organization. Examples might include an organizational structure which is unclear and therefore makes it confusing to know whom to communicate with. Other examples could be inefficient or inappropriate information systems, a lack of supervision or training, and a lack of clarity in roles and responsibilities which can lead to staff being uncertain about what is expected of them.
Attitudinal barriers come about as a result of problems with staff in an organization. These may be brought about, for example, by such factors as poor management, lack of consultation with employees, personality conflicts which can result in people delaying or refusing to communicate, the personal attitudes of individual employees which may be due to lack of motivation or dissatisfaction at work, brought about by insufficient training to enable them to carry out particular tasks, or just resistance to change due to entrenched attitudes and ideas.
Ambiguity of words/phrases
Words sounding the same but having different meaning can convey a different meaning altogether. Hence the communicator must ensure that the receiver receives the same meaning. It is better if such words are avoided by using alternatives whenever possible.
Individual linguistic ability
The use of jargon, difficult or inappropriate words in communication can prevent the recipients from understanding the message. Poorly explained or misunderstood messages can also result in confusion. However, research in communication has shown that confusion can lend legitimacy to research when persuasion fails.
These may result from individuals´ personal discomfort, caused—for example—by ill health, poor eyesight or hearing difficulties
- As you prepare a business presentation for your company’s executive management committee, how will you know whether you need visual aids? What kinds of visual aids can be used?
Ans:-Visual aids are often used to help audiences of informative and persuasive speeches understand the topic being presented. Visual aids can play a large role in how the audience understands and takes in information that is presented. There are many different types of visual aids that range from handouts to PowerPoints. The type of visual aid a speaker uses depends on their preference and the information they are trying to present. Each type of visual aid has pros and cons that must be evaluated to ensure it will be beneficial to the overall presentation. Before incorporating visual aids into speeches, the speaker should understand that if used incorrectly, the visual will not be an aid, but a distraction.Planning ahead is important when using visual aids. It is necessary to choose a visual aid that is appropriate for the material and audience. The purpose of the visual aid is to enhance the presentation.
Types of visual aids
- The use of objects as visual aids involves bringing the actual object to demonstrate on during the speech. For example, a speech about tying knots would be more effective by bringing in a rope.
- Pro: the use of the actual object is often necessary when demonstrating how to do something so that the audience can fully understand procedure.
- Con: some objects are too large or unavailable for a speaker to bring with them.
- Models are representations of another object that serve to demonstrate that object when use of the real object is ineffective for some reason. Examples include human skeletal systems, the solar system, or architecture.
- Pros: models can serve as substitutes that provide a better example of the real thing to the audience when the object being spoken about is of an awkward size or composure for use in the demonstration.
- Cons: sometimes a model may take away from the reality of what is being spoken about. For example, the vast size of the solar system cannot be seen from a model, and the actual composure of a human body cannot be seen from a dummy.
- Graphs are used to visualize relationships between different quantities. Various types are used as visual aids, including bar graphs, line graphs, pie graphs, and scatter plots.
- Pros: graphs help the audience to visualize statistics so that they make a greater impact than just listing them verbally would.
- Cons: graphs can easily become cluttered during use in a speech by including too much detail, overwhelming the audience and making the graph ineffective.
- Maps show geographic areas that are of interest to the speech. They often are used as aids when speaking of differences between geographical areas or showing the location of something.
- Pros: when maps are simple and clear, they can be used to effectively make points about certain areas. For example, a map showing the building site for a new hospital could show its close location to key neighborhoods, or a map could show the differences in distribution of AIDS victims in North American and African countries.
- Cons: inclusion of too much detail on a map can cause the audience to lose focus on the key point being made. Also, if the map is disproportional or unrealistic, it may prove ineffective for the point being made.
- Tables are columns and rows that organize words, symbols, and/or data.
- Pros: Good tables are easy to understand. They are a good way to compare facts and to gain a better overall understanding of the topic being discussed. For example, a table is a good choice to use when comparing the amount of rainfall in 3 counties each month.
- Cons: Tables are not very interesting or pleasing to the eye. They can be overwhelming if too much information is in a small space or the information is not organized in a convenient way. A table is not a good choice to use if the person viewing it has to take a lot of time to be able to understand it. Tables can be visual distractions if it is hard to read because the font is too small or the writing is too close together. It can also be a visual distraction if the table is not drawn evenly.
- Pros: Photographs are good tools to make or emphasize a point or to explain a topic. For example, when explaining the shanty-towns in a third world country it would be beneficial to show a picture of one so the reader can have a better understanding of how those people live. A photograph is also good to use when the actual object cannot be viewed. For example, in a health class learning about cocaine, the teacher cannot bring in cocaine to show the class because that would be illegal, but the teacher could show a picture of cocaine to the class. Using local photos can also help emphasize how your topic is important in the audience´s area.
- Cons: If the photograph is too small it just becomes a distraction. Enlarging photographs can be expensive if not using a power point or other viewing device.
Drawings or diagrams
- Pros: Drawings or diagrams can be used when photographs do not show exactly what the speaker wants to show or explain. It could also be used when a photograph is too detailed. For example, a drawing or diagram of the circulatory system throughout the body is a lot more effective than a picture of a cadaver showing the circulatory system.
- Cons: If not drawn correctly a drawing can look sloppy and be ineffective. This type of drawing will appear unprofessional.
- Visual aids media: simple to advanced
Chalkboards and whiteboards are very useful visual aids, particularly when more advanced types of media are unavailable. They are cheap and also allow for much flexibility. The use of chalkboards or whiteboards is convenient, but they are not a perfect visual aid. Often, using this medium as an aid can create confusion or boredom. Particularly if a student who is not familiar with how to properly use visual aids attempts to draw on a board while they are speaking, they detract time and attention from their actual speech.
A poster is a very simple and easy visual aid. Posters can display charts, graphs, pictures, or illustrations. The biggest drawback of using a poster as a visual aid is that often a poster can appear unprofessional. Since a poster board paper is relatively flimsy, often the paper will bend or fall over. The best way to present a poster is to hang it up or tape it to a wall.
Handouts can also display charts, graphs, pictures, or illustrations. An important aspect of the use of a handout is that a person can keep a handout with them long after the presentation is over. This can help the person better remember what was discussed. Passing out handouts, however, can be extremely distracting. Once a handout is given out, it might potentially be difficult to bring back your audience’s attention. The person who receives the handout might be tempted to read what is on the paper, which will keep them from listening to what the speaker is saying. If using a handout, the speaker distributes the hand out right before you reference it. Distributing handouts is acceptable in a lecture that is an hour or two, but in a short lecture of five to ten minutes, a handout should not be used.
A video can be a great visual aid and attention grabber, however, a video is not a replacement for an actual speech. There are several potential drawbacks to playing a video during a speech or lecture. First, if a video is playing that includes audio, the speaker will not be able to talk. Also, if the video is very exciting and interesting, it can make what the speaker is saying appear boring and uninteresting. The key to showing a video during a presentation is to make sure to transition smoothly into the video and to only show very short clips.
There are several types of projectors. These include slide projectors, PowerPoint presentations, overhead projectors, and computer projectors. Slide projectors are the oldest form of projector, and are no longer used. PowerPoint presentations are very popular and are used often. Overhead projectors are still used but are somewhat inconvenient to use. In order to use an overhead projector, a transparency must be made of whatever is being projected onto the screen. This takes time and costs money. Computer projectors are the most technologically advanced projectors. When using a computer projector, pictures and slides are easily taken right from a computer either online or from a saved file and are blown up and shown on a large screen. Though computer projectors are technologically advanced, they are not always completely reliable because technological breakdowns are not uncommon of the computers of today.
- Computer-assisted presentations
PowerPoint presentations can be an extremely useful visual aid, especially for longer presentations. For five to ten minute presentations, it is probably not worth the time or effort to put together a PowerPoint. For longer presentations, however, PowerPoints can be a great way to keep the audience engaged and keep the speaker on track. A potential drawback of using a PowerPoint is that it usually takes a lot of time and energy to put together. There is also the possibility of a computer malfunction, which can mess up the flow of a presentation.
Overhead projector slides/transparencies
Overhead projector slides/transparencies are displayed on the overhead projector (OHP) - a very useful tool found in most lecture and seminar rooms. The OHP projects and enlarges your slides onto a screen or wall without requiring the lights to be dimmed. You can produce your slides in three ways
- pre-prepared slides : these can be words or images either hand written/drawn or produced on a computer;
- spontaneously produced slides: these can be written as you speak to illustrate your points or to record comments from the audience;
- A mixture of each: try adding to pre-prepared slides when making your presentation to show movement, highlight change or signal detailed interrelationships.
- How important is body language while appearing for an interview? Elaborate giving suitable examples.
Ans:-Body language refers to various forms of nonverbal communication, wherein a person may reveal clues as to some unspoken intention or feeling through their physical behavior. These behaviors can include body posture, gestures, facial expressions, and eye movements. Body language also varies depending on the culture. There are a set of universally recognized gestures but many are influenced by our social settings.
Body language may provide clues as to the attitude or state of mind of a person. For example, it may indicate aggression, attentiveness, boredom, a relaxed state, pleasure, amusement, and intoxication.
Body language is significant to communication and relationships. It is relevant to management and leadership in business and also in places where it can be observed by many people. It can also be relevant to some outside of the workplace. It is commonly helpful in dating, mating, in family settings, and parenting. Although body language is non-verbal or non-spoken, it can reveal much about your feelings and meaning to others and how others reveal their feelings toward you. Body language signals happen on both a conscious and unconscious level
So there are two reasons why body language is helpful.
Firstly, to understand how we come across to other people and be able to send the right message – “Trust me, I’m not out to get you!”
And secondly be able to read the signals that another person is sending back.
By adjusting the way we stand, move, dress and interact we can make encounters with other human beings (and probably most animals too!) much easier and smoother
Candidates usually think that Recruiters are focused on their words and their replies to questions, but actually what interviewers are trying to do is to understand the person in front of them better, through their answers, but also through their body language. Your gestures, your posture and your eye contact can emphasize what you are saying, convincing the interviewer with your truthfulness, but can also contradict your statements. Imagine an introverted person trying to convince you that he/she enjoys speaking in public and interacting with many people. Would she or he be convincing? Furthermore, your body language expresses different sides of your personality. Let’s take as an example of a person who is fluent and whose voice is not trembling when answering even the most difficult questions. Would you say that person isn’t nervous? It might be, but we could also think that person has a good control of his/ her emotions.
What should you take into consideration when attending a job interview?
- Handshake:A handshake comes naturally when you meet a new person, but it’s more than a gesture, it’s the first step in developing a connection with someone and establishing level of trust. It can set the tone for the rest of the interview, so this is why you should pay attention to it. You should wait for the interviewer to take the initiative and offer you a handshake. Shake hands both warmly and firmly whilst keeping eye contact with the other person and presenting yourself.
- Eye contact:They say that eyes are more accurate witnesses than ears. We can therefore determine that eye contact has great importance during the interview. Maintaining eye contact is a sign of trust and shows that you are in control of the conversation, that you are confident. The eye contact is a powerful way to build the bond of trust you started with the handshake. You might become intimidating if you look too intensive, but keep in mind that poor eye contact is an indication lack of self-belief. You can emphasize what you’re saying through your eyes, convincing the Recruiter with your answers. Keeping eye contact while the interviewer is speaking will help show that you are listening and that you are interested in what he is saying. If there is more than one interviewer, try to look at all of them to an equal extent, making them feel they’re all important to you.
- Body posture:Walk into the meeting room showing that you want this job, you are confident, but also relaxed. Sit upright on the chair, turn your shoulders towards the person who is speaking and leaning forward a little will help express your interest and your willingness to be selected. You can even emphasize it by titling your head while the interviewer is speaking. You don’t have to sit still during the interview, it’s better to change your body posture, especially if there is more than one person interviewing you.
- Movements:We often ask ourselves what we should do with our hands. You may be thinking that your hands are an obstacle during the interview, but they can support your answers and emphasize your points. First of all, you should try to avoid folding your arms across your body because it’s a defensive move showing that you aren’t an open person. This is why you’d better talking with your hands without getting to the other extreme. You could try as well to tune your hand gestures to those of the other person. People tend to respond positively to those that are similar to them and using similar gestures could be a common ground to start from.
- Smile:You’ve probably heard about the saying that world looks brighter from behind a smile, so the interview will look brighter from behind a smile! People like a smiling face better than a tense one. Being worried about what your answers and focusing on your choice of words too much will make you forget to smile and relax. You should show that you’re enthusiastic about joining their team and that you’re a pleasant person to work with. They will enjoy working with you, won’t they?
- Write short note on any three of the following.
A) Abbreviations (Give examples)
AnsAn abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. Usually, but not always, it consists of a letter or group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr., abbrv. Or abbrev.
In strict analysis, abbreviations should not be confused with contractions or acronyms (including initializes), with which they share some semantic and phonetic functions, though all three are connoted by the term "abbreviation" in loose parlance.:p167An abbreviation is a shortening by any method; a contraction is a reduction of size by the drawing together of the parts. A contraction of a word is made by omitting certain letters or syllables and bringing together the first and last letters or elements; an abbreviation may be made by omitting certain portions from the interior or by cutting off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction. However, normally, acronyms are regarded as a subgroup of abbreviations (e.g. by the Council of Science Editors). Abbreviations can also be used to give a different context to the word itself, such as "PIN Number" (wherein if the abbreviation were removed the context would be invalid).
b) Synonyms & Antonyms (Give examples)
A synonym is a word that means exactly the same as, or very nearly the same as, another word in the same language. For example, "close" is a synonym of "shut".
Note that a synonym may share an identical meaning with another word, but the two words are not necessarily interchangeable. For example, "blow up" and "explode" have the same meaning, but "blow up" is informal (used more in speech) and "explode" is more formal (used more in writing and careful speech).
An antonym is a word that means the opposite of another word. For example "bad" is an antonym of "good". Here are some more examples:
part of speech
made by adding prefix un-
made by adding prefix in-
made by adding prefix non-
You can find antonyms in an antonym dictionary.
c) Non Verbal communication (Give examples)
AnsNonverbal communication describes the process of conveying meaning in the form of non-word messages. Some forms of non verbal communication include chronemics, haptics, gesture, body language or posture, facial expression and eye contact, object communication such as clothing, hairstyles, architecture, symbols, info graphics, and tone of voice, as well as through an aggregate of the above. Speech also contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage. This form of communication is the most known for interacting with people. These include voice lesson quality, emotion and speaking style as well as prosodic features such as rhythm, intonation and stress. Research has shown that up to 55% of human communication may occur through non verbal facial expressions, and a further 38% through paralanguage. Likewise, written texts include nonverbal elements such as handwriting style, spatial arrangement of words and the use of emoticons to convey emotional expressions in pictorial form
d) Interview as a mode of non verbal communication
Ans:Definition (CBC): “nonverbal communication involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both the source [speaker] and his or her use of the environment and that have potential message value for the source or receiver [listener] (Samovar et al). Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words). It is both intentional and unintentional. Most speakers / listeners are not conscious of this. It includes — but is not limited to:
- eye contact (gaze)
- vocal nuance
- Facial expression? pause (silence)
- word choice and syntax
- sounds (paralanguage)
Broadly speaking, there are two basic categories of non-verbal language:
nonverbal messages produced by the body; nonverbal messages produced by the broad setting (time, space, silence)
Why is non-verbal communication important?
Basically, it is one of the key aspects of communication (and especially important in a high-context culture). It has multiple functions:
- Used to repeat the verbal message (e.g. point in a direction while stating directions.
- Often used to accent a verbal message. (E.g. verbal tone indicates the actual meaning of the specific words).
- Often complement the verbal message but also may contradict. E.g.: a nod reinforces a positive message (among Americans); a “wink” may contradict a stated positive message.
- Regulate interactions (non-verbal cues covey when the other person should speak or not speak).
- May substitute for the verbal message (especially if it is blocked by noise, interruption, etc) — i.e. gestures (finger to lips to indicate need for quiet), facial expressions (i.e. a nod instead of a yes).
Cultural Differences in Non-verbal Communication
- General Appearance and Dress
All cultures are concerned for how they look and make judgments based on looks and dress. Americans, for instance, appear almost obsessed with dress and personal attractiveness. Consider differing cultural standards on what is attractive in dress and on what constitutes modesty. Note ways dress is used as a sign of status?
- Body Movement
We send information on attitude toward person (facing or leaning towards another), emotional statue (tapping fingers, jiggling coins), and desire to control the environment (moving towards or away from a person).
More than 700,000 possible motions we can make — so impossible to categorize them all! But just need to be aware the body movement and position is a key ingredient in sending messages.
Consider the following actions and note cultural differences:
- Bowing (not done, criticized, or affected in US; shows rank in Japan)
- Slouching (rude in most Northern European areas)
- Hands in pocket (disrespectful in Turkey)
- Sitting with legs crossed (offensive in Ghana, Turkey)
- Showing soles of feet. (Offensive in Thailand, Saudi Arabia)
- Even in US, there is a gender difference on acceptable posture?
Impossible to catalog them all. But need to recognize: 1) incredible possibility and variety and 2) that an acceptable in one’s own culture may be offensive in another. In addition, amount of gesturing varies from culture to culture. Some cultures are animated; other restrained. Restrained cultures often feel animated cultures lack manners and overall restraint. Animated cultures often feel restrained cultures lack emotion or interest.
Even simple things like using hands to point and count differ.
Pointing: US with index finger; Germany with little finger; Japanese with entire hand (in fact most Asians consider pointing with index finger to be rude)
Counting: Thumb = 1 in Germany, 5 in Japan, middle finger for 1 in Indonesia.
- Facial Expressions
While some say that facial expressions are identical, meaning attached to them differs. Majority opinion is that these do have similar meanings world-wide with respect to smiling, crying, or showing anger, sorrow, or disgust. However, the intensity varies from culture to culture. Note the following:
- Many Asian cultures suppress facial expression as much as possible.
- Many Mediterranean (Latino / Arabic) cultures exaggerate grief or sadness while most American men hide grief or sorrow.
- Some see “animated” expressions as a sign of a lack of control.
- Too much smiling is viewed in as a sign of shallowness.
- Women smile more than men.
- Eye Contact and Gaze
In USA, eye contact indicates: degree of attention or interest, influences attitude change or persuasion, regulates interaction, communicates emotion, defines power and status, and has a central role in managing impressions of others.
- Western cultures — see direct eye to eye contact as positive (advise children to look a person in the eyes). But within USA, African-Americans use more eye contact when talking and less when listening with reverse true for Anglo Americans. This is a possible cause for some sense of unease between races in US. A prolonged gaze is often seen as a sign of sexual interest.
- Arabic cultures make prolonged eye-contact. — believe it shows interest and helps them understand truthfulness of the other person. (A person who doesn’t reciprocate is seen as untrustworthy)
- Japan, Africa, Latin American, Caribbean — avoid eye contact to show respect.
Question: Why do we touch, where do we touch, and what meanings do we assign when someone else touches us?
Illustration: An African-American male goes into a convenience store recently taken over by new Korean immigrants. He gives a $20 bill for his purchase to Mrs. Cho who is cashier and waits for his change. He is upset when his change is put down on the counter in front of him.
What is the problem? Traditional Korean (and many other Asian countries) don’t touch strangers. Especially between members of the opposite sex. But the African-American sees this as another example of discrimination (not touching him because he is black).
- e) Types of business letters
Ans:A letter is a written message from one party to another containing information. Letters have been sent since antiquity and are mentioned in the Iliad by Homer (lived around 7th or 8th centuries B.C.) and works by both Herodotus and Thucydides mention letters
There are four basic types of business letters: inquiry letters, special request letters, sales letters, and customer relations letters. Business letters can be further classified as positive, neutral, or negative. Inquiry and special request letters are neutral, sales letters are positive, and customer relations letters can be positive or negative.
An inquiry letter asks for information about a product, service, or procedure. Businesses frequently exchange inquiry letters, and customers frequently send them to businesses. Three basic rules for an effective inquiry letter are to state exactly what information you want, indicate clearly why you must have this information, and specify exactly when you must have it.
Special Request Letters
Special request letters make a special demand, not a routine inquiry. The way you present your request is crucial, since your reader is not obliged to give you anything. When asking for information in a special request letter, state who you are, why you are writing, precisely what information you need, and exactly when you need the information (allow sufficient time). If you are asking for information to include in a report or other document, offer to forward a copy of the finished document as a courtesy. State that you will keep the information confidential, if that is appropriate. Finally, thank the recipient for helping you.
A sales letter is written to persuade the reader to buy a product, try a service, support a cause, or participate in an activity. No matter what profession you are in, writing sales letters is a valuable skill. To write an effective sales letter, follow these guidelines: (1) Identify and limit your audience. (2) Use reader psychology. Appeal to readers´ emotions, pocketbook, comfort, and so on by focusing on the right issues. (3) Don´t boast or be a bore. Don´t gush about your company or make elaborate explanations about a product. (4) Use words that appeal to readers´ senses. (5) Be ethical.
The "four A´s" of sales letters are attention, appeal, application, and action. First, get the reader´s attention. Next, highlight your product´s appeal. Then, show the reader the product´s application. Finally, end with a specific request for action.
In the first part of your sales letter, get the reader´s attention by asking a question, using a "how to" statement, complimenting the reader, offering a free gift, introducing a comparison, or announcing a change. In the second part, highlight your product´s allure by appealing to the reader´s intellect, emotions, or both. Don´t lose the momentum you have gained with your introduction by boring the reader with petty details, flat descriptions, elaborate inventories, or trivial boasts. In the third part of your sales letter, supply evidence of the value of what you are selling. Focus on the prospective customer, not on your company. Mention the cost of your product or service, if necessary, by relating it to the benefits to the customer. In the final section, tell readers exactly what you want them to do, and by what time. "Respond and be rewarded" is the basic message of the last section of a sales letter.
Customer Relations Letters
These deal with establishing and maintaining good working relationships. They deliver good news or bad news, acceptances or refusals. If you are writing an acceptance letter, use the direct approach-tell readers the good news up front. If you are writing a refusal letter, do not open the letter with your bad news; be indirect.
A follow-up letter is sent to thank a customer for buying a product or service and to encourage the customer to buy more in the future. As such it is a combination thank-you note and sales letter. Begin with a brief expression of gratitude. Next, discuss the benefits already known to the customer, and stress the company´s dedication to its customers. Then extend this discussion into a new or continuing sales area, and end with a specific request for future business.
These require delicacy. The right tone will increase your chances of getting what you want. Adopt the "you" attitude. Begin with a detailed description of the product or service you are complaining about. Include the model and serial numbers, size, quantity, and color. Next, state exactly what is wrong with the product or service. Briefly describe the inconvenience you have experienced. Indicate precisely what you want done (you want your money back, you want a new model, you want an apology, and so on). Finally, ask for prompt handling of your claim.
Adjustment letters respond to complaint letters. For an adjustment letter that tells the customer "Yes," start with your good news. Admit immediately that the complaint was justified. State precisely what you are going to do to correct the problem. Offer an explanation for the inconvenience the customer suffered. End on a friendly, positive note. For adjustment letters that deny a claim, avoid blaming or scolding the customer. Thank the customer for writing. Stress that you understand the complaint. Provide a factual explanation to show customers they´re being treated fairly. Give your decision without hedging or apologizing. (Indecision will infuriate customers who believe they have presented a convincing case.) Leave the door open for better and continued business in the future.
Refusal of Credit Letters.
Begin on a positive note. Express gratitude for the applicant for wanting to do business with you. Cite appropriate reasons for refusing to grant the customer credit: lack of business experience or prior credit, current unfavorable or unstable financial conditions, and so on. End on a positive note. Encourage the reader to reapply later when his or her circumstances have changed.
- Draft a circular for the office staff mentioning the changes in timings of the office
Ans:-This is a sample official circular letter for the office staff mentioning the changes in timings of the office
Office of Dy. Commissioner Company Name
For: All the members of the staff, including the officers
All the staffs are informed that our office working hours will be changed as follows with the effect from 1/08/08 .Request you all to coordinate with HR Department decision.
8.30 to 5.30
Lunch time will be 12.30 1.30
- Design the promotional material for a management event. It should include brochures, invites and programs
Ans:-A brochure is a flyer, pamphlet or leaflet that is used to pass information about something. Brochures are advertising pieces mainly used to introduce a company or organization and inform about products and/or services to a target audience. Brochures are distributed by radio, handed personally or placed in brochure racks. They may be considered as grey literature. They are usually present also near tourist attractions.
The most common types of single-sheet brochures are the bi-fold (a single sheet printed on both sides and folded into halves) and the tri-fold (the same, but folded into thirds). A bi-fold brochure results in four panels (two panels on each side), while a tri-fold results in six panels (three panels on each side).
Other folder arrangements are possible: the accordion or "z-fold" method, the "c-fold" method, etc. Larger sheets, such as those with detailed maps or expansive photo spreads, are folded into four, five, or six panels. When two card fascia are affixed to the outer panels of the z-folded brochure, it is commonly known as a "z-card".
A plan of action aimed at accomplishing a clear business objective, with details on what work is to be done, by whom, when, and what means or resources will be used management event
Setting goals and objectives
Your goals define the purpose of the meeting or event and guide you through each step of the planning process. There are a wide range of types of meetings and events that can fulfill your objectives and also serve to advance the University’s mission and values. Here are key questions to ask when determining your meeting objectives:
The first step in program planning is to review the goals and objectives that have been developed for your meeting or event. Is the emphasis on education, developing relationships, or recognition of the participants? What are the expectations of the organizers and the attendees?
Next, select an event title and theme before developing program content. Then, outline the desired format. Using the generalized schedule, develop specific content and appropriate formats for each topic category.
A well-matched venue and environment can help make your meeting or event a success. For example, although classrooms are fine for most educational sessions or training, the Curry Student Center Ballroom or Raytheon Amphitheater might be more appropriate for a ceremony.
A budget for your meeting or event will help provide cost controls and provide an accurate overview of program income and expenses
Promoting your event
- Communications and Public Relations. Your event may have a story that would be of interest to the campus media or beyond. Call University Communications and Public Relations at ext. 5718 to speak with a media specialist about getting the word out in the press or to get into calendar listings.
- Signage and banners. The NU Sign Shop can help you get the word out. Visit the sign shop Web site for information and prices, or call them at ext. 2725.
- Fliers and posters. Distributing these around the campus and in the community is a great way to promote your event. Contact the Office of University Events for guidance.
It include the all other facility like housing, transportation, food and beverage
Generally, for smaller meetings and events, you can manage your own registration. For larger events, you may want to consider outsourcing registration to one of a number of companies in the greater Boston area that handle registration as their full-time business.
Technology and audio-visual support
Evaluations help you to understand if you were successful in meeting goals, and are important tools for improving future events and identifying the needs of attendees
- You are the office manager for Smart System, Inc, a startup IT firm in Udyog Vihar Gurgaon. Recently you bought 10 modems from Precision Supplies, a computer hardware supplier located in New Delhi (L2 Block Connaught Palace New Delhi). After two weeks of installation of modems, you found that two of the modems are not functioning properly. Since you have paid the full amount against the purchase of modems you are entitled to enjoy two years of warrantee including free replacement for any product within one month.
You called their customer service department to ask for replacement last Friday that replacement would be delivered on following Monday. It is now Friday and you haven’t heard anything from the supplier company. You need the two modems immediately as your company is working on a major project and dead line is approaching fast. This is the first time you have ordered from Precision Suppliers and may be last
Write a letter of complaint to demand for immediate replacement or full refund.
L2 Block Connaught Palace New Delhi
[Reference: contract number]
Recently I bought 10 modems. After two weeks of installation of modems, I found that two of the modems are not functioning properly
I have paid the full amount against the purchase of modems you are entitled to enjoy two years of warrantee including free replacement for any product within one month.
I ask for replacement last Friday that replacement would be delivered on following Monday. It is now Friday and I haven’t heard anything from the supplier company. I need the two modems immediately as your company is working on a major project and dead line is approaching fast
I also require you to confirm whether you will arrange for the modems immediately or will reimburse me for the cost of returning it.
I look forward to receiving your satisfactory proposals for settlement of my claim within one days of the date of this letter.
[Your name here]
- Read the case study given below and answer the questions given at the end
Charisma Corporation (CC) has recently embarked on a new kind of training. The corporation is teaching many of its employees, especially those in the marketing and sales to make decisions on the basis of non verbal communication cues. For Malini Varma, VP of CC, focusing on non verbal communications has become an important part of her inter personal dealings. Several years ago, Varma became interested in how body movements and mannerism truly reflect what an individual is saying. Continuously reading in this area of study, Varma has been able to take decisions about potential employees and potential customers by ‘reading’ them. Varma believes that body language can give a person competitive advantage. It can make difference while closing a deal or, as in CC’s case, while hiring employees. For example, during interviews, Malini pays constant attention to the candidate’s eye movements and mannerism. She believes that she can correctly predict if the candidate will be aggressive sales person while simultaneously being personable and friendly. How does she do it? She does this by looking at their eyes and the way they present themselves. In one case hiring decision came down to two people. The first person was animated and made constant eye contact. The second candidate never looked in the eyes of Malini. , leaned back in his/her chair, and crossed both his legs and arms. The first candidate demonstrated the communication skills that Varma thought aligned with successful performance in her organization.
Malini Varma is convinced that communication skills play a significant role in helping her organization achieve its annual sales goals. Personally, she has found that it has helped her ‘quality’ customers. For instance even when a potential customer says,’ yes’ with his/her arms and legs crossed emphatically, it means, No! Understanding this, Varma is in a better position to probe further into the possible objections the customer has. She has found that, in many cases, she is able to steer the conversation in a direction that ultimately leads to successfully closing a sale. And that is a major competitive advantage.
- What problems Varma encounter by her heavy reliance on non verbal communication
Ans:-Malini Varma focus on non verbal communication and her decision based on non verbal communication cues. Malini Varma Continuously reading in this area of study, Varma has been able to take decisions about potential employees and potential customers by ‘reading’ them. There is no doubt that non-verbal communications help a lot in reading people and understanding them as well. But relying only non verbal communication is not a better option.Varma believes that body language can give a person competitive advantage. For example, during interviews, Malini pays constant attention to the candidate’s eye movements and mannerism. She believes that she can correctly predict if the candidate will be aggressive sales person while simultaneously being personable and friendly
For instance if the candidate is not making an eye contact with her, leaning back on his/her chair and has crossed both of his/her legs and arms she can easily conclude that the candidate is least concerned and not fit for the job
- What communication guidance would you give to Varma and individuals like her who place an inordinately high value on body language? Exp